Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Supralaryngeal implementation of length and laryngeal contrasts in Japanese and Korean

  • Alexei Kochetov (a1) and Yoonjung Kang (a2)
Abstract

This article investigates supralaryngeal characteristics of Japanese and Korean length and laryngeal contrasts in stops and affricates. Electropalatography data collected from five Japanese and five Korean speakers revealed similar differences among the consonants in the degree of linguopalatal contact and duration of the closure. Japanese (voiceless) geminate and Korean fortis obstruents were most constricted and had the longest duration (although considerably longer in Japanese). Japanese voiced and Korean lenis obstruents were least constricted and had the shortest duration. Japanese voiceless (singleton) and Korean aspirated obstruents showed intermediate degree of contact and duration. Both stops and affricates showed a positive correlation between degree of contact and duration. The results show that the two very different sets of phonological contrasts are implemented similarly at the supralaryngeal level. These cross-language similarities and cross-category differences are proposed to result from the application of independently-motivated phonetic enhancement rules to distinct phonological representations of laryngeal/length contrasts in the two languages.

Cet article explore des propriétés supralaryngées de la durée en japonais et coréen et les contrastes laryngés des obstruantes et des affriquées. Les données recueillies par l’électropalatographie auprès de cinq locuteurs du japonais et cinq locuteurs du coréen révèlent des différences similaires parmi les consonnes concernant le degré de contact linguopalatal et la durée de la fermeture. Les géminées (non-voisées) du japonais et les obstruantes fortis du coréen présentent le plus de constriction et les durées les plus longues (la durée était sensiblement plus longue en japonais). Les obstruantes voisées du japonais et les obstruantes lenis du coréen présentent le moins de constriction et les durées les plus courtes. Les obstruantes non voisées (simples) du japonais et les obstruantes aspirées du coréen présentent des degrés intermédiaires de contact et de durée. Il existe une corrélation positive entre le degré de contact et la durée pour les obstruantes et les affriquées. Les résultats montrent que ces deux contrastes phonologiques distincts sont réalisés phonétiquement de façon similaire au niveau supralaryngé. Nous proposons que ces similarités interlinguistiques et ces différences intercatégorielles résultent de règles d'amélioration phonétique (indépendamment motivées) appliquées à des représentations phonologiques distinctes de contrastes laryngés/de durée dans les deux langues.

Copyright
Corresponding author
al.kochetov@utoronto.ca
Footnotes
Hide All
This paper has benefited from many helpful comments and suggestions provided by the journal's anonymous reviewers and the audiences of our talks given at the International Conference on Phonology and Phonetics organized by the National Institute of Japanese Language & Linguistics, Tokyo, in January 2013, at the Department of Languages, Literatures & Linguistics Talks Series, York University, Toronto, in October 2013, and at the Institute for Phonetics and Linguistics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, in May 2014. We would also like to thank Sohyun Hong, Vithangi Ramachandran, Na-Young Ryu, and Jacqueline Wong for assistance with data annotation and preparation for analysis. The work was supported by University of Toronto Connaught Matching Grants to both authors, as well as by Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Standard Grant # 416-2010-0959 to Alexei Kochetov.
Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ahn, Sang-Cheol, and Iverson, Gregory K.. 2004. Dimensions in Korean laryngeal phonology. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 13: 345379.
Anderson, Victoria B. 2008. Static palatography for language fieldwork. Language Documentation and Conservation 2: 127.
Anderson, Victoria, Ko, Insung, O'Grady, William, and Choo, Miho. 2004. A palatographic investigation of place of articulation in Korean coronal obstruents. Korean Linguistics 12: 124.
Avery, Peter, and Idsardi, William J.. 2001. Laryngeal dimensions, completion and enhancement. Phonology and phonetics, ed. Alan Hall, T., 4170. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Baik, Woonil. 1997. On tensity of Korean stops (electropalatographic study). Speech Sciences 2: 149158.
Beckman, Mary. 1982. Segment duration and the mora in Japanese. Phonetica 39: 113135.
Bouarourou, Fayssal, Vaxelaire, Béatrice, Ridouane, Rachid, Hirsch, Fabrice, and Sock, Rudolph. 2008. Gemination in Tarifit Berber: X-ray and acoustic data. Proceedings of the 8th International Seminar on Speech Production, ed. Sock, Rudolph, Fuchs, Susanne, and Laprie, Yves, 117120. Rocquencourt: Institut National en Informatique et automatique (INRIA). http://issp2008.loria.fr/proceedings.html
Browman, Catherine P., and Goldstein, Louis. 1992. Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica 49: 155180.
Brunner, Jana, Fuchs, Susanne, and Perrier, Pascal. 2011. Supralaryngeal control in Korean velar stops. Journal of Phonetics 39: 178195.
Catford, John C. 1977. Fundamental problems in phonetics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Cho, Taehong, and Keating, Patricia A.. 2001. Articulatory and acoustic studies of domain-initial strengthening in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 29: 155190.
Cho, Taehong, Jun, Sun-Ah, and Ladefoged, Peter. 2002. Acoustic and aerodynamic correlates of Korean stops and fricatives. Journal of Phonetics 30: 193228.
Cho, Young-mee Yu. 2011. Laryngeal contrast in Korean. Companion to phonology, Vol. V, ed. van Oostendorp, Marc, Ewen, Colin, Hume, Beth, and Rice, Keren, 26622684. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Cho, Young-mee Yu, and Inkelas, Sharon. 1994. Post-obstruent tensification in Korean and geminate inalterability. Theoretical issues in Korean linguistics, ed. Kim-Renaud, Young-Key, 4560. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI).
Chomsky, Noam, and Halle, Morris. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Dart, Sarah N. 1987. An aerodynamic study of Korean stop consonants: Measurements and modeling. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 81: 138147.
Dixit, R. Prakash. 1990. Linguotectal contact patterns in the dental and retroflex stops of Hindi. Journal of Phonetics 18: 189201.
Dixit, R. Prakash, and Hoffman, Paul R.. 2004. Articulatory characteristics of fricatives and affricates in Hindi: An electropalatographic study. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34: 141159.
Farnetani, Edda. 1990. V-C-V lingual coarticulation and its spatiotemporal domain. Speech production and speech modelling, ed. Hardcastle, W. J. and Marchal, Alain, 93130. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Flemming, Edward. 1995. Auditory representations in phonology . Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Fletcher, Samuel G. 1989. Palatometric specification of stop, affricate and sibilant sounds. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 32: 736748.
Fuchs, Susanne. 2005. Articulatory correlates of the voicing contrast in alveolar obstruent production in German . Doctoral dissertation, Queen Margaret University College.
Fuchs, Susanne and Perrier, Pascal. 2003. An EMMA/EPG study of voicing contrast correlates in German. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, ed. Solé, Maria-Josep, Recasens, Daniel, and Romero, Joaquin, 1057–1060. Barcelona: International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS) Archive. http://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs/icphs2003.
Fujii, Itaru. 1970. Phoneme identification with dynamic palatography. Annual Bulletin, Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, University of Tokyo 4: 6773.
Fujimoto, Masako, Murano, Emi, Niimi, Seiji, and Kiritani, Shigeru. 2002. Differences in glottal opening pattern between Tokyo and Osaka dialect speakers: Factors contributing to vowel devoicing. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 54: 133143.
Fujimoto, Masako, Maekawa, Kikuo, and Funatsu, Seiya. 2010. Laryngeal characteristics during the production of geminate consonants. In Proceedings of Interspeech 2010, ed. Kobayashi, Takao, Hirose, Keikichi, and Nakamura, Satoshi, 925928. Chiba: International Speech Communication Association. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/interspeech_2010.
Fujimoto, Masako, Kitamura, Tatsuya, Hatano, Hiroaki, and Fujimoto, Ichiro. 2013. Timing differences in articulation between voiced and voiceless stop consonants: An analysis of cine-MRI data. In Proceedings of Interspeech 2013, ed. Bimboat, Frédéric, Cerisara, Christophe, Fougeron, Cécile, Gravier, Guillaume, Lamel, Lori, Pellegrino, François, and Perrier, Pascal, 955958. Lyon: International Speech Communication Association. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/interspeech_2013.
Fujimoto, Masako, Funatsu, Seiya, and Hoole, Phil. 2015. Articulation of single and geminate consonants and its relation to the duration of the preceding vowel in Japanese. In Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, ed. The Scottish consortium for ICPhS 2015, 5 pp. Glasgow: The University of Glasgow. http://www.icphs2015.info/Proceedings.aspx
Gibbon, Fiona, and Nicolaidis, Katerina. 1999. Palatography. In Coarticulation in speech production: Theory, data, and techniques, ed. Hardcastle, William J. and Hewlett, Nigel, 229245. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Halle, Morris, and Stevens, Kenneth N.. 1971. A note on laryngeal features. MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics Quarterly Progress Report 101: 198213.
Han, Jeong-Im. 1996. The phonetics and phonology of tense and plain consonants in Korean . Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
Han, Mieko S. 1994. Acoustic manifestations of mora timing in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96: 7382.
Hardcastle, William J. 1973. Some observations on the tense–lax distinction in initial stops in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 1: 263272.
Hirata, Yukari, and Whiton, Jacob. 2005. Effects of speaking rate on the single/geminate stop distinction in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118: 16471660.
Hirose, Hajime, and Ushijima, Tatsujiro. 1978. Laryngeal control for voicing distinction in Japanese consonant production. Phonetica 35: 110.
Hirose, Hajime, Lee, Charles Y., and Ushijima, Tatsujiro. 1974. Laryngeal control in Korean stop production. Journal of Phonetics 2: 145152.
Homma, Yayoi. 1981. Durational relationship between Japanese stops and vowels. Journal of Phonetics 9: 273281.
Idemaru, Kaori, and Guion, Susan G.. 2008. Acoustic covariants of length contrast in Japanese stops. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38: 167186.
Ishii, Toyota. 1999. Sokuon hatsuwaji-no kouonkikan-no undou-ni kansuru kenkyuu [A study of the movement of articulatory organs in Japanese geminate production]. Journal of Otolaryngology of Japan 102: 622634.
Ito, Chiyuki, Kang, Yoonjung, and Kenstowicz, Michael. 2006. The adaptation of Japanese loanwords into Korean. In MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 52: Studies in loanword phonology, ed. Hsieh, Feng-fan and Kenstowicz, Michael, 65104. Cambridge, MA: MIT Department of Linguistics and Philosophy.
Itô, Junko and Mester, Ralf-Armin. 1986. The phonology of voicing in Japanese: Theoretical consequences for morphological accessibility. Linguistic Inquiry 17: 4973.
Iverson, Gregory. K. 1983a. On glottal width features. Lingua 60: 331339.
Iverson, Gregory K. 1983b. Korean s . Journal of Phonetics 11: 191200.
Jakobson, Roman. 1971. K kharakteristike evraziiskogo yazykovogo soyuza. [Characterizing the Eurasian Sprachbund] In Roman Jakobson: Selected Writings, vol. 1: Phonological Studies, 144201. The Hague: Mouton.
Jakobson, Roman, Fant, Gunnar, and Halle, Morris. 1963. Preliminaries to speech analysis: The distinctive features and their correlates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jun, Sun-Ah, Beckman, Mary, and Lee, Hyuck-Joon. 1998. Fiberscopic evidence for the influence on vowel devoicing of the glottal configurations for Korean obstruents. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 96: 4368.
Kagaya, Ryohei. 1974. A fiberscopic and acoustic study of the Korean stops, affricates and fricatives. Journal of Phonetics 2: 161180.
Kang, Yoonjung. 2014. Voice Onset Time merger and development of tonal contrast in Seoul Korean stops: A corpus study. Journal of Phonetics 45: 7690.
Kawahara, Shigeto. 2006. A faithfulness ranking projected from a perceptibility scale: The case of [+voice] in Japanese. Language 82: 536574.
Kawahara, Shigeto. 2015. The phonetics of sokuon, obstruent geminates. In The handbook of Japanese phonetics and phonology, ed. Kubozono, Haruo, 4373. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kim, Chin-Wu. 1965. On the autonomy of the tensity feature in stop classification (with special reference to Korean stops). Word 21: 339359.
Kim, Chin-Wu. 1970. A theory of aspiration. Phonetica 21: 107116.
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2004a. The representation of the three-way laryngeal contrast in Korean consonants. In The internal organization of phonological segments, ed. van Oostendorp, Marc and van de Weijer, Jeroen, 263293. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2004b. Stroboscopic-cine MRI data on Korean coronal plosives and affricates: Implications for their place of articulation as alveolar. Phonetica 61: 234251.
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2004c. The feature [tense] revisited: The case of Korean consonants. In Proceedings of the 34th meeting of the Northeastern Linguistics Society (NELS 34), ed. Moulton, Keir and Wolf, Matthew, 319332. Amherst: UMass Graduate Linguistic Student Association (GLSA) Publications.
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2008. Loanword adaptation between Japanese and Korean: Evidence for L1 feature-driven perception. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 17: 331346.
Kim, Hyunsoon, and Clements, George N.. 2015. The feature [tense]. In Features in phonology and phonetics: Posthumous writings by George N. Clements and coauthors, ed. Rialland, Annie, Ridouane, Rachid, and van der Hulst, Harry, 159178. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kim, Hyunsoon, Honda, Kiyoshi, and Maeda, Shinji. 2005. Stroboscopic cine-MRI study on the phasing between the tongue and the larynx in Korean three-way phonation contrast. Journal of Phonetics 33: 126.
Kim, Hyunsoon, Maeda, Shinji, and Honda, Kiyoshi. 2010. Invariant articulatory bases of the features [tense] and [spread glottis] in Korean plosives: New stroboscopic cine-MRI data. Journal of Phonetics 38: 90108.
Kim, Mi-Ryoung, and Duanmu, San. 2004. Tense and lax stops in Korean. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 13: 59104.
Kim, Suk-Ja. 1996. On the misuse of Japanese /Q/ pronunciation by Korean learners [In Korean]. Ilponhakpo 36: 522.
Kim, Yong-Kak. 2004. A study on the Korean learner's mistakes in Japanese pronunciation through their errors in writing [In Korean]. Ileilmunhak 23: 5364.
Kochetov, Alexei. 2012. Linguopalatal contact differences between Japanese geminate and singleton stops. Canadian Acoustics 40: 2829.
Kochetov, Alexei. 2014. Voicing and tongue-palate contact differences in Japanese obstruents. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 18: 6376.
Kohler, Klaus J. 1984. Phonetic explanation in phonology: the feature fortis/lenis. Phonetica 41: 150174.
Ladefoged, Peter, and Maddieson, Ian. 1996. The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lavoie, Lisa. 2001. Consonant strength: Phonological patterns and phonetic manifestations. New York: Garland.
Lee, Ki-Moon. 1985. Kukeumunsayenku [Research on the history of Korean phonology]. Seoul: Tower Press.
Liker, Marko, and Gibbon, Fiona. 2012. A perceptual and EPG study of the postalveolar and palatal affricate contrast in Standard Croatian. Italian Journal of Linguistics / Rivista di Linguistica 24: 4364.
Löfqvist, Anders. 2006. Interarticulator programming: Effects of closure duration on lip and tongue coordination in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120: 28722883.
Löfqvist, Anders. 2007. Tongue movement kinematics in long and short Japanese consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 122: 512518.
Löfqvist, Anders, and Gracco, Vincent L.. 1997. Lip and jaw kinematics in bilabial stop consonant production. Journal of Speech and Language Hearing Research 40: 877893.
Lombardi, Linda. 1991. Laryngeal features and laryngeal neutralization . Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Lombardi, Linda. 1995. Laryngeal features and privativity. The Linguistic Review 12: 3559.
Martin, Samuel E. 1982. Features, markedness, and order in Korean phonology. In Linguistics in the morning calm, ed. Yang, In-Seok, 601618. Seoul: Hanshin.
Matsumura, Masafumi, Kimura, Kazuo, Yoshino, Katsumi, Tachimura, Takashi, and Wada, Takeshi. 1994. Measurement of palatolingual contact pressure during consonant productions using strain gauge transducer mounted palate plate. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 655–658. Yokohama: International Speech Communication Association. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/icslp_1994
Moen, Inger, and Simonsen, Hanne Gram. 1997. Effects of voicing on /t,d/ tongue/palate contact in English and Norwegian. Eurospeech 97, ed. Kokkinakis, George, Fakotakis, Nikos, and Dermatas, Evangelos, 23992402. Rhodes: International Speech Communication Association. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/eurospeech_1997.
NLRI. 1990. Nihongo no boin, shiin, onsetsu: Chouon undou no jikken onseigakuteki kenkyuu [Japanese vowels, consonants, and syllables: Experimental phonetics research of articulatory movements]: Report of the National Language Research Institute, no.100. Tokyo: National Language Research Institute.
Ohala, John J. 1983. The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In The production of speech, ed. MacNeilage, Peter F., 189216. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Okada, Hideo. 1999. Japanese. In The handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 117119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Payne, Elinor M. 2006. Non-durational indices in Italian geminate consonants. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36: 8395.
Perkell, Joseph S. 1969. Physiology of speech production results and implications of a quantitative cineradiographic study . Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Ramasubramanian, N., and Thosar, R. B.. 1971. Synthesis by rule of some retroflex speech sounds. Language and Speech 14: 6585.
Recasens, Daniel, and Espinosa, Aina. 2006. Articulatory, positional, and contextual characteristics of palatal consonants: Evidence from Majorcan Catalan. Journal of Phonetics 34: 295318.
Ridouane, Rachid. 2010. Geminates at the junction of phonetics and phonology. In Papers in Laboratory Phonology 10: Variation, phonetic detail and phonological representation, ed. Fougeron, Cécile, Kühnert, Barbara, D'Imperio, Mariapaola, Vallée, Nathalie, 6190. Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.
Sakuma, Kanae. 1929. Nihon Onseigaku. [Reprinted 1963. Tokyo: Kazama Shobō].
Shibata, Sadao. 1968. A study of dynamic palatography. Annual Bulletin, Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, University of Tokyo 2: 2836.
Shin, Jiyoung. 1997. Consonantal production and coarticulation in Korean . Doctoral dissertation, University of London.
Silva, David. 1992. The phonetics and phonology of stop lenition in Korean. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
Silva, David. 2006. Acoustic evidence for the emergence of tonal contrast in contemporary Korean. Phonology 23(2): 287308.
Son, Minjung, Kim, Sahyang, and Cho, Taehong. 2012. Supralaryngeal articulatory signatures of three-way contrastive labial stops in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 40: 92108.
Stevens, Kenneth N. and Keyser, Samuel J.. 1989. Primary features and their enhancement in consonants. Language 65: 81106.
Stone, Maureen. 2010. Laboratory techniques for investigating speech articulation. In The handbook of phonetic sciences. 2nd ed., ed. Hardcastle, William J., Laver, John, and Gibbon, Fiona E., 938. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Tachibana, Ryosuke O., Kitamura, Tatsuya, and Fujimoto, Masako. 2012. Differences in articulatory movement between voiced and voiceless stop consonants. Acoustical Science and Technology 33(6): 391393.
Tiede, Mark K., Perkell, Joseph S., Zandiour, Majid, Matthies, Melanie L., and Stockmann, Ellen. 2003. A new approach to pressure-sensitive palatography using a capacitive sensing device. In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, ed. Solé, Maria-Josep, Recasense, Daniel, and Romero, Joaquin, 31493152. Barcelona: ICPhS Archive. http://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs/icphs2003.
Trubetzkoy, Nikolaj S. 1931. Die Konsonantensysteme der Ostkaukasischen Sprachen. Caucasica 7:152. [Translated into Russian and re-published in N. S. Trubetzkoy, 1987. Izbrannye trudy po filologii [Selected works in philology], ed. V. A. Vinogradov and V.P. Neroznak, 283–323, Moscow: Progress.]
Tsuchida, Ayako. 1997. Phonetics and phonology of Japanese vowel devoicing. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.
Vance, Timothy. J. 1987. An introduction to Japanese phonology. New York: SUNY Press.
Wakumoto, Masahiko, Masaki, Shinobu, Honda, Kiyoshi, and Ouhe, Toshikazu. 1998. A pressure sensitive palatography: Application of the new pressure sensitive sheet for measuring tongue-palatal contact pressure. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 31513154. Sydney: International Speech Communication Association. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/icslp_1998.
Westbury, John R. 1983. Enlargement of the supraglottal cavity and its relation to stop consonant voicing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73: 13221336.
Wrench, Alan A. 2007. Advances in EPG palate design. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 9: 312.
Wrench, Alan A., Gibbon, Fiona E., McNeill, Alison M., and Wood, Sara Elizabeth. 2002. An EPG therapy protocol for remediation and assessment of articulation disorders. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, ed. Hansen, John H. L. and Pellom, Bryan, 965968. Denver: International Speech Communication Association. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/icslp_2002.
Yoshioka, Hirohide, Löfqvist, Anders, and Hirose, Hajime. 1982. Laryngeal adjustments in Japanese voiceless sound production. Journal of Phonetics 10: 110.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique
  • ISSN: 0008-4131
  • EISSN: 1710-1115
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-linguistics-revue-canadienne-de-linguistique
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed