Skip to main content
×
Home

“A valid electoral exercise”? Uganda's 1980 Elections and the Observers’ Dilemma

  • Justin Willis (a1), Gabrielle Lynch (a2) and Nic Cheeseman (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

The presence at Uganda's 1980 general elections of a Commonwealth Observer Group might be seen as a seminal moment. This was the first formal international observation of polls in a sovereign African state and the precursor of multiple similar missions that later became routine. Yet the 1980 mission sits uneasily in the history of election observation. The observers endorsed the results despite evidence of malpractice, and Uganda plunged into civil war within months. Internationally, the mission is now either forgotten or treated as an embarrassment. Within Uganda, it has been denounced as part of an outsider conspiracy to foist an unwanted president on an unwilling people. This article argues that the 1980 mission was neither entirely seminal nor an aberration, and that both the elections and observation were driven partly by actors within Uganda rather than simply imposed by outsiders. The availability of UK government records allows us to see the events of 1980 as a particularly clear example of a recurring “observers’ dilemma.” Ideally, elections combine democracy and state-building. They offer people a choice as to who will lead or represent them, and at the same time they assert through performance a crucial distinction between a capable, ordering state and a law-abiding citizenry. Yet these two aspects of elections may be in tension; a poll that offers little or no real choice may still perform “stateness” through substantial, orderly public participation. When that happens in what would now be called a “fragile state,” should international observers denounce the results?

Copyright
Corresponding author
justin.willis@durham.ac.uk
References
Hide All

1 “Uganda Elections: Commonwealth Observers’ Interim Report,” 11 Dec. 1980, UK National Archives (UKNA) Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) 31/2915.

2 Gregory Jaynes, “Counting Votes Is Half the Fun as Obote Wins in Uganda,” New York Times, 14 Dec. 1980: 3; also Tom Lansner, “Obote Voted Back in Uganda,” Observer, 14 Dec. 1980: 1.

3 Manning to anonymous, 16 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

4 Secretary of State Carrington to British High Commission (BHC), Kampala, 18 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

5 Karugire Samwiri, The Roots of Instability in Uganda (Kampala: New Vision, 1988), 75 ; see also, for example, Bwengye Francis, The Agony of Uganda: From Idi Amin to Obote. An Analysis of the 1980 Controversial General Election and Its Aftermath: Repressive Rule and Bloodshed (London and New York: Regency Press, 1985); Furley Oliver and Katalikawe James, No-Party Democracy: Uganda's Elections and the Constituent Assembly, 1994 (Kampala: Centre for Basic Research, 1999), n. 1; Mugaju Justus, “An Historical Background to Uganda's No-Party Democracy,” in Mugaju Justus and Oloka-Onyango Joseph, No-Party Democracy in Uganda: Myths and Realities (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2000), 823 .

6 Museveni Yoweri, Sowing the Mustard Seed: The Struggle for Freedom and Democracy in Uganda (London: Macmillan, 1997), 118–19; “A Local Observer,” [pseudonymous author], The Rigged Uganda 1980 General Elections,” in Karugire Samwiri, The Roots of Instability in Uganda (Kampala: New Vision, 1988), 84100 . For a rather lonely voice in favor of the elections, see Ocitti Jim, Political Evolution and Democratic Practice in Uganda, 1952–1996 (Lewiston and Lampeter: Edwin Mellen, 2000), 290300, 325. For allegations of wider complicity, see Nabudere Dani Wadada, “External and Internal Factors in Uganda's Continuing Crisis,” in Hansen Holger Bernt and Twaddle Michael, eds., Uganda Now: Between Decay and Development (London and Athens: James Currey and Ohio University Press, 1988), 290312 ; Kabwegyere Tarsus Bazana, People's Choice, People's Power: Challenges and Prospects of Democracy in Uganda (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2000), 2023 ; Bwengye, Agony of Uganda, 166.

7 This is more or less the argument in Dundas Carl and Parris W. H., Observing Elections the Commonwealth Way: The Early Years (Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle, 2007), 1114 .

8 Bourne Richard, ed., Shridath Ramphal: The Commonwealth and the World (London and Hertford: Hansib, 2008); Anyaoku Emeka, The Inside Story of the Modern Commonwealth (Ibadan and Nairobi: Evans, 2004), esp. 128–60.

9 Sives Amanda, “A Review of Commonwealth Election Observation,Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 39, 3 (2001): 132–49.

10 Elklit Jorgen and Svensson Palle, “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?Journal of Democracy 8, 3 (1997): 3246 . For the Sudan election, see Willis Justin, “‘A model of its kind’: Representation and Performance in the Sudan Self-Government Election of 1953,Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35, 3 (2007): 485502 ; White Luise, Unpopular Sovereignty: Rhodesian Independence and African Decolonization (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 277307 .

11 Text of address by Chair of Election Commission, 25 Feb. 1958, National Record Office (Khartoum), ELECOM (2) 1/3/20; see also, for example, Willis Justin, “‘Peace and Order Are in the Interest of Every Citizen’: Elections, Violence and State Legitimacy in Kenya, 1957–74,International Journal of African Historical Studies 48, 1 (2015): 99115 .

12 For Zimbabwe, see White, Unpopular Sovereignty, 293, 300; for the “menu of manipulation,” see Schedler Andreas, “Elections without Democracy: The Menu of Manipulation,Journal of Democracy 13, 2 (2002): 3650 .

13 Chandler David, “International Statebuilding and the Ideology of Resilience,Politics 33, 4 (2013): 276–86; Sloterdijk Peter and Hagen Gesa Mueller van der, “Instant Democracy: The Pneumatic Parliament,” in Latour Bruno and Weibel Peter, eds., Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005), 952–57.

14 Coles Kimberley, Democratic Designs: International Intervention and Electoral Practices in Post-War Bosnia-Herzegovina (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007).

15 See, for example, the papers in Diamond Larry and Plattner Marc F., eds., Democratization in Africa (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999); Lindberg Staffan, “The Surprising Significance of African Elections,Journal of Democracy 17 (2006): 139–51.

16 Elklit and Svensson, “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?”

17 Hyde Susan, The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma: Why Election Monitoring Became an International Norm (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011); Diamond Larry J., “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes,Journal of Democracy 13, 2 (2002): 2135 ; Kelley Judith, “Assessing the Complex Evolution of Norms: The Rise of International Election Monitoring,International Organization 62, 2 (2008): 221–55; Hyde Susan, “Catch Us if You Can: Election Monitoring and International Norm Diffusion,American Journal of Political Science 55, 2 (2011): 356–69; Anglin D., “International Election Monitoring: The African Experience,African Affairs 97 (1998): 471–95; Simpson Alberto and Donno Daniella, “Can International Election Monitoring Harm Governance?Journal of Politics 74, 2 (2012): 501–13.

18 For “institutional transfer” in decolonization, see Apter David, The Gold Coast in Transition (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955), 317 ; also Mackenzie W.J.M., Free Elections: An Elementary Textbook (London: Allen and Unwin, 1958); Mackenzie W.J.M. and Robinson Kenneth, “Introduction,” in Mackenzie W.J.M. and Robinson K., eds., Five Elections in Africa (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960), 15 ; Post K.W.J., The Nigerian Federal Election of 1959: Politics and Administration in a Developing Political System (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), 24, 157.

19 White, Unpopular Sovereignty, 24, 285.

20 Comaroff John and Comaroff Jean, “Law and Disorder in the Postcolony: An Introduction,” in Comaroff Jean and Comaroff John, eds., Law and Disorder in the Postcolony (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

21 Coles Kimberley, “The Construction of Democracy through Technique,Cultural Anthropology 19, 4 (2004): 551–80, 553.

22 Bayart Jean-Francois, “Africa in the World: A History of Extraversion,African Affairs 99, 395 (2000): 217–67, 226; Young Tom, “Elections and Electoral Politics in Africa,Africa 63, 3 (1993): 299312 .

23 Comaroff and Comaroff, “Law and Disorder,” 4.

24 Kasfir Nelson, The Shrinking Political Arena: Participation and Ethnicity in African Politics with a Case Study of Uganda (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 119–26; Ibingira Grace, The Forging of an African Nation: The Political and Constitutional Evolution of Uganda from Colonial Rule to Independence, 1894–1962 (New York: Viking Press, 1973), 201 .

25 Welbourn F. B., Religion and Politics in Uganda, 1952–62 (Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1965), iiii ; see the Kabaka Yekka election pamphlet reproduced in Low D. A., The Mind of Buganda: Documents on the Modern History of an African Kingdom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971), 213–15. For religion and politics in this period, see also Leys Colin, Politicians and Politics. An Essay on Politics in Acholi, Uganda, 1962–65 (Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1967), 11 ; Low D. A., Political Parties in Uganda, 1949–62 (London: University of London Press, 1962), 2223 .

26 Peagram R. C., A Report on the General Election to the Legislative Council of the Uganda Protectorate Held in March 1961 (Kampala: Government Printer, 1961); Justus Mugaju, “Historical Background”; Welbourn, Religion and Politics, 32–33; Grace Ibingira to Commissioner on Special Duty, 26 Oct. 1961; Minute 109 (62) of Cabinet, 10 Apr. 1962, UKNA FCO 141/18335.

27 Hyden Goran and Leys Colin, “Elections and Politics in Single-Party Systems: The Case of Kenya and Tanzania,British Journal of Political Studies 2, 4 (1972): 389420 .

28 Obote A. Milton, Proposals for New Methods for Election of Representatives of the People to Parliament, with the President's Memorandum (Kampala: Milton Obote Foundation, 1970), 1011 .

29 Mittelman James, Ideology and Politics in Uganda: From Obote to Amin (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975), 125–30.

30 Provizer Norman, “The National Electoral Process and State-Building: Proposals for New Methods of Elections in Uganda,Comparative Politics 9, 3 (1977): 305–26; Ryan Selwyn, “Electoral Engineering in Uganda,Mawazo 2, 4 (1970): 312 . Planning for party primaries suggested the extreme organizational challenges posed by Obote's plans: Obote, “Circular on Election of Branch and Parliamentary Constituency Executives,” n.d., 1970, UNA Elections 1/2. For a sympathetic, indeed partisan account, see Ocitti, Political Evolution, 168–71.

31 Peterson Derek and Taylor Edgar, “Rethinking the State in Idi Amin's Uganda: The Politics of Exhortation,Journal of Eastern African Studies 7, 1 (2013): 5382, 61–63.

32 Gertzel Cherry, “Uganda after Amin: The Continuing Search for Leadership and Control,African Affairs 79: 317 (1980): 461–89.

33 Roberts George, “The Uganda-Tanzania War, the Fall of Idi Amin, and the Failure of African Diplomacy, 1978–79,Journal of Eastern African Studies 8, 4 (2014): 692709 .

34 Fingland, BHC Nairobi to Robson, FCO, 7 Mar. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2675.

35 Robson, FCO to Day, FCO, 30 Mar. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2675; Hinchcliffe, BHC Dar es Salaam to FCO, 12 Apr. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2676.

36 Posnett, BHC Kampala to Williams, FCO, 7 June 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2676.

37 Gertzel, “Uganda after Amin,” 467–68.

38 Posnett, BHC Kampala to FCO, 20 June 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2677.

39 Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 14 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2905; Nabudere Dani Wadada, Imperialism and Revolution in Uganda (Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House, 1980), 345–46.

40 Gertzel, “Uganda after Amin,” 468–70, 475; Posnett, BHC to FCO, 31 Aug. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2678; Flack, BHC to Robson, FCO, 29 Jan 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2904, and 9 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2905; Flack, BHC to FCO, 26 Sept. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2910.

41 Ocitti, Political Evolution, 264–65; also Moon, BHC Dar es Salaam to FCO, 10 May 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2676.

42 Chazan Naomi, “Between Liberalism and Statism: African Political Culture and Democracy,” in Diamond Larry, ed., Political Culture and Democracy in Developing Countries (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1993), 67106, 79, 82–85.

43 “UNLF Replies,” Kampala Domestic Service, 23 Apr. 1980, Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), LD231933. For the early influence of Nehru, and suspicion of sectarian politics, see Kirunda-Kivejinja A. M., Uganda: The Crisis of Confidence (Kampala: Progressive Publishing, 1995), 1620 .

44 Posnett, BHC Kampala to FCO, 23 June, 3 July, and 14 Aug. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2677; “President Recommends Holding Early Elections in December,” Kampala Domestic Service, 26 Mar. 1980, FBIS LD 262137. See also “Record of Meeting,” 24 Apr. 1980, UKNA FCO 68/845; and Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 24 Mar. 1980, UKNA FCO 68/845.

45 “Government Reaffirms Ban on Political Parties,” Kampala Domestic Service, 4 May 1980, FBIS LD 042310; Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 28 Mar. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2904.

46 Moon, BHC Dar es Salaam to FCO, 7 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2904; Robson, FCO to Williams, FCO, 12 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2904; “People's Council Notes UNLF Election Violations,” Kampala Domestic Service, 24 Apr. 1980, FBIS LD231236.

47 Nelson, BHC Kampala to FCO, 28 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2906.

48 Reported in Moon, BHC Dar es Salaam to FCO, 27 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2906.

49 “Formation of New Parties before Elections Banned,” Kampala Domestic Service, 18 June 1980, FBIS LD 181530.

50 Galvan Dennis, “Political Turnover and Social Change in Senegal,Journal of Democracy 12, 3 (2001): 5162 .

51 “Polling to Be Facilitated,” Uganda Times, 5 Nov. 1980: 1.

52 “Obote to Contest Election as ‘National Leader,’” Kampala Domestic Service, 13 Nov. 1980, FBIS LD 131850.

53 Justin Willis interview with Henry Opio Opiote, 9 June 2015.

54 “The Pearl of Africa Shall Rise and Shine Again,” Uganda Times, 5 Nov. 1980: 4.

55 “‘Go Ye all out, Ye Shall Win,’” Uganda Times, 7 Nov. 1980: 1.

56 “UPC Defines Attitude on Foreign Observation of Elections,” Kampala Domestic Service, 13 July 1980, FBIS, LD 131905.

57 For example, “Museveni Addresses Patriotic Movement Rally on Election,” Kampala Domestic Service, 10 Aug. 1980, FBIS LD 101628.

58 Nason, FCO to Flack, BHC Kampala, 31 July 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2907; Bwengye, Agony of Uganda, 28, and appendix.

59 “Uganda's Hope: UPM,” n.d., in UKNA FCO 31/2910.

60 Justin Willis interview with Zachary Olum, 9 June 2015.

61 Editorial, “We Want Plans for the People,” Uganda Times, 10 Nov. 1980: 4.

62 Editorial, “Political Leaders Must Be Responsible,” Uganda Times, 12 Nov. 1980: 4.

63 “Democratic Party Official Reportedly Murdered,” Nairobi Domestic Service, 22 Aug. 1980, FBIS LD 222000.

64 Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 24 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2911.

65 Justin Willis interview with Paul Ssemogerere, 24 Sept. 2014.

66 Ibid. See also Justin Willis interview with Damian Mutahiigwa, 12 June 2015; and “UPM Boss Cautions,” Uganda Times, 10 Nov. 1980: 3; “Museveni Asks for Campaign Vehicles,” Uganda Times, 20 Nov. 1980: 8.

67 “‘Power of the People’ Plea,” Uganda Times, 4 Nov. 1980: 1.

68 Dan Mudoola, “Political Transitions since Idi Amin: A Study in Political Pathology,” in Hansen and Twaddle, eds., Uganda Now, 280–89, 286; Leys, Politicians and Politics, 11; Southall Roger, Parties and Politics in Bunyoro (Kampala: Makerere Institute for Social Research, 1972), 63 .

69 Coles, “Construction of Democracy,” 573.

70 The archival record of the elections at local levels is fractured, but see, for example, the contents of Gulu District Archives, box 529, file Adm. 6 ADES IV, R.84.

71 Advertisement, Munno, 3 Oct. 1980: 2.

72 Lavett, Kampala to FCO, for onward transmission to Australian Government, 30 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2912.

73 White, Unpopular Sovereignty, 287.

74 “Kikira Briefs Returning Officers,” Uganda Times, 24 Nov. 1980: 1.

75 For Obote's accusation, see “Obote Forecasts Landslide UPC Election Victory,” Kampala Domestic Service, 21 Sept. 1980, FBIS LD 211536. For DP accusations, see “Declaration by the National Council of the Democratic Party,” 17 Sept. 1980, copy in UKNA FCO 31/2910.

76 For British views on unilateral U.S. initiatives on Uganda, see BHC Delhi to FCO, 8 Oct 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2910; for UK discussions with the Commonwealth on Uganda, see Flack to Robson, [dated 6 Sept. but must be Oct.] 1980, FCO 31/2910. The UK files hold copies of some communications between the U.S. Embassy in Kampala and the State Department.

77 “Uganda—Implications for UK Policy,” with Robson, FCO to Day, FCO, 9 Feb. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2675; “Position Paper,” 18 Apr. 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2676; Flack, BHC to FCO, 18 Feb. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2904. For Kenya, see Brown Stephen, “Authoritarian Leaders and Multiparty Elections in Africa: How Foreign Donors Help to Keep Kenya's Daniel Arap Moi in Power,Third World Quarterly 22, 5 (2001): 725–39.

78 Posnett, BHC Kampala to FCO, 6 July 1979, UKNA FCO 31/2675; Allinson, FCO, memo, 19 Mar. 1980, UKNA FCO 68/845.

79 Carrington, Secretary of State to various, 26 Mar. 1980, UKNA FCO 68/845.

80 Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 20 May 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2905, and 8 Aug. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2908.

81 Nason, BHC Kampala to FCO, 21 Aug. 1980; and Raftery, FCO to Allinson, FCO, 22 Aug. 1980, both in UKNA FCO 31/2908.

82 Secretary of State Carrington to BHC Kampala, 29 Apr. 1980, UKNA FCO 68/845.

83 Susan Hyde, Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma.

84 Text of speech, piece 206 in UKNA FCO 31/2906.

85 The speech was reported in Uganda: “Free Elections Only Way to Democracy,” Uganda Times, 24 Nov. 1980: 4.

86 “UPC Defines Attitude on Foreign Observation of Elections,” Kampala Domestic Service, 13 July 1980, FBIS LD 131905.

87 Allinson, FCO to Luce, FCO, 12 Sept. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2909.

88 “Ugandans Alone Have the Final Say,” Uganda Times, 19 Nov. 1980: 1; “No Pride in Observers,” Uganda Times, 6 Dec. 1980: 1; Editorial “We Wish the Poll Observers a Happy Stay,” Uganda Times, 27 Nov. 1980” 4.

89 “Anyoti Expresses Confidence in the Polls,” Uganda Times, 28 Nov. 1980: 8.

90 Smart, BHC Canberra to Barltrop, Commonwealth Coordination Department, 8 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2910.

91 Robson, FCO to Allinson, FCO, 24 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2911.

92 Nason, BHC Kampala to Wallace, FCO, 6 June 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2906; Robson, FCO, note, 26 June 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2908; Flack, BHC Kampala to Robson, FCO, 15 Sept. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2909.

93 Flack, BHC Kampala to Robson FCO, 6 Sept. 1980 [so dated, but location in file suggests Oct.], UKNA FCO 31/2910.

94 Flack, BHC Kampala to Robson, FCO, 13 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2910.

95 Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 4 Nov. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2912.

96 Raftery, FCO to Allinson, FCO, 22 Aug. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2908; Allinson, note, 15 Sept. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2909.

97 Briefing for Lord Privy Seal, 24 Sept. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2909.

98 Nason, BHC Kampala to FCO, 10 Nov. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2913.

99 Luce, Permanent Under-Secretary to Secretary of State, 6 Nov. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2913. The concern about communism had already been explicitly raised by others: Flack, BHC Kampala to Robson, FCO, UKNA FCO 31/2910.

100 BHC Delhi to FCO, 8 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2910; and U.S. Secretary of State to U.S. Embassy Kampala, 23 Oct. 1980, copy in UKNA FCO 31/2911.

101 Secretary of State to BHC Kampala, 10 Nov. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2913.

102 “Essential Facts,” n.d., UKNA FCO 31/2914. The Australian Government also contributed A$150,000 to the election: Smart, BHC Canberra to Barltrop, Commonwealth Coordination Department, 29 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2912.

103 Flack, BHC Kampala to FCO, 24 Oct. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2911; “Civil Servants are Cautioned,” Uganda Times, 29 Nov. 1980: 1.

104 Justin Willis interview with Mwambutsya Ndebesa, 24 Sept. 2014.

105 “DP Boycott Threat,” Uganda Times, 4 Nov. 1980: 1.

106 “Democratic Party Decides against Election Boycott,” Kampala Domestic Service, 19 Nov. 1980, FBIS LD 191940.

107 Message for Australian High Commission, via BHC, Nairobi, 8 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915.

108 BHC Kampala to Australian High Commission, Nairobi, 8 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915; see also Muwanga to Ssemogerere, 5 Dec. 1980, and marginal notes, in Commonwealth Secretariat archive item 14, CS 2013/052.

109 “Anyoti Challenges Commonwealth,” Uganda Times, 6 Dec. 1980: 1; also “UPC Heads for Victory,” and “Obote Concerned over Delay,” Uganda Times, 9 Dec. 1980: 1.

110 Hillier-Fry, BHC Kampala to FCO, 5 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915. The letter is one of the few documents regarding the Uganda election in the Commonwealth Secretariat archive: Debra to Kikira, Electoral Commission, 29 Nov. 1980, item 7, CS 2013/52.

111 Bundu to Ssekono, 3 Dec. 1980, Commonwealth Secretariat, item 12, CS 2013/052.

112 Robson, FCO to Allinson, 9 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915.

113 Hillier-Fry, BHC Kampala to FCO, 9 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915.

114 Commonwealth Secretariat file CS 2013/52.

115 “UPC Heads for Victory,” Uganda Times, 9 Dec. 1980: 1.

116 Editorial, “Cast Your Vote Wisely,” Uganda Times, 8 Dec. 1980: 4.

117 Editorial, “No Violence at Polling Stations,” Uganda Times, 9 Dec. 1980: 4.

118 “Suspension of Office,” Kampala Domestic Service, 11 Dec. 1980, FBIS LD 112018.

119 Allinson to Luce (reporting a conversation with Ramphal), 10 Dec 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915; Bwengye, Agony of Uganda, 207–9.

120 See for example “General Elections 1980: Kabarole Constituency,” Kabarole District Archive, Fort Portal, ELE 374/1.

121 “Army Commander Makes Statement on Elections,” Kampala Domestic Service, 10 Dec. 1980, FBIS LD 102038.

122 “Government Proclamation on Elections,” Kampala Domestic Service, 11 Dec. 1980, FBIS LD 112010.

123 Hillier-Fry, BHC Kampala to FCO, 12 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2915.

124 Robert Wainwright, “The Memoirs of Robert Wainwright,” Rhodes House library, RH MSS Brit Emp. S. 524, vol. II, 342–43.

125 “Uganda Military Commission Press Release,” Kampala Domestic Service, 13 Dec. 1980, FBIS LD 131528.

126 Hillier-Fry, BHC Kampala to FCO, 16 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

127 “Muwanga's Speech,” Kampala Domestic Service, 15 Dec. 1980, FBIS LD 151308; “Obote Is to Be Sworn in Today,” Uganda Times, 15 Dec. 1980: 1. Years later, Obote's (partisan) biographer cheerfully adduced the Commonwealth report as evidence that the elections had been fair: Ingham Kenneth, Obote: A Political Biography (New York: Routledge, 1994), 169–75.

128 Editorial, “Do You Know Uganda?” Washington Post, 15 Dec. 1980: 20.

129 Henderson, British Embassy, Washington, D.C. to FCO, 15 Dec. 1980; and Hillier-Fry, BHC Kampala to FCO, 17 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

130 Robson to Allinson, 17 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

131 Editorial, “We Do not Want these Journalists,” Uganda Times, 16 Dec. 1980: 4; Robson, FCO to Allinson, FCO, 17 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

132 Justin Willis interview with Damian Mutahiigwa, 12 June 2015.

133 Justin Willis interview with Kitaka-Gaweera, 24 Mar. 2015.

134 Robson, FCO to Allinson, FCO, 16 Dec. 1980, UKNA FCO 31/2916.

135 Mitchell Timothy. “The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics,American Political Science Review 85, 1 (1991): 7796 .

136 Hyde Susan D., The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma: Why Election Monitoring Became an International Norm (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011).

137 Uganda Elections, December 1980: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group, copy in UKNA FCO 31/2916, 7.

138 Ibid., 28, 34.

139 For the retrospective views of an observer, see Wainwright, “Memoirs of Robert Wainwright,” vol. II, 341–42.

140 Nic Cheeseman, Gabrielle Lynch, and Justin Willis, “The Man Who Overstayed,” Foreign Policy, 16 Feb. 2016.

141 Slater Dan, “Can Leviathan Be Democratic? Competitive Elections, Robust Mass Politics, and State Infrastructural Power,Studies in Comparative International Development 43, 3 (2008): 252–72.

142 The Presidential, Parliamentary and Civic Elections in Kenya, 29 December 1992: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group, http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/commonwealth/governance/the-presidential-parliamentary-and-civic-elections-in-kenya-29-december-1992_9781848595385-en#.V-p73_ArKuU, 4, 10, 20, 21, 39 (accessed 27 Sept. 2016).

143 Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group: Uganda Presidential and Parliamentary Elections, 18 February 2011, http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/commonwealth/governance/uganda-presidential-and-parliamentary-elections-18-february-2011_9781848591097-en#.V-p8FvArKuU, 28, 38 (accessed 27 Sept. 2016).

144 European Union Election Observation Mission, Uganda. Final Report. General Election 18 February 2011, http://www.eods.eu/library/FR%20UGANDA%2010.03.2011_en.pdf, 5, 39 (accessed 27 Sept. 2016).

145 Brown Stephen, ““Well, what can you expect?” Donor Officials’ Apologetics for Hybrid Regimes in Africa,Democratization 18, 2 (2011): 512–34; Peiffer Caryn and Englebert Pierre, “Extraversion, Vulnerability to Donors, and Political Liberalization in Africa,African Affairs 444 (2012): 355–78; Kelley Judith, “D-Minus Elections: The Politics and Norms of International Election Observation,International Organization 63, 4 (2009): 765–87.

146 We thank an anonymous CSSH reviewer for this phrase.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Comparative Studies in Society and History
  • ISSN: 0010-4175
  • EISSN: 1475-2999
  • URL: /core/journals/comparative-studies-in-society-and-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 83 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 607 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 25th January 2017 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.