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Count Todtleben's Expedition to Georgia 1769–1771 according to a French eyewitness

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2009


The reign of Erekle II over the united kingdoms of Kakhet‘i and K‘art‘li, which lasted from 1762 until 1798, may be regarded as the swan-song of the Georgian monarchy. Through the king's personal ability and the enfeebled state of Persia, Georgia was enabled to enjoy a period of somewhat precarious political independence before being absorbed by Russia as soon as Erekle's death removed the only force capable of maintaining any semblance of Georgian unity, and committed the responsibilities of government to his moribund heir, George XII.

Copyright © School of Oriental and African Studies 1951

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page 878 note 1 Brosset, M.-F.: Histoire de la Géorgie, depuis l'antiquité jusqu'au XIX siècle, deuxième partie, deuxième livraison, St. Petersburg, 1857.Google Scholar

page 878 note 2 Kratkaya istoriya o Gruzii so vremen pervogo v onoy naseleniya, St. Petersburg, 1805. See also Obozrenie Istorii Gruzinskogo Naroda, by Prince Vakhtang Iraklievich, St. P., 1814.

page 878 note 3 J. A. Güldenstädt: Reisen durch Russland und im Caucasischen Gebürge… herausgegeben von P. S. Pallas, St. Petersburg, 1787–1791. The Georgian sections were re-edited by J. von Klaproth under the title Reisen nach Georgien und Imerethi, Berlin, 1815. See also Jacob Reineggs: Kurzer Auszug der Geschichte von Georgien in P. S. Pallas, Neue nordische Beyträge zur Erd — und Völkerbeschreibung, Band 3, St. Petersburg, 1782, and the same writer's Allgemeine hintorisch topographische Beschreibung des Caucasus… herausgegeben von F. E. Schroeder, Gotha, Hildesheim and St. Petersburg, 1796–7.

page 878 note 4 Brosset: Perepiska… Gruzinskikh carey s Rossiyskimi gosudaryami, St. Petersburg. 1861. Butkov: Materialï dlya novoy istorii Kavkaza s 1722 po 1803 god, St. Petersburg, 1809. Cagareli: Gramotl i drugie istoricheskie dokumentl XVIII stoletiya otnosyashchiesya do Gruzii, St. Petersburg, 1891–1902. For subsidiary and secondary sources, see M. Miansarov: Bibliographia Caucasica et Transcaucasica, St. Petersburg, 1874–6.

page 878 note 5 The Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin, an Armenian, London, 1792. There is also a second edition, edited by Emin's great-great-granddaughter, Amy Apcar, in one volume, published at Calcutta in 1918 (and not in two volumes at Bombay, as stated in W. E. D). Allen's History of the. Georgian People, p. 391).

page 879 note 1 Aubert de la Chenaye-Desbois, Diclionnaire de la Noblesse, vol. vi, Paris, 1773, pp. 450–1.

page 879 note 2 Weydenbaum, E. G.: Kavkazskie Etyudï, Tiflis, 1901, p. 179.Google Scholar See also a rescript from the Empress Catherine to Count N. I. Panin, giving instructions for these three officers to be brought to trial at Kazan’, and for Todtleben to be replaced. (Sbornik Imp. Russkogo Istoricheskogo Obshchestva, vol. x, St. Petersburg, 1872, p. 442.)

page 879 note 3 Cagareli, A. A.: Gramotï, vol. ii, Part 2, 1902, p. 247.Google Scholar Erekle further wrote in the same letter: “The officer, de Grailly, who is considered to be initiated into the secrets of Todtleben, and himself asserts this to be the ease, was sent off with favour and honour by Todtleben himself before our expedition against Akhaltsikhé, and granted promotion in rank. The Count told me, however, that this de Grailly wrote many denunciations to Russia on the subject of me and my kingdom, and that he had therefore arrested him and sent him to Russia. But when we returned, de Grailly, hearing of this, secretly escaped from the convoy on the road and came to us together with Choglokov. De Grailly himself avers in writing that he did not compose slanders on me and my country of his own accord, but at the orders of Count Todtleben, and that the Count continually acted contrary to the instructions which had been given to him…” The text of de Grailly's letter to Erekle is given by Cagareli, op. cit., i, pp. 450–1.

page 880 note 1 George Ellis's Memoir, translated by Lamontagne, forms the first part of the Voyages hisloriques et géographiques dans les pays situés entre la Mer Noire et la Mer Caspienne, by MM. de Sainte-Croix, de Baert and Barbié du Bocage, Paris, 1798, in which the author's name is incorrectly given as J. Edward.

page 880 note 2 Burnashev, S. N.: Novïe materialï dlya zhizneopisaniya i deyatel'nosti S. D. Burnasheva… edited by Cagareli, A. A., St. Petersburg, 1901.Google Scholar

page 880 note 3 For details of the military and diplomatic situation at this time, see Solov'ev, S. M.: Istoriya Rossii s drevneyshilch vremen, revised edition, St. Petersburg, 1894Google Scholar, Part VI.

page 881 note 1 N. Berdzenishvili, I. Javakhishvili, and S. Janashia: Istoriya Gruzii, Part I, Tiflis, 1946, p. 409.