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The EU’s Export Control of Cyber Surveillance Technology: Human Rights Approaches

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 October 2018

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Footnotes

*

Assistant Professor, Utrecht University (email: m.kanetake@uu.nl).

References

1 For the purpose of this paper, ‘cyber surveillance technologies’ include mobile telecommunications interception equipment, internet protocol (IP) network surveillance systems, monitoring centres, lawful interception systems and data retention systems, and digital forensics. See Bromley, Mark, ‘Export Controls, Human Security and Cyber-Surveillance Technology: Examining the Proposed Changes to the EU Dual-Use Regulation’ (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, December 2017) 610 Google Scholar.

2 ‘How the “Dual-Use” Ruse is Employed to Sell Spyware’, Al Jazeera (10 April 2017), https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/04/dual-ruse-employed-sell-spyware-170409092222936.html (accessed 20 July 2018).

3 Ibid.

4 Ben Wagner, ‘Exporting Censorship and Surveillance Technology’ (Humanist Institute for Co-operation with Developing Countries (Hivos), January 2012); Privacy International, ‘Open Season: Building Syria’s Surveillance State’ (December 2016); ‘How BAE Sold Cyber-Surveillance Tools to Arab States’, BBC News (15 June 2017), https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-40276568 (accessed 20 July 2018); ‘Danmark tillod salg af teknologi, der kan overvåge en hel befolkning, til et af verdens mest undertrykkende regimer: Saudi-Arabien’, Information (15 June 2017), https://www.information.dk/indland/2017/06/danmark-tillod-salg-teknologi-kan-overvaage-hel-befolkning-verdens-mest-undertrykkende-regimer-saudi-arabien (accessed 20 July 2018); ‘Udenrigsministeren kæder overvågningseksport sammen med kampen mod IS’, Information (18 August 2017), https://www.information.dk/indland/2017/08/udenrigsministeren-kaeder-overvaagningseksport-sammen-kampen-is-0 (accessed 20 July 2018).

5 European Parliament, ‘Human Rights and Technology: The Impact of Intrusion and Surveillance Systems on Human Rights in Third Countries (2014/2232(ini))’, P8_TA(2015)0288 (8 September 2015) paras 2, 36, 39; European Parliament, ‘Resolution on the Annual Report on Human Rights and Democracy in the World 2014 and the European Union’s Policy on the Matter (2015/2229(INI)’, P8_TA(2015)0470 (17 December 2015) para 124; European Parliament, ‘Resolution on the European Defence Union (2016/2052(INI))’, P8_TA(2016)0435 (22 November 2016) para 21.

6 Council Regulation (EC) No. 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 [2009] OJ L134/1, art 2(1).

7 Ibid.

8 European Parliament (8 September 2015), note 5, para 36.

9 European Commission, ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Setting up a Union Regime for the Control of Exports, Transfer, Brokering, Technical Assistance and Transit of Dual-Use Items (recast)’, COM(2016) 616 final (28 September 2016) art 2(1).

10 On the relationships between export control and non-proliferation regimes, see, e.g., Meier, Oliver, ‘Dual-Use Technology Transfers and the Legitimacy of Non-Proliferation Regimes’ in O Meier (ed), Technology Transfers and Non-Proliferation: Between Control and Cooperation (Abingdon: Routledge, 2014) 3 Google Scholar.

11 Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [2008] OJ C115/47, art 294.

12 For the text adopted, see European Parliament, ‘Control of Exports, Transfer, Brokering, Technical Assistance and Transit of Dual-Use Items’, First reading, P8_TA-PROV(2018)0006 (17 January 2018).

13 European Commission (28 September 2016), note 9, 6.

14 TFEU, note 11, art 207; Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13, art 21.

15 European Commission (28 September 2016), note 9, art 14(1)(b).

16 Council Regulation (EC) No. 428/2009, note 6, art 8(1).

17 European Commission (28 September 2016), note 9, art 9.

18 European Commission, ‘Annexes to the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Setting up a Union Regime for the Control of Exports, Transfer, Brokering, Technical Assistance and Transit of Dual-Use Items (recast)’, COM(2016) 616 final, Annexes 1 to 6 (28 September 2016) 243–244, Annex I, B (List of Other Dual-Use Items), Category 10.

19 Council Regulation (EC) No. 428/2009, note 6, Annex I.

20 European Commission (28 September 2016), note 9, art 4(1)(d).

21 Ibid, art 4(2).

22 Ibid.

23 See Angelica Dziedzic et al, ‘Towards EU Legislation on Human Rights Due Diligence: Case Study of the Garment and Textile Sector’ (2017) HEC Paris Research Paper No. LAW-2017-1207.

24 Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 [2014] OJ L 330/1, art 1; Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 [2013] OJ L 182/19, arts 19a, 29a (as amended by Directive 2014/95/EU).

25 Regulation (EU) 2017/821 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2017 [2017] OJ L 130/1.

26 Ibid, art 2(f).

27 Council Regulation (EC) No. 428/2009, note 6, art 2(1).

28 The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, ‘Initial Elements’ (11–12 July 1996) para I.1.

29 European Commission (28 September 2016), note 9, art 2(1)(b).

30 DIGITALEUROPE, ‘European Commission Proposed Recast of the European Export Control Regime: Making the Rules Fit for the Digital World’ (24 February 2017), http://www.digitaleurope.org/DesktopModules/Bring2mind/DMX/Download.aspx?Command=Core_Download&entryID=2358&language=en-US&PortalId=0&TabId=353 (accessed 20 July 2018).

31 DIGITALEUROPE, ‘Updated DIGITALEUROPE Comments on Proposal for Recast of Export Control Regulation’ (30 January 2018), http://www.digitaleurope.org/DesktopModules/Bring2mind/DMX/Download.aspx?Command=Core_Download&entryID=2608&language=en-US&PortalId=0&TabId=353 (accessed 20 July 2018) 1.

32 ‘Working Paper: EU Export Control – Recast of Regulation 428/2009’, WK 1019/2018 INIT (29 January 2018), https://www.euractiv.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2018/02/11_member_states_dual-use.pdf (accessed 20 July 2018). The document was prepared on behalf of the Croatian, Czech, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian and Spanish delegations.

33 Kanetake, Machiko, ‘Balancing Innovation, Development, and Security: Dual-Use Concepts in Export Control Laws’ in N Craik et al (eds), Global Environmental Change and Innovation in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018) 180, 184186 Google Scholar.

34 ‘Working Paper’ (29 January 2018), note 32.

35 ‘Working Paper: Paper for Discussion – For Adoption of an Improved EU Export Control Regulation 428/2009 and for Cyber Surveillance Controls Promoting Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Globally’ WK 5755/2018 INIT (15 May 2018), https://www.euractiv.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2018/06/nine-countries-paper-on-dual-use.pdf (accessed 20 July 2018). The Working Paper was prepared on behalf of the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

36 Ibid, 2–4.

37 Ibid, 4.

38 BDI, ‘EC Dual-Use: Review of the EC Dual-Use Regulation’ (January 2016), https://bdi.eu/media/topics/global_issues/downloads/201601_FINAL_BDI-Assessment_Reform_EC_Dual-Use.pdf (accessed 20 July 2018).

39 Ibid, 6.

40 Ibid, 6–7.

41 DIGITALEUROPE (24 February 2017), note 30, 3.

42 DIGITALEUROPE (30 January 2018), note 31, 2.

43 EP INTA Committee, Rapporteur Klaus Buchner, ‘Draft Report on the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Setting up a Union Regime for the Control of Exports, Transfer, Brokering, Technical Assistance and Transit of Dual-Use Items (Recast)’, COM(2016)0616 – C8-0393/2016 – 2016/0295(COD) (4 April 2017) 18, Amendment 20.

44 Ibid.

45 EP INTA Committee, Rapporteur Klaus Buchner, ‘Amendments: Draft Report on the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Setting up a Union Regime for the Control of Exports, Transfer, Brokering, Technical Assistance and Transit of Dual-Use Items (Recast)’, COM(2016)0616 – C8-0393/2016 – 2016/0295(COD) (16 May 2017), Amendments 181 (Paul Rübig), 182 (Franck Proust), 184 (Sander Loones), 186 (Christofer Fjellner, Artis Pabriks, Bendt Bendtsen, Godelieve Quisthoudt-Rowohl).

46 Ibid, 68, Amendment 166 (Paul Rübig).

47 European Parliament (17 January 2018), note 12.

48 Ibid, Amendment 34 (regarding art 4(2) of the proposal).

49 Ibid, Amendment 34 (art 4, para 2).

50 See ibid, Amendment 34 (art 4, para 2).

51 Shared Statement on the Update of the EU Dual-Use Regulation (May 2017), https://www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2017/05/NGO_Sharedstatement_dualuse_May2017.pdf (accessed 20 July 2018).

52 Beata Faracik, ‘Implementation of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights’ (European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, 2017) 20–26.

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