Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Canadian Headache Society Guideline for Migraine Prophylaxis: Supplement 2

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Canadian Headache Society Guideline for Migraine Prophylaxis: Supplement 2
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Canadian Headache Society Guideline for Migraine Prophylaxis: Supplement 2
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Canadian Headache Society Guideline for Migraine Prophylaxis: Supplement 2
      Available formats
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2 B O’Brien , R Goeree , D. Streiner Prevalence of migraine headache in Canada: a population-based survey. Int J Epidemiol. 1994 Oct; 23(5):10206.

4 M Leonardi , T Steiner , A Scher , RB. Lipton The global burden of migraine: measuring disability in headache disorders with WHO’s classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). J Headache Pain. 2005;6:42940.

5 P Zeeberg , J Olesen , R. Jensen Probable medication-overuse headache: the effect of a 2-month drug-free period. Neurology. 2006;66:18948.

6Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society The International Classification of headache disorders. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(Suppl 1):9160.

8Silberstein SD and the US Headache Consortium. Pracitce Parameter: Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review). Neurology. 2000;55:75462.

10 RB Lipton , ME Bigal , M Diamond , F Freitag , ML Reed , WF Stewart and the AMPP Advisory Group. Migraine Prevalence, disease burden, and the need for preventative therapy. Neurology. 2007; 68:3439.

11 N Mathew , J Saper , S Silberstein , L Rankin , H. Markley Migraine prophylaxis with divalproex. Arch Neurol. 1995;52(3):2816.

13 JL Brandes , JR Saper , M Diamond , et al.Topiramate for Migraine Prevention. JAMA. 2004;291:96573.

14 R Jensen , T Brinck , J. Olesen Sodium valproate has a prophylactic effect in migraine without aura: a triple-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Neurology. 1994;44:64751.

15 HC Diener , R Agosti , G Allais , P Bergmans , G bussoni , B Davies , M Ertas , for the TOPMAT- MIG 303 Investigator Group. Cessation versus continuation of 6-month migraine preventative therapy with topiramate (PROMPT): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:105462.

17 DK Ziegler , A Hurwitz , S Preskorn , R Hassanein , J. Seim Propranolol and amitriptyline in prophylaxis of migraine. Pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects. Arch Neurol. 1993;50: 82530.

18 C Woeber , C Woeber-Bingol , G Koch , P. Wessely Long-term results of migraine prophylaxis with flunarizine and beta-blockers. Cephalalgia. 1991;11:2516.

19 PS Sorensen , K Hansen , J. Olesen A placebo-contolled, double-blind, cross-over trial of flunarizine in common migraine. Cephalalgia. 1986;6:714.

21 H-C Diener , G Bussone , JC Van Oene , M Lahaye , S Schwalen , PJ Goadsby , TOPMAT - MIG 201 (TOP- Chrome) Study Group. Topiramate reduces headache days in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:8142.

22 D Mei , D Ferraro , G Zelano , et al.Topiramate and triptans revert chronic migraine with medication overuse to episodic migraine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2006;29:26975.

25 K Hagen , C Albretsen , ST Vilming , et al.Management of medication overuse headache: 1-year randomized multicentre open-label trial. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:22132.

26 Z Katsarava , S Schneeweiss , T Kurth et al.Incidence and predictors for chronicity of headache in patients with episodic migraine. Neurology. 2004;62:78890.

27 V Limmroth , D Biondi , J Pfeil , S. Schwalen Topiramate in patients with episodic migraine: Reducing the risk for chronic forms of headache. Headache. 2007;47:1321.

28 RB Lipton , S Silberstein , D Dodick , et al.Topiramate intervention to prevent transformation of episodic migraine: the topiramate INTREPID study. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1830.

31 T Pringsheim , WJ Davenport , WJ. Becker Prophylaxis of migraine headache. CMAJ. 2010;182:67985.

32 RD Harris , M Helfand , SH Woolf , et al.Current methods of the US preventive services task force. Areview of the process. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(3S):2135.

33 GH Guyatt , AD Oxman , GE Vist , et al.GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2008;336;9246.

35 H Balshem , M Helfand , HJ Schuenemann , et al.GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011;64:4016.

37 JL Brożek , EA Akl , E Compalati , et al.Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations in clinical practice guidelines part 3 of 3. The GRADE approach to developing recommendations. Allergy. 2011 May;66(5):58895.

40 FG Freitag , SD Collins , HA Carlson , et al.A randomized trial of divalproex sodium extended release tablets in migraine prophylaxis. Neurology. 2002;58:16529.

41 R Hering , A. Kuritzky Sodium valproate in the prophylactic treatment of migraine: a double blind study versus placebo. Cephalalgia. 1992;12:814.

44 N Mathew , A Rapoport , J Saper , et al.Efficacy of gabapentin in migraine prophylaxis. Headache. 2001;41:11928.

46 S Silberstein , W Neto , J Schmitt , D. Jacobs Topiramate in migraine prevention. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:4905.

47 H Diener , P Tfelt-Hansen , C Dahlof , et al.Topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. J Neurol. 2004;251:94350.

49 S Silberstein , J Hulihan , R Karim , et al.Efficacy and tolerability of topiramate 200 mg/d in the prevention of migraine with/without aura in adults: a randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 12-week pilot study. Clin Ther. 2006;28(7):100211.

50 JR Storey , CS Calder , DE Hart , DL. Potter Topiramate in Migraine Prevention: A double blind, placebo-controlled study. Headache. 2001;41:96875.

51 V Shaygannejad , M Janghorbani , A Ghorbani , F Ashtari , N Zakizade , V. Nasr Comparison of the effect of topiramate and sodium valproate in migraine prevention: a randomized blinded crossover study. Headache. 2006;46:6428.

57 YL Lo , SY Lum , S Fook-Chong , et al.A pilot study of topiramate dosages for migraine prophylaxis in an Asian population. J Headache Pain. 2010 Apr;11(2):1758.

58 RO Millán-Guerrero , R Isais-Millán , S Barreto-Vizcaíno , et al.Subcutaneous histamine versus topiramate in migraine prophylaxis: a double-blind study. Eur Neurol. 2008;59(5):23742.

59 JD Gomersall , A. Stuart Amitriptyline in migraine prophylaxis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1973;36:68490.

60 DK Ziegler , A Hurwitz , RS. Hassanein Migraine prophylaxis. A comparison of propranolol and amitriptyline. Arch Neurol. 1987;44:4869.

61 J. Bank A comparative study of amitriptyline and fluvoxamine in migraine prophylaxis. Headache. 1994;34:4768.

62 JR Couch , RS. Hassanein Amitriptyline in migraine prophylaxis. Arch Neurol. 1979;36:6959.

63 JL Jackson , W Shimeall , L Sessums , et al.Tricyclic antidepressants and headaches: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c5222 doi:10.1136/bmj.c5222.

64 S Ozyalcin , GK Talu , E Kiziltan , B Yucel , M Ertas , R. Disci The efficacy and safety of venlafaxine in the prophylaxis of migraine. Headache. 2005;45:14452.

65 S Bulut , MS Berilgen , A Baran , A Tekatas , M Atmaca , B. Mungen Venlafaxine versus amitriptyline in the prophylactic treatment of migraine: randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2004;107:448.

70 CW Frenken , ST. Nuijten Flunarizine, a new preventive approach to migraine. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1984:86(1):1720.

71 G Mendenopoulos , TH Manafi , I Logothetis , S. Bostantjopoulos Flunarizine in the prevention of classical migraine: a placebo-controlled evaluation. Cephalalgia. 1985;5:317.

72 P. Louis A double blind placebo-controlled prophylactic study of flunarizine in migraine. Headache. 1981;21:2359.

73 SM Al Deeb , N Biary , Y Bahou , M Al Jaberi , W. Khoja Flunarizine in migraine: a double blind placebo-controlled study (in a Saudi population). Headache. 1992;32:4612.

74 M Thomas , M Behari , GK. Ahuja Flunarizine in migraine prophylaxis: an Indian trial. Headache. 1991;31:61315.

75 R Cerbo , M Casacchia , R Formisano , et al.Flunarizine-pizotifen single dose double blind crossover trial in migraine prophylaxis. Cephalalgia. 1986;6:1518.

76 A Rascol , JL Montastruc , O. Rascol Flunarizine versus pizotifen: a double blind study in the prophylaxis of migraine. Headache. 1986;26:835.

77 P Louis , EL. Spierlings Comparison of flunarizine and pizotifen in migraine treatment: a double blind study. Cephalalgia. 1982;2:197203.

78 HG Markley , J Cheronis , RW. Piepho Verapamil in prophylactic therapy of migraine. Neurology. 1984;34:9736.

79 GD Soloman , JG Steel , LJ. Spaccavento Verapamil prophylaxis of migraine. JAMA. 1983;250:25002.

80 H Schrader , LJ Stovner , G Helde , T Sand , G. Bovim Prophylactic treatment of migraine with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril): randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. BMJ. 2001;322:15.

81 E Tronvik , LJ Stovner , G Helde , T Sand , G. Bovin Prophylactic treatment of migraine with an angiotensin II receptor blocker. JAMA. 2003;289:659.

82 HC Diener , A Gendolla , A Feuersenger , et al.Telmisartan in migraine prophylaxis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Cephalalgia. 2009 Sep;29(9):9217.

83 J Schoenen , J Jacquy , M. Lenaerts Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 1998;50(2):46670.

84 M Maizels , A Blumenfeld , R. Burchette A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew in migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache. 2004;44:88590.

85 P Sandor , L Di Clemente , G Coppola , et al.Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prophylaxis: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology. 2005;64:71315.

86 A Peikert , C Wilimzig , R. Kohne-Volland Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multicentre, placebo-controlled and double blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:25763.

87 V Pfaffenrath , P Wessely , C Meyer , et al.Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine- a double blind, placebo controlled study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:43640.

89 RB Lipton , K Gobel , KM Einhaupl , K Wilks , A. Mauskop Petasites hybridus root (butterbur) is an effective preventative treatment for migraine. Neurology. 2004;63:22404.

90 H Diener , VW Rahlfs , U. Danesch The first placebo-controlled trial of a special butterbur root extract for the prevention of migraine: reanalysis of efficacy criteria. Eur Neurol. 2004;51:8997.

91 V Pfaffenrath , H Diener , M Fischer , M Friede , Henneicke-von Zepelin. The efficacy and safety of Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) in migraine prophylaxis- a double blind, multicentre, randomized placebo controlled dose-response study. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:52332.

93 H Diener , V Pfaffenrath , J Schnitker , M Friede , Henneicke-von Zepelin HH. Efficacy and safety of 6.25 mg TID feverfew CO2 extract (MIG-99) in migraine prevention- a randomized, double-blind, multicentre, placebo controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2005;25:103141.

94 CJ DeWeerdt , HPR Bootsma , H. Hendriks Herbal medicines in migraine prevention. Phytomedicine. 1996;3(3):22530.

95 S Evers , J Vollmer-Haase , S Schwaag , A Rahmann , IW Husstedt , A. Frese Botulinum toxin A in the prophylactic treatment of migraine- a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2004;24:83843.

96 J Saper , N Mathew , E Loder , R DeGryse , AM. VanDenburgh A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled comparison of botulinum toxin type A injection sites and doses in the prevention of episodic migraine. Pain Med. 2007;8(6):47885.

97 M Relja , AC Poole , J Schoenen , J Pascual , X Lei , C. Thompson A multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of multiple treatments of botulinum toxin type A for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine headaches. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:492503.

100 AH Elkind , P O’Carroll , A Blumenfeld , R DeGryse , R. Dimitrova A series of three sequential, randomized, controlled studies of repeated treatments with botulinum toxin type A for migraine prophylaxis. J Pain. 2006;7(10):68896.

101 S Silberstein , N Mathew , J Saper , S. Jenkins Botulinum toxin type A as a migraine preventative treatment. Headache. 2000;40:44550.

102 KS Anand , A Prasad , MM Singh , S Sharma , K. Bala Botulinum toxin type A in prophylactic treatment of migraine. Am J Ther. 2006;13:1837.

103 AM Blumenfeld , JD Schim , TJ. Chippendale Botulinum toxin type A and divalproex sodium for prophylactic treatment of episodic or chronic migraine. Headache. 2008 Feb;48(2):21020.

104 R Cady , C. Schreiber Botulinum toxin type A as migraine preventive treatment in patients previously failing oral prophylactic treatment due to compliance issues. Headache. 2008 Jun;48(6):90013.

105 S Petri , T Tölle , A Straube , V Pfaffenrath , U Stefenelli , A Ceballos-Baumann ; Dysport Migraine Study Group. Botulinum toxin as preventive treatment for migraine: a randomized double-blind study. Eur Neurol. 2009;62(4):20411.

106 S Chankrachang , A Arayawichanont , N Poungvarin , et al.Prophylactic botulinum type A toxin complex (Dysport®) for migraine without aura. Headache. 2011 Jan;51(12):5263.

107 AJ Shuhendler , S Lee , M Siu , et al.Efficacy of botulinum toxin type A for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine headaches: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Pharmacotherapy. 2009 Jul;29(7):78491.

108 SK Aurora , DW Dodick , CC Turkel , RE DeGryse , SD Silberstein , RB Lipton , HC Diener , MF Brin ; PREEMPT 1 Chronic Migraine Study Group. OnabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of chronic migraine: results from the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase of the PREEMPT 1 trial. Cephalalgia. 2010 Jul;30(7):793803.

109 HC Diener , DW Dodick , SK Aurora , CC Turkel , RE DeGryse , RB Lipton , SD Silberstein , MF Brin ; PREEMPT 2 Chronic Migraine Study Group. OnabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of chronic migraine: results from the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase of the PREEMPT 2 trial. Cephalalgia. 2010 Jul;30(7):80414.

110 AJ Bellevance , JR. Meloche A comparative study of naproxen sodium, pizotyline and placebo in migraine prophylaxis. Headache. 1990;30:71015.

111 PO. Osterman A comparison between placebo, pizotifen and divascan in migraine prophylaxis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 1977;56:1728.

112 O Sjaastad , P. Stensrud Appraisal of BC-105 in migraine prophylaxis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 1969;45:594600.

113 ER Lawrence , M Hossain , W. Littlestone Sanomigran for migraine prophylaxis; controlled multicentre trial in general practice. Headache. 1977;17:10912.

114 JD Carroll , WP. Maclay Pizotifen (BC-105) in migraine prophylaxis. Curr Med Res Opin. 1975:3(2): 6871.

116 HJ Koch , TP. Jurgens Antidepressants in long-term migraine prevention. Drugs. 2009;69:119.

118 S Silberstein , J Saper , F Berenson , M Somogyi , K McCague , J. D’Souza Oxcarbazepine in migraine headache: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2008 Feb 12;70(7):54855.

119 KB Alstadhaug , F Odeh , R Salvesen , SI. Bekkelund Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2010 Oct 26;75(2):152732.

121 H-C Diener , DW Dodick , PJ Goadsby , et al.Utility of topiramate for the treatment of patients with chronic migraine in the presence or absence of acute medication overuse. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:10217.

124Members of the Task Force: S Evers , J Afra , A Frese , PJ Goadsby , M Linde , A May , PS. Sandor EFNS guideline on the drug treatment of migraine - revised report of an EFNS task force. Euro J Neurol. 2009;16:96881.

125 DW Dodick , F Freitag , J Banks , et al, Capss-277 Investigator Group. Topiramate versus amitriptyline in migraine prevention: a 26-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group non-inferiority trial in adult migraineurs. Clin Ther. 2009;31:54259.

127 ME Bigal , RB Lipton , J Biondi , J Xiang , J. Hulihan Weight change and clinical markers of cardiovascular disease risk during preventative treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:118896.

128 N Jette , S Patten , J Williams , W Becker , S. Wiebe Comorbidity of migraine and psychiatric disorders-a national population-based study. Headache. 2008 Apr;48(4):50116.

129 SE Jelinski , JE Magnusson , WJ Becker ; CHORD Study Group. Factors associated with depression in patients referred to headache specialists. Neurology. 2007 Feb 13;68(7):48995.

130 SW Hamelsky , RB. Lipton Psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Headache. 2006 Oct;46(9):132733.

131 RW Lam , SH Kennedy , S Grigoriadis , et al.Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. IIIx. PharmacotherapyJ Affect Disord. J Affect Disord. 2009 Oct;117 Suppl 1:S2643.

134 SE Jelinski , WJ Becker , SN Christie , et al.Clinical features and pharmacological treatment of migraine patients referred to headache specialists in Canada. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:57888.

135 CP Watson , L Vernich , M Chipman , K. Reed Nortriptyline versus amitriptyline in postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized trial. Neurology. 1998 Oct;51(4):116671.

138 SD Silberstein , D Dodick , F Freitag , et al.Pharmacological approaches to managing migraine and associated comorbidities-clinical considerations for monotherapy versus polytherapy. Headache. 2007 Apr;47(4):58599.

139 M Mula , JW. Sander Negative effects of antiepileptic drugs on mood in patients with epilepsy. Drug Saf. 2007;30:55567.

140 DT Ko , PR Hebert , CS Coffey , A Sedrakyan , JP Curtis , HM Krumholz : B-blocker therapy and symptoms of depression, fatigue, and sexual dysfunction. JAMA. 2002; 288:3517.

141 BB Gerstman , HM Jolson , M Bauer , P Cho , JM Livingston , R. Platt The incidence of depression in new users of beta-blockers and selected antihypertensives. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996 Jul;49(7):80915.

142 PK. Gillman Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Brit J Pharmacol. 2007;151:73748.

143 A Cipriani , TA Furukawa , G Salanti , et al.Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009 Feb 28;373(9665):74658.

145 EA Schulman , AE Lake III, PJ Goadsby , et al.Defining Refractory Migraine and Refractory Chronic Migraine: Proposed Criteria From the Refractory Headache Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Headache. 2008;48:77882.

146 RB Lipton , SD Silberstein , JR Saper , ME Bigal , PJ. Goadsby Why headache treatment fails. Neurology. 2003;60:106470.

147 RW Evans , J Pascual , MJA Lainez , R. Leira Bending the Rule of Monotherapy for Migraine Prevention? Headache. 2005;45:74850.

148 BL Peterlin , AH Calhoun , S Siegel , NT. Mathew Rational Combination Therapy in Refractory Migraine. Headache. 2008;48:80519.

149 J Pascual , MT Rivas , R. Leira Testing the combination beta-blocker plus topiramate in refractory migraine. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007:115:81-3.

150 HR Martínez , O Londoño , L Cantú-Martínez , L del Carmen Tarín , CD. Castillo Topiramate as an adjunctive treatment in migraine prophylaxis. Headache. 2003 Nov-Dec;43(10):10804.

151 J Pascual , R Leira , JM. Láinez Combined therapy for migraine prevention? Clinical experience with a b-blocker plus sodium valproate in 52 resistant migraine patients. Cephalalgia. 2003;23:9612.

152 K Keskinbora , I. Aydinli Adouble-blind randomized controlled trial of topiramate and amitriptyline either alone or in combination for the prevention of migraine. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:97984.

153 AW Fox , ML Diamond , ELH. Spierings Migraine during pregnancy. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(6):46581.

154 R Menon , CD. Bushnell Headache and pregnancy. Neurologist. 2008;14:10819.

155 SD. Silberstein Headaches in pregnancy. J Headache Pain. 2005 Sep;6(4):1724.

156 PJ Goadsby , J Goldberg , SD. Silberstein Migraine in pregnancy. BMJ. 2008;336:15024.

157 V Pfaffenrath , M. Rehm Migraine in pregnancy. Drug Safety. 1998 Nov;19(5):3838.

159 J L Payne , S. Meltzer-Brody Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy: Current Controversies and Treatment Strategies. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;52(3):46982.

160 I Nulman , J Rovet , DE Stewart , et al.Child development following exposure to tricyclic antidepressants or fluoxetine throughout fetal life: a prospective, controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;159(11):188995.

161 I Nulman , J Rovet , DE Stewart , et al.Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to antidepressant drugs. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4): 25862.

162 EA. MacGregor Migraine in pregnancy and lactation: a clinical review. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2007;33(2):8393.

164 S. Lucas Medication use in the treatment of migraine during pregnancy and lactation. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009 Oct; 13(5):3928.

166 T Lanza di Scalea , KL. Wisner Antidepressant medication use during breastfeeding. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 52(3):48397.

167Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001; 108:77689.

169 RW Evans , ME. Bigal B Grosberg , RB. Lipton Target doses and titration schedules for migraine preventive medications. Headache. 2006;46:1604.

175 KM Sauro , WJ. Becker The stress and migraine interaction. Headache. 2009 Oct;49(9):137886.

176 C Wöber , J Holzhammer , J Zeitlhofer , P Wessely , C. Wöber-Bingöl Trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache: experience and knowledge of the patients. Headache Pain. 2006 Sep;7(4):18895.

177 PR. Martin Behavioral Management of Migraine Headache Triggers: Learning to Cope with Triggers. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010;14:2217.

178 L. Kelman The triggers or precipitants of the acute migraine attack. Cephalalgia. 2007;27(5):394402.

179 L. Robbins Precipitating factors in migraine: a retrospective review of 494 patients. Headache. 1994;34:2146.

182 C Sun-Edelstein , A. Mauskop Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain. 2009 Jun;25(5):44652.

185 JC Rains , DB Penzien , DC McCrory , RN. Gray Behavioral headache treatment: history, review of the empirical literature, and methodological critique. Headache. 2005;45 Suppl 2:S92109.

190 DB Penzien , JC Rains , F. Andrasik Behavioral management of recurrent headache: Three decades of experience and empiricism. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Jun;27(2):16381.

191 SM Dittrich , V Günther , G Franz , M Burtscher , B Holzner , M. Kopp Aerobic exercise with relaxation: influence on pain and psychological well-being in female migraine patients. Clin J Sport Med. 2008 Jul;18(4):3635.

192 M Lemstra , B Stewart , WP. Olszynski Effectiveness of multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of migraine: a randomized clinical trial. Headache. 2002;42:84554.

194 B Gunreben-Stempfle , N Griessinger , E Lang , B Muehlhans , R Sittl , K. Ulrich Effectiveness of an intensive multidisciplinary headache treatment program. Headache. 2009 Jul;49(7):9901000.

195 KA Holroyd , CK Cottrell , FJ O’Donnell , et al.Effect of preventive (beta blocker) treatment, behavioural migraine management, or their combination on outcomes of optimised acute treatment in frequent migraine: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 Sep 29;341:c4871. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c4871.

197 MF Peres , S Silberstein , F Moreira , et al.Patients’ preference for migraine preventative therapy. Headache. 2007;47:5405.

198 PA Kowacs , EJ Piovesan , SJ. Tepper Rejection and acceptance of possible side effects of migraine prophylactic drugs. Headache. 2009;49:10227.

202Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society The International Classification of headache disorders. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(Suppl 1):1160.

203Ad Hoc Committee on Classification of Headache. CMAJ. 1962;179:71718.

205 GH Guyatt , AD Oxman , R Kunz et al.What is “quality of evidence” and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ. 2008 May 3;336(7651):9958.

206 KM Sauro , MS Rose , WJ Becker , et al.HIT-6 and MIDAS as Measures of Headache Disability in a Headache Referral Population. Headache. 2010 Mar;50(3):38395.

207 SD Silberstein , PK Winner , JJ. Chmiel Migraine preventive medication reduces resource utilization. Headache. 2003;43(3):1718.

209 SD Silberstein , AL Feliu , MF Rupnow , AC Blount , SJ. Boccuzzi Topiramate in migraine prophylaxis: long-term impact on resource utilization and cost. Headache. 2007;47:50010.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
  • ISSN: 0317-1671
  • EISSN: 2057-0155
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-neurological-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 268 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 251 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.