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La santé en péril: répercussions de la communication âgiste sur le désengagement psychologique et l'estime de soi des infirmiers de 45 ans et plus

  • Martine Lagacé (a1), Francine Tougas (a2), Joelle Laplante (a2) and Jean-François Neveu (a2)

Abstract

These two studies are designed to evaluate the reactions of male nurses aged 45 years and older toward ageism. The goal of the first study is to test the prestigious work domain model of psychological disengagement resulting from a previous study conducted among female nurses. This model has been confirmed through path analyses conducted on a sample of 236 male nurse technicians; by the same token, it has been shown to apply in the case of lower-status employees working in a prestigious field. In particular, the more a male nurse aged 45 and older experiences relative personal deprivation, the more he discredits feedback from his co-workers and superiors; such discrediting, in turn, leads to devaluation of the domain of work, which in turn lowers self-esteem. The goal of the second study is three-fold, namely: (a) testing the disengagement model among 419 male nurse clinicians; (b) extending this model through the addition of ageist communication as a variable triggering personal relative deprivation; and (c) constructing a scale of ageist communication. Path analyses have again confirmed that the way a domain is appreciated influences the negative impact that devaluation can produce on self-esteem, regardless of the gender or status of the employee working in that field. In addition, these results demonstrate the central role played by communication in the workplace as a vehicle of ageism and as a precursor of ageing employees' discomfort. The discussion covers the implications of ageing employees' reactions toward ageism as well as the consequences of depreciatory language and exclusionary communication practices in the workplace.

L'objectif des deux études est d'évaluer la réaction d'infirmiers de 45 ans et plus face à l'âgisme. Le but de la première étude est de mettre à l'épreuve le modèle de désengagement psychologique associé à un domaine de prestige et obtenu auprès d'infirmières. Les analyses acheminatoires confirment le modèle auprès de 236 infirmiers techniciens et ce faisant, montrent qu'il s'applique même dans le cas de personnes au statut inférieur dans un métier de prestige; les hommes et les techniciens(nes) ont un statut inférieur. Ainsi, plus un infirmier de 45 ans et plus éprouve de la privation relative personnelle, plus il discrédite la rétroaction de ses collègues et supérieurs; le discrédit entraîne la dévaluation du domaine de travail, laquelle exerce un effet négatif sur l'estime de soi. Le but de la deuxième étude est triple, il s'agit: a) d'une mise à l'épreuve supplémentaire du modèle de désengagement, auprès de 419 infirmiers, cliniciens; b) d'une extension de ce modèle avec l'ajout de la communication âgiste comme déclencheur de la privation relative personnelle; c) de la création d'une échelle de communication âgiste. Les analyses acheminatoires confirment de nouveau que la cote d'un métier oriente l'impact négatif de la dévaluation sur l'estime de soi et ce, quelque soit le sexe d'un travailleur et son statut dans le métier. En outre, les analyses démontrent le rôle central de la communication organisationnelle, comme véhicule de l'âgisme et comme précurseur du malaise ressenti par les travailleurs vieillissants. La discussion traite des implications quant à la réaction des travailleurs vieillissants face à l'âgisme ainsi que des conséquences d'un langage dénigrant et des pratiques de communication d'exclusion au travail.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Requests for offprints should be sent to:/Les demandes de tirés-à-part doivent être adressées à: Martine Lagacé, Professeure adjointe au Département de communication de l'université d'Ottawa, 554 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario. K1N 6N5, (mmlagace@uottawa.ca)

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Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue canadienne du vieillissement
  • ISSN: 0714-9808
  • EISSN: 1710-1107
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