Skip to main content
×
Home

Middle Korean ㅿ and the Cheju dialect*

  • John Stonham (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

All records of Middle Korean are exclusively in the Central dialect, the prestige form spoken in the capital, and all printed material in the newly-created Hangǔl script emanated from there. For this reason, historical studies must rely on modern dialect data for comparison and reconstruction, since there are virtually no early dialect materials. In this study, I investigate the nature of the MK ㅿ, which is most often realized as /Ø/ in Modern Standard Korean, but which often surfaces as /s/ in Southern varieties, including the most conservative of these dialects, Cheju Korean. Sino-Korean forms in Cheju dialect containing an /s/ reflex of ㅿ demonstrate not only that ㅿ was realized as /z/ in such forms, but also that the dialects must have had special phonological rules to deal with their pronunciation. A further important issue concerns the nature of doublets and their treatment in both Middle Korean and Cheju dialect.

Copyright
Corresponding author
stonham@pknu.ac.kr
Footnotes
Hide All
*

I would like to thank Pukyong National University for its financial support of this research through a University grant no. PKS 2006-017, for the project “Study of Cheju dialect”. I would also like to thank Eun-Sook Kim for her tireless assistance in working through the Korean textual material and her many substantive comments on earlier drafts of this paper, and two anonymous referees for their perceptive comments.

Footnotes
References
Hide All

References to early Korean works are cited as in Martin (1994).

—— . 1588. Non.e enhay [Translation of the Confucian Analects].
Bickerton Derek. 1975. Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cedergren Henrietta J. and Sankoff David. 1974. “Variable rules: performance as a statistical reflection of competence”, Language 50/ 3, 333–55.
Cheju Special Autonomous Province. 2006. Melthi-midie Ceycwu Minsok Kwankwang Taesacen [Great Cheju Folk Multimedia dictionary] (= CSAP).
Cho Seung-Bok . 1967. A Phonological Study of Korean. (Studia Uralica et Altaica Upsaliensa, No 2.) Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Choi Hyon-Bae . 1940. Hankul Kal [The Study of Hangul]. Seoul: Chongeum Sa.
Choi Myong-Ok . 1978. “ㅸ, ㅿ wa Tongnam Pang'en” [ㅸ, ㅿ and Southeastern Dialects]. Ohak Yongu 14/ 2, 185–94.
Chung Sung-Cheol . 1995. Ceycwuto Pang'en.uy Thongshi Umwunlon [Cheju Dialect Historical Phonology]. Seoul: Taehaksa.
Culin Stewart. 1895. Korean Games with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Ferguson Charles A. 1959. “Diglossia”, Word 15, 1959, 325–40.
Huh Woong . 1983. Kukohak [Korean Linguistics]. Seoul: Saem Munhwasa.
Karlgren Bernhard. 1915–20. Études sur la phonologie chinoise [Studies on Chinese Phonology]. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Karlgren Bernhard. 1923. Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner.
Klein Wolfgang and Norbert Dittmar . 1979. Developing Grammars: The Acquisition of German Syntax by Foreign Workers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Kroch Anthony. 1994. “Morphosyntactic variation”, in Beals K. et al. (eds), Papers from the 30th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society: Parasession on Variation and Linguistic Theory.
Kwen Cey , Ceng Inci and An Ci . 1445. Yongpi echen ka.
Labov William. 1972. “Some principles of linguistic methodology”, Language in Society 1, 97120.
Ledyard Gari K. 1966. “The Korean Language Reform of 1446: The origin, background, and early history of the Korean alphabet”, PhD Thesis, University of California at Berkeley.
Lee Iksop and S. Robert Ramsey . 2000. The Korean Language. Buffalo, NY: State University Of New York Press.
Lee Ki-mun . 1961/1998. Kuk.e um.wun-sa yenkwu [Research on Korean Historical Phonology]. Kwuk.ehak chongse, No. 3. Seoul: Thap Chwulphan-sa.
Lee Ki-Mun (comp.). 1997. Sae Kuk.e Sajon. [New Korean Dictionary] Dong-A Chulpan.
Lee Sung-Nyong . 1956. “ㅿ Non-Go” [A Study of ㅿ]. Seoul National University Nonmun Chip: Inmun Sahoe Kwahak Phyeon 3, 51235. [in Kukohak Non.go. Seoul: Tongyang Chulpansa, 1960.]
Legge James. 1861. The Chinese Classics, vol. 1. London: Trübner & Co.
Martin Samuel E. 1982. “On the consonant distinctions of earlier Korean”, Hankul 175, 59172.
Martin Samuel E. 1994. A Reference Grammar of Korean. Rutland, VT: Tuttle Publishing.
Martin Samuel E. 1997. “How did Korean get -l for Middle Chinese words ending in -t?Journal of East Asian Linguistics 6/ 3, 263–71.
Martin Samuel E., Yang Ha Lee and Sung-Un Chang . 1967. A Korean–English Dictionary. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ogura Shinpei. 1944. 韓国語方言の研究 Chōsengo hōgen no kenkyū [A Study of the Korean Dialects] v. 1–2. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Pulleyblank Edwin G. 1970a. “Late Middle Chinese I”, Asia Major, New Series 15/2, 197239.
Pulleyblank Edwin G. 1970b. “Late Middle Chinese II”, Asia Major, New Series 16/1–2, 121–68.
Pulleyblank Edwin G. 1983. Middle Chinese: A Study in Historical Phonology. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Sankoff David and Cedergren Henrietta J.. 1976. “The dimensionality of grammatical variation”, Language 52/ 1, 163–78.
de Saussure Ferdinand. 1974. Course in General Linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library.
Sohn Ho-min . 1999. The Korean Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sohn Ho-min . 2006. Korean Language in Culture and Society. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Song Sang-Jo . 2007. Ceycwumal Kun Sacen [Great Cheju Dictionary]. Seoul: Hankuk Munhwasa.
Stonham John and Kim Eun-Sook . 2010. “The phonetic value of Middle Korean ㅿ”, in Lee Sang-Oak (ed.), Contemporary Korean Linguistics: International Perspectives. Seoul: Taehaksa, 348–78.
Swuyang (> Seyco) . 1447. Sekpo Sangcel.
Yi Hee-Seung . 2007. Kuk.e Taysacen [Great Korean Dictionary]. Seoul: Minjung Seorim.
Yu Changton . 1964/1987. Ico.e sacen [Choseon Language Dictionary]. Seoul: Yonsei Taehakkyo Chwulphan-pu.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
  • ISSN: 0041-977X
  • EISSN: 1474-0699
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-the-school-of-oriental-and-african-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 33 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 139 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.