Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Marital Status and Problem Gambling among Older Adults: An Examination of Social Context and Social Motivations

  • Tara Elton-Marshall (a1) (a2) (a3), Rochelle Wijesingha (a1) (a4), Taryn Sendzik (a1) (a5), Steven E. Mock (a6), Mark van der Maas (a1), John McCready (a7), Robert E. Mann (a1) (a2) and Nigel E. Turner (a1) (a2)...
Abstract

Older adults represent the highest proportion of gamblers (Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation [OLG], 2012). Unpartnered older adults may be more socially isolated and lonely (Dykstra & de Jong Gierveld, 2004), thus more likely to be at risk for problem gambling (McQuade & Gill, 2012). We examined whether gambling to socialize or from loneliness and going to the casino with friends/family mediate the relation between marital status and problem gambling. Data from a random sample of older adults at gambling venues across Southwestern Ontario indicated that gambling with family/friends and gambling due to loneliness mediated the relationship between marital status and problem gambling. Relative to those married, unpartnered older adults were less likely to gamble with family/friends, more likely to gamble due to loneliness, and had higher problem gambling. Prevention and treatment initiatives should examine ways to decrease loneliness and social isolation among older adults and offer alternative social activities.

Les personnes âgées constituent, en proportion, la population la plus importante parmi les joueurs (Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation [OLG], 2012). Les joueurs célibataires seraient plus isolés socialement et solitaires (Dykstra & de Jong Gierveld, 2004), et plus susceptibles de s’engager dans le jeu, présentant ainsi des risques accrus pour le jeu compulsif (McQuade & Gill, 2012). Cette étude a examiné si des motivations sociales (jeu associé à la socialisation ou à la solitude) et le contexte social (sorties au casino avec des amis ou la famille) expliquent la relation entre le statut matrimonial et le jeu compulsif chez les personnes âgées. Nous avons aussi exploré si ces associations diffèrent en fonction du genre. Les données ont été extraites d’un échantillon aléatoire de 2103 adultes âgés de 55 ans et plus qui ont été contactés dans des sites de jeu du sud-ouest de l’Ontario. Ces données ont indiqué que le jeu en compagnie de la famille ou d’amis et le jeu associé à la solitude médient la relation entre le statut matrimonial et le jeu compulsif. Les personnes âgées célibataires étaient moins susceptibles de jouer avec de la famille ou des amis, comparativement aux aînés qui étaient mariés; ils étaient plus susceptibles d’utiliser le jeu pour contrer la solitude et leur profil de jeu était davantage compulsif. Les initiatives de prévention et de traitement devraient examiner les moyens permettant de diminuer la solitude et l’isolement social chez les personnes âgées, et offrir des activités sociales alternatives.

Copyright
Corresponding author
La correspondance et les demandes de tirés-à-part doivent être adressées à : / Correspondence and requests for offprints should be sent to: Tara Elton-Marshall, Ph.D. Institute for Mental Health Policy Research Centre for Addiction and Mental Health 200-100 Collip Circle London, ON N6G 4X8 <Tara.EltonMarshall@camh.ca>
Footnotes
Hide All
*

We thank Sue Steinback for her assistance with referencing and formatting the manuscript. This project was funded by Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (GREO).

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Bernhard, B. J., Dickens, D. R., & Shapiro, P. D. (2007). Gambling alone? A study of solitary and social gambling in America. UNLV Gaming Research and Review Journal, 11(2), 113.
Bjelde, K., Chromy, B., & Pankow, D. (2008). Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: A policy analysis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 423440. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9102-z
Botterill, E., Gill, P. R., McLaren, S., & Gomez, R. (2016). Marital status and problem gambling among Australian older adults: The mediating role of loneliness. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(3), 10271038. doi: 10.1007/s10899-015-9575-5
Brown, S., & Coventry, L. (1997). Queen of hearts: The needs of women with gambling problems. Melbourne, AUS: Financial & Consumer Rights Council.
Chipperfield, J. G., & Havens, B. (2001). Gender differences in the relationship between marital status transitions and life satisfaction in later life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(3), 176186. doi: 10.1093/geronb/56.3.P176
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Hazan, H., Lerman, Y., & Shalom, V. (2016). Correlates and predictors of loneliness in older-adults: A review of quantitative results informed by qualitative insights. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(4), 557576. doi: 10.1017/S1041610215001532
Currie, S. R., Casey, D. M., & Hodgins, D. C. (2010). Improving the psychometric properties of the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Canadian Consortium for Gambling Research.
Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J. L., el-Guebaly, N., Wynne, H., & Chen, S. (2006). Risk of harm among gamblers in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities. Addiction, 101(4), 570580. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01392.x
Dykstra, P. A., & de Jong Gierveld, J. (2004). Gender and marital-history differences in emotional and social loneliness among Dutch older adults. Canadian Journal of Aging, 23, 141155. doi: 10.1353/cja.2004.0018
Dykstra, P. A., Van Tilburg, T. G., & de Jong Gierveld, J. (2005). Changes in older adult loneliness: Results from a seven-year longitudinal study. Research on Aging, 27(6), 725747. doi: 10.1177/0164027505279712
Ferreira-Alves, J., Magalhães, P., Viola, L., & Simoes, R. (2014). Loneliness in middle and old age: Demographics, perceived health, and social satisfaction as predictors. Archives of Gerontology, 59(3), 613623. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2014.06.010
Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.
Gilmour, H. (2012). Social participation and the health and well-being of Canadian seniors. Health Reports, 23(4), 2332.
Grant Stitt, B., Giacopassi, D., & Nicols, M. (2003). Gambling among older adults: A comparative analysis. Experimental Aging Research, 29, 189203. doi: 10.1080/03610730303713
Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, J. (2003). The environmental psychology of gambling. In Reith, G. (Ed.), Gambling: who wins? Who loses? (pp. 277292). New York, NY: Prometheus Books.
Hall, M., & Havens, B. (1999). The effect of social isolation and loneliness on the health of older women. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67(3), 451470. doi: 10.1111/bmsp.12028
Hing, N., Russell, A., Tolchard, B., & Nower, L. (2014). A comparative study of men and women gamblers in Victoria. North Melbourne, AUS: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.
Hirsch, P. (2000). Seniors and gambling: exploring the issues: Summary report. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission.
Hirshorn, B. A., Young, C. A., & Bernhard, B. J. (2007). Factors associated with recreational gambling frequency among older adults. International Gambling Studies, 7(3), 345360. doi: 10.1080/14459790701601513
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada [HRSDC]. (2016a). Canadians in context - aging population. Ottawa, ON: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada [HRSDC]. (2016b). Canadians in context - population size and growth. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.
Kerber, C., Adelman-Mullally, T., Kim, M., & Schafer Astroth, K. (2015). The impact of disordered gambling among older adults. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 53(10), 4147. doi: 10.3928/02793695-20150923-03
Kim, J., & Moen, P. (2002). Retirement transitions, gender, and psychological well-being: A life-course, ecological model. The Journal of Gerontology, 57, 212222. doi: 10.1093/geronb/57.3.P212
Kobayashi, K. M., Cloutier-Fisher, D., & Roth, M. (2008). Making meaningful connections: A profile of social isolation and health among older adults in small town and small city, British Columbia. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(2), 374397. doi: 10.1177/0898264308329022
Ladd, G. T., Molina, C. A., Kerins, G. J., & Petry, N. M. (2003). Gambling participation and problems among older adults. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 16, 172177. doi: 10.1177/0891988703255692
Loroz, P. S. (2004). Golden-age gambling: Psychological benefits and self-concept dynamics in aging consumers’ consumption experiences. Psychology of Marketing, 21(5), 323349. doi: 10.1002/mar.20008
MacLaren, V. V., Ellery, M., & Knoll, T. (2014). Gambling motives and cognitive distortions mediate effects of personality on problem gambling in electronic gambling machine player. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Gambling Research Program.
MacLaren, V. V., Fugelsang, J. A., Harrigan, K. A., & Dixon, M. J. (2012). Effects of impulsivity, reinforcement sensitivity, and cognitive style on pathological gambling symptoms among frequent slot machine players. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 390394. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.044
McCready, J., Mann, R. E., Turner, N. E., Hamilton, H., Schrans, T., & Ialomiteanu, A. (2014). Seniors’ gambling in Ontario: An assessment of gambling and problem gambling among older adults who patronize Ontario casinos. Available at https://dataverse.scholarsportal.info/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=hdl:10864/10807
McCready, J., Mann, R. E., Zhao, J., Birchall, E., & Eves, R. (2010). Gambling and seniors: Sociodemographic and mental health factors associated with problem gambling in older adults in Canada. Toronto, ON: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre. Available at http://www.greo.ca/Modules/EvidenceCentre/files/McCready%20et%20al%282010%29Gambling_and_seniors.pdf
McCready, J., Mann, R. E., Zhao, J., & Eves, R. (2005). Seniors and gambling: Sociodemographic and mental health factors associated with problem gambling in older adults in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Community Outreach Programs in Addictions.
McCready, J., Mann, R. E., Zhao, J., & Eves, R. (2008). Correlates of gambling-related problems among older adults in Ontario. Journal of Gambling Issues, 22, 174194. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2008.22.3
McNeilly, D. P., & Burke, W. J. (2000). Late life gambling: The attitudes and behaviors of older adults. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 393415. doi: 10.1023/A:1009432223369
McQuade, A., & Gill, P. (2012). The role of loneliness and self-control in predicting problem gambling behaviour. Gambling Research, 24(1), 1830.
Mishra, S., Morgan, M., Lalumiere, M. L., & Williams, R. J. (2010). Mood and audience effects on video lottery terminal gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(3), 373386. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9158-4
Newall, N. E. G., Chipperfield, J. G., & Bailis, D. S. (2014). Predicting stability and change in loneliness in later life. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(3), 335351. doi: 10.1177/0265407513494951
Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation [OLG]. (2012). Modernizing lottery and gaming in Ontario. Strategic Business Review/Advice to Government. Toronto, ON: Author. Available at http://www.olg.ca/assets/documents/media/strategic_business_review2012.pdf
Parekh, R., & Morano, C. (2009). Senior gambling: Risk or reward? Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 52, 686694. doi: 10.1080/01634370802716224
Petry, N. M. (2002). A comparison of young, middle-aged, and older adult treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. The Gerontologist, 42(1), 9299. doi: 10.1093/geront/42.1.92
Philippe, F., & Vallerand, R. J. (2007). Prevalence rates of gambling problems in Montreal, Canada: A look at old adults and the role of passion. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 275283. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9038-0
Pietrzak, R. H., & Petry, N. M. (2006). Severity of gambling problems and psychosocial functioning in older adults. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 19(2), 106113. doi: 10.1177/0891988706286508
Pilver, C. E., & Potenza, M. N. (2013). Increased incidence of cardiovascular conditions among older adults with pathological gambling features in a prospective study. Journal of Addictive Medicine, 7(6), 387393.
Pinquart, M. (2003). Loneliness in married, widowed, divorced, and never-married older adults. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20(1), 3153. doi: 10.1177/02654075030201002
Rockloff, M. J., & Greer, N. (2011). Audience influence on EGM gambling: The protective effects of having others watch you play. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(3), 443451. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9213-1
Ryan, M. C. (1996). Loneliness, social support and depression as interactive variables with cognitive status: Testing Roy’s model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9(3), 107114. doi: 10.1177/089431849600900309
Sampson, R. J., Laub, J. H., & Wimer, C. (2006). Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology, 44(3), 465508. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2006.00055.x
Schellinck, T., Schrans, T., Walsh, G., & Grace, J. (2002). Seniors Survey – Prevalence of substance use and gambling among New Brunswick adults aged 55+. Halifax, NS: New Brunswick Department of Health and Wellness: Focal Research Consultants Ltd.
Statistics Canada. (2015). Population projections for Canada (2013 to 2063), Provinces and Territories (2013 to 2063). Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-520-X. Ottawa, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-520-x/91-520-x2014001-eng.htm
Tira, C., Jackson, A. C., & Tomnay, J. E. (2014). Pathways to late-life problematic gambling in seniors: A grounded theory approach. The Gerontologist, 54(6), 10351048. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnt107
Tse, S., Hong, S., & Ng, K. (2013). Estimating the prevalence of problem gambling among older adults in Singapore. Psychiatry Research, 210, 607611. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.06.017
Tse, S., Hong, S. I., Wang, C. W., & Cunningham-Williams, R. M. (2012). Gambling behaviour and problems among older adults: A systematic review of empirical studies. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67(5), 639652. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbs068
Umberson, D. (1987). Family status and health behaviors: Social control as a dimension of social integration. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28(3), 306319.
Umberson, D. (1992). Gender, marital status and the social control of health behavior. Social Science and Medicine, 34(8), 907917. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(92)90259-S
Umberson, D., Crosnoe, R., & Reczek, C. (2010). Social relationships and health behavior across the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 139157.
Victor, C. R., Scambler, S. J., Bowling, A. N. N., & Bond, J. (2005). The prevalence of, and risk factors for, loneliness in later life: A survey of older people in Great Britain. Ageing and Society, 25(6), 357375. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X04003332
Victor, C. R., & Yang, K. (2012). The prevalence of loneliness among adults: A case study of the United Kingdom. The Journal of Psychology, 146(1-2), 85104. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2011.613875
Welte, J., Wieczorek, W. F., Barnes, G. M., & Tidwell, M. (2006). Multiple risk factors for pathological gambling: Individual, social, and ecological. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 15451565. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00071.x
Wiebe, J. (2002). Gambling behaviour and factors associated with problem gambling among older adults [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.
Wiebe, J., Single, E., & Falkowski-Ham, A. (2001). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Ontario. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario).
Wiebe, J., Single, E., Falkowski-Ham, A., & Mun, P. (2004). Gambling and problem gambling among older adults in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Responsible Gambling Council.
Zaranek, R. R., & Lichtenberg, P. A. (2008). Urban elders and casino gambling: Are they at risk of a gambling problem? Journal of Aging Studies, 22, 1323. doi: 10.1016/j.jaging.2007.11.001
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue canadienne du vieillissement
  • ISSN: 0714-9808
  • EISSN: 1710-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-on-aging-la-revue-canadienne-du-vieillissement
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed