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Alexandria, 1898: Nodes, Networks, and Scales in Nineteenth-Century Egypt and the Mediterranean

  • Lucia Carminati (a1)
Abstract

In October 1898, the Italian vice-consul in Alexandria charged a group of Italians with participating in an anarchist plot to attack German Emperor Wilhelm II during his planned tour through Egypt and Palestine. This collective arrest produced unexpected outcomes, left a trail of multi-lingual documents, and illuminated specific forms of late nineteenth-century Mediterranean migration. Anarchists were among those who frequently crossed borders and they were well aware of and connected to what was happening elsewhere: they sent letters, circulated manifestos, raised and transported money, and helped fugitive comrades. They maintained nodes of subversion and moved along circuits of solidarity. Similarly, diplomats of Europe, Cairo, Istanbul, and local consular officials operated across borders and cooperated to hunt anarchists down. By following people who were on the move on boats, in post offices, and in taverns, I make a methodological and historiographical argument. First, I examine the Mediterranean as a space of flows and show how the Maghreb/Mashreq divide in Middle Eastern history has concealed webs and connections. Because anarchists and authorities acted on multiple fronts simultaneously, so must scholarship of this part of the world take account of several histories at once. Second, I look beyond the micro-macro binary to emphasize the interconnections and mutual implications of the micro, the macro, and everything in between. I highlight competing, intersecting, and even contradictory trajectories of some of these anarchist migrants’ belonging. As the affair of the bombs unfolded, all of these contradictions and scales of analysis became visible at once.

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lcarminati@email.arizona.edu
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1 Burdese, Italian Consulate, Alexandria, 14 Oct. 1898, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, to Ministry of the Interior and to Berlin. See also Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 10 Feb. 1899, Busta (henceforth B) 25, Polizia Internazionale (PI), Archivio Storico Diplomatico del Ministero degli Affari Esteri (ASDMAE), Rome. Fifteen were arrested right away, one in November 1898, and two more the following January.

2 Turcato, Davide, “Italian Anarchism as a Transnational Movement, 1885–1915,” International Review of Social History 52, 3 (2007): 407–44, 410.

3 Struck, Bernhard, Ferris, Kate, and Revel, Jacques, “Introduction: Space and Scale in Transnational History,” International History Review 33, 4 (2011): 573–84, 580.

4 Werner, Michael and Zimmermann, Bénédicte, “Penser l'histoire croisée: entre empirie et réflexivité,” Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 58e année, 1 (2003): n.p., 43 .

5 Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (New York: Harper & Row, 1972); Horden, Peregrine and Purcell, Nicholas, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (Oxford, U.K. and Malden, Mass: Blackwell, 2000); Abulafia, David, “Mediterraneans,” in Harris, William V., ed., Rethinking the Mediterranean (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 6493; Wigen, Kären, “Introduction,” American Historical Review 111, 3 (2006): 717–21; Bentley, Jerry H., Bridenthal, Renate, and Wigen, Kären, eds., Seascapes: Maritime Histories, Littoral Cultures, and Transoceanic Exchanges (Honolulu: University of Hawai`i Press, 2007).

6 While Henri Pirenne theorized that the Arab conquests of the seventh century and beyond crushed the common world of the Roman mare nostrum and replaced it with two hostile civilizations facing each other across the sea, Fernand Braudel advanced a different interpretation, propounding the unity of a politically and religiously diverse sea during the sixteenth century. As written by Greene, Molly, “By arguing for a common experience based on shared constraints, Braudel de-emphasized the very conflict that was at the heart of Pirenne's thesis.” Pirenne, Henri, Mohammed and Charlemagne (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1955); Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean; and On History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 28 ; Greene, Molly, A Shared World: Christians and Muslims in the Early Modern Mediterranean (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 34 . See also Eley, Geoff, A Crooked Line: From Cultural History to the History of Society (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005), 3738 .

7 Tabili, Laura, Global Migrants, Local Culture: Natives and Newcomers in Provincial England, 1841–1939 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 3 .

8 Bose, Sugata, A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006), 6 .

9 Greverus, Ina-Maria and Römhild, Regina, The Mediterraneans: Reworking the Past, Shaping the Present, Considering the Future (Münster: Lit, 2001), 5 .

10 Levy, Carl, “Social Histories of Anarchism,” Journal for the Study of Radicalism 4, 2 (2010): 144, 12.

11 Turcato, Davide, Making Sense of Anarchism: Errico Malatesta's Experiments with Revolution, 1889–1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 180 .

12 Marshall, Peter H., Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism (Oakland: PM Press, 2010), 449 ; Turcato, “Italian Anarchism,” 415.

13 Malatesta, Errico, Gli anarchici in tribunale: Autodifesa di Errico Malatesta (Roma-Firenze: Serantoni, 1905). Self-defense pronounced by Malatesta on 28 April 1898, during his trial at the Tribunal of Ancona, Italy.

14 Baedeker, Karl, Egypt: Handbook for Travellers (Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1898), 1217 .

15 Steevens, G. W., Egypt in 1898 (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1898), 174 .

16 Ibid., 179.

17 Ilbert, Robert, Alexandrie: 1830–1930: Histoire d'une communauté citadine, vol. 2 (Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1996), 157 .

18 Gorman, Anthony, “‘Diverse in Race, Religion, and Nationality … but United in Aspirations of Civil Progress’: The Anarchist Movement in Egypt 1860–1940,” in Walt, Lucien Van der and Hirsch, Steven, eds., Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Post-Colonial World, 1870–1940 (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 8 .

19 Cole, Juan R. I., Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East: Social and Cultural Origins of Egypt's ’Urabi Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), 17 .

20 Reimer, Michael J., “Colonial Bridgehead: Social and Special Change in Alexandria, 1850–1882,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 20, 4 (1988): 531–53, 531, 539.

21 Cole, Colonialism and Revolution.

22 Fuhrmann, Malte, “‘I Would Rather Be in the Orient’: European Lower Class Immigrants into the Ottoman Lands,” in Freitag, Ulrike et al. ., eds., The City in the Ottoman Empire: Migration and the Making of Urban Modernity (New York: Routledge, 2011), 229 .

23 Will Hanley, “Foreignness and Localness in Alexandria, 1880–1914,” PhD thesis, Princeton University, 2007, 2–3.

24 Tignor, Robert, “The Economic Activities of Foreigners in Egypt, 1920–1950: From Millet to Haute Bourgeoisie,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 22, 3 (1980): 416–49, 416.

25 Toledano, Ehud R., State and Society in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

26 Tignor, “Economic Activities,” 421.

27 Rothman, E. Natalie, Brokering Empire: Trans-Imperial Subjects between Venice and Istanbul (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012), 36 .

28 Burdese, Alexandria, Ministry of the Interior, Rome, Anarchici in Egitto, 18 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

29 Hunter, F. Robert, “Egypt under the Successors of Muhammad Ali,” in Daly, M. W., ed., The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 180–81.

30 Gorman, “Diverse in Race,” 3–4.

31 Italian Consulate, Cairo, to Ministry of the Interior, Rome, Circoli e associazioni anarchiche, 21 Oct. 1900, B86, Ambasciata d'Egitto (AE), ASDMAE. Italian Consulate, Cairo, 2 Sept. 1901, Galleani Luigi, B84, AE, ASDMAE.

32 See my forthcoming dissertation, “Būr Saʿīd/Port Said, 1859?1922: Migration, Urban Change, and Empire in an Egyptian and Mediterranean Port-City.”

33 Clancy-Smith, Julia, “Marginality and Migration: Europe's Social Outcasts in Pre-Colonial Tunisia, 1830–1831,” in Rogan, Eugene, ed., Inside Out (London: I. B. Tauris, 2002), 149, 152; and, Women, Gender and Migration along a Mediterranean Frontier: Pre-Colonial Tunisia, c. 1815–1870,” Gender & History 17, 1 (2005): 6292, 65–67.

34 Levy, Carl, “Anarchism, Internationalism and Nationalism in Europe, 1860–1939,” Australian Journal of Politics & History 50, 3 (2004): 330–42, 337, 342; Gabaccia, Donna R., Italy's Many Diasporas (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), 60 .

35 Levy, “Anarchism,” 333. See Laura Galian and Costantino Paonessa, “Anarchism in Egypt: A Brief Account of Its History until 1945,” Anarchist Studies Journal, forthcoming, Sept. 2017.

36 Bettini, Leonardo, Bibliografia dell'anarchismo: Periodici e numeri unici anarchici in lingua italiana pubblicati all'estero (1872–1891), 2 vols. (Firenze: CP, 1976), 282 .

37 Ibid.; Nettlau, Max, Errico Malatesta, vita e pensieri (New York: Casa editrice Il Martello, 1922), 193 .

38 Gorman, “Diverse in Race,” 6; Turcato, “Italian Anarchism,” 410.

39 Anderson, Benedict R. O'G., Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination (London: Verso, 2005), 72 .

40 Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, 3.

41 Goodway, David, ed., For Anarchism: History, Theory, and Practice (New York: Routledge, 1989), 3 .

42 Levy, “Social Histories,” 2.

43 Goodway, For Anarchism, 6.

44 Eric Hobsbawm's description of Andalusian anarchism has been criticized by Carl Levy and others: Levy, “Social Histories,” 8; and Italian Anarchism, 1870–1926,” in Goodway, David, ed., For Anarchism: History, Theory, and Practice (New York: Routledge, 1989), 25 ; Hobsbawm, E. J. and Avrich, Paul Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries (New York: W. W. Norton, 1965), 7492 ; Kaplan, Temma, Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868–1903 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977); Pernicone, Nunzio, Italian Anarchism, 1864–1892 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993); Goodway, For Anarchism, 7–8; Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism, Levy, “Italian Anarchism,” 25. See Jensen, Richard Bach, The Battle against Anarchist Terrorism: An International History, 1878–1934 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014); Bencivenni, Marcella, Italian Immigrant Radical Culture: The Idealism of the Sovversivi in the United States, 1890–1940 (New York: New York University Press, 2011); Gabriel, Elun T., Assassins and Conspirators: Anarchism, Socialism, and Political Culture in Imperial Germany (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2014); Baer, James A., Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015).

45 Turcato, “Italian Anarchism,” 417.

46 Levy, “Social Histories,” 26.

47 Gorman, Anthony, “Anarchists in Education: The Free Popular University in Egypt (1901),” Middle Eastern Studies 41, 3 (2005): 303–20, 316.

48 Burgh, Edward Morgan Alborough De, Elizabeth, Empress of Austria: A Memoir (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1899), 321 .

49 Santarelli, Enzo, “L'Anarchisme en Italie,” Le Mouvement Social 83 (1973): 135–66, 140. Santarelli here mistakenly gives the date for Empress Elizabeth's murder as 10 December 1898. See also Masini, Pier Carlo, Storia degli anarchici italiani nell'epoca degli attentati (Milano: Rizzoli, 1981), 27, 55–59, 67, 107; Anderson, Under Three Flags, 75. On 17 November 1878, the “deranged cook” Giovanni Passannante had attempted to stab King Umberto I; Levy, “Italian Anarchism,” 28. Between March 1892 and June 1894, eleven dynamite explosions rocked Paris and killed nine people. In Spain, bombs hurled at a Corpus Christi procession and at a theatre audience in Barcelona killed scores. Jensen, R. B., “The International Anti-Anarchist Conference of 1898 and the Origins of Interpol,” Journal of Contemporary History 16, 2 (1981): 323–47, 324.

50 Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, ix.

51 Santarelli, L'Anarchisme,” 140. Masini, Storia degli anarchici italiani, 1981, 27, 55–59, 67, 107.

52 Senta, Antonio, “‘Siamo Coatti E Baldi’: Le Leggi Anti-Anarchiche Del 1894,” in Sacchetti, Giorgio, ed., “Nel Fosco Fin Del Secolo Morente”: L'anarchismo Italiano Nella Crisi Di Fine Secolo: Atti Del Convegno Di Studi Storici, Carrara, 29 Ottobre 2011 (Milano: Biblion Edizioni, 2013), 37, 40.

53 Lombroso, Cesare and Ferracuti, Franco, Gli anarchici (Millwood: Kraus Reprint, 1983), 41 .

54 Pick, Daniel, “The Faces of Anarchy: Lombroso and the Politics of Criminal Science in Post-Unification Italy,” History Workshop Journal 21, 1 (1986): 6086, 61.

55 Jensen, Richard Bach, “Criminal Anthropology and Anarchist Terrorism in Spain and Italy,” Mediterranean Historical Review 16, 2 (2001): 3144, 31–32.

56 Liang, Hsi-huey, The Rise of Modern Police and the European State System from Metternich to the Second World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 160 , my emphasis.

57 Deflem, Mathieu, Policing World Society: Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 67 . Masini, Storia degli anarchici italiani, 1981, 120. Conférence internationale de Rome pour la défense sociale contre les anarchistes: 24 novembre–21 décembre 1898 (Rome: Imprimerie du Ministère des affaires étrangères, 1898). “Turkey” also participated, represented by the Ambassador of His Majesty the Sultan in the Kingdom of Italy Mostapha Réchid Bey, the Secretary General of the Imperial Ministry for Foreign Affairs Nouri Bey, and the legal advisor of the Porte, Jarki Bey.

58 Ginzburg, Carlo, Clues, Myths, and the Historical Method (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 120–21.

59 Jensen, “International Anti-Anarchist Conference,” 332–33. The police of Alexandria had received a first shipment of anthropometric instruments by late January 1895, and local authorities were to have prepared the necessary wooden accessories, but the identification system spread very slowly and only a few local bureaus followed through. Tollefson, Harold, Policing Islam the British Occupation of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Struggle over Control of the Police, 1882–1914 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999), 100, 116.

60 Deflem, Policing World Society, 75.

61 Al Ahrām, 14 Oct. (Tishrin 1) 1898: 1.

62 Enrico Pea, Vita in Egitto (Mondadori: Milano, 1949).

63 Gorman, “Diverse in Race,” 13.

64 “Italians Arrested in Alexandria,” Al Ahrām, 17 Oct. (Tishrin 1) 1898: 2. “Plot against the Kaiser: The Plan Hatched by Anarchists in Alexandria in Egypt…,” New York Times, 17 Oct. 1898: 1; “Gli anarchici e le bombe in Alessandria,” L'Imparziale, 16–17 Oct. 1898: 3.

65 Burdese, Italian Consulate, Alexandria, to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Complotto anarchico, 14 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE. Burdese himself uses the expression “giannizzeri del consolato.”

66 Al Ahrām, 17 Oct. (Tishrin 1) 1898: 2.

67 Pea, Vita in Egitto, 77, 75, 211.

68 Burdese, Italian Consulate, Alexandria, to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Complotto anarchico, 14 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

69 “Gli anarchici e le bombe in Alessandria,” L'Imparziale, 16–17 Oct. 1898: 3.

70 Pea, Vita in Egitto, 122–23.

71 Burdese, Italian Consulate, Alexandria, to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Complotto anarchico, 14 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

72 Lombroso and Ferracuti, Gli anarchici.

73 Burdese, Italian Consulate, Alexandria, 6 Oct. 1898, to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Complotto anarchico, 6 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

74 “Circa il complotto anarchico di Alessandria,” L'Imparziale, 20 Oct. 1898: 3.

75 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, to Ministry of the Interior, Viaggio Imperatore Guglielmo in Egitto, 6 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

76 Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo, to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Viaggio Imperatore Germania in Egitto, 27 Sept. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

77 Burdese, Alexandria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, 13 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

78 Al Ahrām, 17 Oct. (Tishrin 1) 1898: 2.

79 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Cairo to Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo, 19 Nov. 1898, 1 June 1899, and 14 July 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

80 Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, 28 June 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

81 Italian Consul, Cairo, to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, 12 Oct. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

82 Ministry of the Interior to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, 10 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

83 Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Roma, 5 Jan. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

84 Khuri-Makdisi, Ilham, The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860–1914 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 117 .

85 Badrawi, Malak, Political Violence in Egypt, 1910–1924: Secret Societies, Plots and Assassinations (Richmond: Curzon, 2000).

86 Khuri-Makdisi, Eastern Mediterranean, 114–15; Gorman, “Diverse in Race,” 3.

87 Baedeker, Egypt, 2–4.

88 Levy, “Italian Anarchism,” 44. Some anarchists during this period went abroad to realize their ideals in utopian communities, such as the Cecilia Colony in Brazil, which lasted four years in the early 1890s. Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, 449. On Bruno Comolli's 1975 film La Cecilia and the importance of anarchist songs, see Certeau, Michel de, The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 17 .

89 Burdese, Alexandria, Ministry of the Interior, Rome, “Anarchici in Egitto,” 18 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE. This was probably the same L'Agitazione that Malatesta, clandestinely in Italy, had founded in Ancona in January 1898. Santarelli, “L'Anarchisme,” 140; Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, 350.

90 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Cairo, to Italian Consul, Cairo, Processo in Alessandria d'Egitto contro diversi anarchici, 28 Dec. 1903, B86, AE, ASDMAE.

91 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 23 June 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

92 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Alexandria, Lettera dell'agente segreto della polizia egiziana ad Alessandria, 27 Dec. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

93 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Cairo, to the Italian Consul, Cairo, Processo in Alessandria d'Egitto contro diversi anarchici, 6 Jan. 1904, B86, AE, ASDMAE.

94 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 10 Feb. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE; Burdese, Italian Consulate, Alexandria to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, “Complotto anarchico,” 14 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE. Also used to wrap up the bombs were excerpts of the Bulletin de legislation et de jurisprudence egyptiennes, dated October 1889 and September 1897, printed by the Penasson typography, where Vasai and Tamberi had worked. Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 23 June 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

95 Al Ahrām, 14 Oct. (Tishrin 1) 1898: 1.

96 Turcato, “Italian Anarchism,” 433.

97 Italian Consulate, Cairo, Dimostrazione pel 1 maggio, 4 Apr. 1902, B86, AE, ASDMAE; Cenno biografico, Prefettura di Livorno, Ugo Parrini, 1 June 1896, B3748, Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato (ACS), Rome.

98 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Cairo, to Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo, Parrini Remo, 28 Dec. 1903, B85, AE, ASDMAE; La Protesta Umana, 22 Oct. 1903, San Francisco, anno II, no. 32, Processo in Alessandria d'Egitto contro diversi anarchici, B86, AE, ASDMAE; Khedivial Ministry of the Interior to Ministry of the Interior, Rome, 14 Feb. 1901, Parrini Ugo Icilio, B85, AE, ASDMAE.

99 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Cairo, to Italian Consul, Cairo, Processo in Alessandria d'Egitto contro diversi anarchici, 27 Dec. 1903, B86, AE, ASDMAE; Il Libertario, La Spezia, from Cairo, “Un vecchio,” Parrini Remo, 31 Dec. 1903, B85, AE, ASDMAE; Il Libertario, La Spezia, Parrini Ugo Icilio, 7 Jan. 1904, B85, AE, ASDMAE; Cenno biografico, Prefettura di Livorno, Ugo Parrini, 1 June 1896, B3748, CPC, ACS. Pietro Vasai was also in contact as a correspondent for Il Libertario in La Spezia, Cenno biografico, Prefettura di Firenze, Vasai Pietro, 19 July 1896, B5327, CPC, ACS.

100 R. Consolato, Romano, Alexandria to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, “Anarchici,” 20 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

101 Italian Consulate, Cairo, to Ministry of the Interior, Rome, to Italian Consulate in Alexandria, Port Said, Parrini Ugo Icilio, 27 Feb. 1901, B85, AE, ASDMAE.

102 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 10 Feb. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

103 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 23 June 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE. On Vasai working at Penasson's, see also Vasai Pietro, undated, B85, AE, ASDMAE.

104 Italian Consulate, Romano, Alexandria to Ministry Foreign Affairs, Rome, “Anarchici,” 20 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

105 Consul in Buenos Aires to Ministry of the Interior, Rome, Parrini Ugo Icilio, 5 June 1904, B85, AE, ASDMAE.

106 Italian Consulate in Nice to Ministry of the Interior, Rome, Vasai Pietro, 1 June 1898, B5327, CPC, ACS.

107 Vostro amico, Alexandria, 3 July 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

108 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza. 10 Feb. 1899, See also Italian Consulate, Romano, Alexandria to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, “Anarchici,” 20 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE. One who received such letters was Virgilio Mazzoni, the author of what the indicting authorities called the “horrifying manuscript” found in Parrini's home.

109 Masini, Storia degli anarchici italiani, 1981, 59–65. Marshall calls them “penal islands,” in Demanding the Impossible, 452. Other islands used in this way were Porto Ercole (Tuscany) and San Nicola (Puglia).

110 Prefettura di Firenze, Rapporto da Marsiglia, Vasai Pietro, 29 Oct. 1895, B5327, CPC, ACS.

111 Steven Vertovec, Transnationalism (New York: Routledge, 2009), 5, 7.

112 Ibid., 24.

113 Scott, James C., Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 299 .

114 Vostro amico, Alexandria, 3 July 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

115 Italian Consulate in Tunisia, Tunisi, Vasai Pietro, 22 Oct. 1898, B5327, CPC, ACS.

116 Khedivial Ministry of the Interior, Alexandria, Lettera dell'agente segreto della polizia egiziana ad Alexandria, 20 Dec. 1899. On Malatesta's brother Aniello, a lawyer residing in Port Said, see Romano, Italian Consulate, Alexandria to Ministry Foreign Affairs, Rome, “Procedimento anarchico,” 12 June 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

117 Vostro amico, Alexandria, 3 July 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

118 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 23 June 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

119 Romano, Alexandria to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, Anarchici, 26 Oct. 1898, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

120 Enrico Pea, Vita in Egitto, 119.

121 In 1913, Fiaschi would migrate to Libya. He died in Benghazi on 17 June 1920. Cenno biografico, Prefettura di Livorno, Pilade Fiaschi, 28 Dec. 1900, B2053, CPC, ACS. Pea, Vita in Egitto, 120–22. It seems Fiaschi had a “tryst” with the wife of the owner of his favorite bar, called Bar delle Alpi. Report, Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Fiaschi Pilade, 18 Jan. 1902, B84, AE, ASDMAE.

122 Sammarco, Angelo, Gli italiani in Egitto: il contributo italiano nella formazione dell'Egitto moderno (Alessandria D'Egitto: Edizioni del Fascio, 1937), 105 .

123 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 10 Feb. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

124 Masini, Storia degli anarchici italiani, 1981, 59–65.

125 Ibid., 67.

126 Masini, Pier Carlo, Storia degli anarchici italiani: da Bakunin a Malatesta (1862–1892) (Milano: Rizzoli, 1969), 221 .

127 Damiani, Gigi, Attorno ad una vita: Niccolò Converti (Newark: L'Adunata dei refrattari, 1940), 5, 9, 11.

128 Bettini, Bibliografia dell'anarchismo, 1: 263.

129 Masini, Storia degli anarchici italiani, 1981, 68.

130 Fedeli, Ugo, Luigi Galleani: quarant'anni di lotte rivoluzionarie, 1891–1931 (Catania: Centrolibri, 1984), 6670 . Convicts received between 50 and 60 cents per day. In the islands, prisoners could not be visited by their families and so could not thus supplement their costs of living.

131 Italian Embassy, Cairo, to Italian Ministry Interior, Rome, 12 Aug. 1901, Rome, Galleani Luigi, B84, AE, ASDMAE; Masini, Storia degli anarchici italiani, 1981, 133–34; Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism, 180; Malatesta, Errico, Brunello, Piero, and Paola, Pietro Di, Autobiografia mai scritta: ricordi (1853–1932) (Santa Maria Capua Vetere: Spartaco, 2003), 110 .

132 Berti, Giampietro D., Errico Malatesta e il movimento anarchico italiano e internazionale: 1872–1932 (Milano: F. Angeli, 2003), 81 .

133 Ibid., 82; Malatesta, Brunello, and Di Paola, Autobiografia mai scritta, 110. See also Nettlau, Errico Malatesta, 167–69.

134 Parrini, Ugo Icilio, “‘Un Vecchio’: L'Anarchismo in Egitto, in La Protesta Umana, San Francisco, Cal., a II, N. 36, 11-21-1903,” in Bettini, Leonardo, ed., Bibliografia Dell'anarchismo. Periodici E Numeri Unici Anarchici in Lingua Italiana Pubblicati All'estero (1872–1891) (Firenze: CP, 1976), 304 .

135 Malatesta, Brunello, and Di Paola, Autobiografia mai scritta, 109.

136 Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, 350.

137 Berti, Errico Malatesta, 284.

138 Turcato, “Italian Anarchism,” 429.

139 Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism, 177; see Fabbri, Luigi, La vida de Malatesta (Barcelona: Guilda de amigos del libro, 1936).

140 Pea, Vita in Egitto, 43.

141 Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism, 178.

142 Berti, Errico Malatesta, 285.

143 Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism, 179.

144 Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo, 18 Oct. 1898, Roma, to Ministry Interior. See also Ministry Foreign Affairs, Rome, 28 Oct. 1898, to Italian Diplomatic Agency and Ministry Interior, Anarchici Ancona, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

145 Romano, Consolato, Alexandria to Ministry Foreign Affairs, Rome, 12 June 1899, Procedimento anarchico, ASDMAE, PI, B25.

146 Gorman, “Anarchists in Education,” 304. See Beinin, Joel and Lockman, Zachary, Workers on the Nile: Nationalism, Communism, Islam, and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882–1954 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987); Chalcraft, John T., The Striking Cabbies of Cairo and other Stories: Crafts and Guilds in Egypt, 1863–1914 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004).

147 Khuri-Makdisi, Eastern Mediterranean, 149.

148 Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, 32. See also Levy, “Anarchism,” 331.

149 Gorman, “Diverse in Race,” 3, 12.

150 Pea, Vita in Egitto, 190.

151 Ibid., 25–27.

152 Gabaccia, Italy's Many Diasporas, 73; see also 60, 119.

153 Anderson, Benedict R. O'G., Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 2006); Sluga, Glenda, Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), 3, 9.

154 Malkki, Liisa, “Citizens of Humanity: Internationalism and the Imagined Community of Nations,” Diaspora 3, 1 (1994): 4168, 62.

155 Khuri-Makdisi, Eastern Mediterranean, ivi, 8, 177.

156 Struck, Ferris, and Revel, “Introduction,” 576.

157 Gabaccia, Donna R. and Hoerder, Dirk, Connecting Seas and Connected Ocean Rims: Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans and China Seas Migrations from the 1830s to the 1930s (Leiden: Brill, 2011), 6 . See Moatti, Claude, Pébarthe, Christophe, and Kaiser, Wolfgang, eds., Le monde de l'itinérance en Méditerranée de l'antiquité à l’époque moderne: procédures de contrôle et d'identification. (Paris: Ausonius, 2009).

158 Gabaccia, Italy's Many Diasporas, 11.

159 Herzog, Cristoph, “Migration and the State: On Ottoman Regulations Concerning Migration since the Age of Mahmud II,” in Freitag, Ulrike et al. ., eds., The City in the Ottoman Empire: Migration and the Making of Urban Modernity (New York: Routledge, 2011), 117–34.

160 Moatti, Pébarthe, and Kaiser, Le monde, 13–25.

161 “L'Affare delle bombe,” L'Imparziale, 26 Oct. 1898: 3.

162 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, 25 Feb. 1899, “Verbale di interrogatorio a Giovanni Pansier,” and “Verbale di interrogatorio di Giuseppe Micallef.” See also Italian Consul, Alexandria to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome, 1 Mar. 1899, “Ad Al Gabbari non hanno posto per i detenuti, sono perciò a Moharram Bey,” all in ASDMAE, PI, B25. Lombroso dedicates part of his book Gli anarchici to anarchist lyrics. Lombroso and Ferracuti, Gli anarchici, 39–41.

163 Italian Consulate, Alexandria, Sentenza, 10 Feb. 1899, B25, PI, ASDMAE.

164 Gorman, “Diverse in Race,” 13–14.

165 Fuhrmann, “I Would Rather Be in the Orient,” 239.

166 Borutta, Manuel and Gekas, Sakis, “A Colonial Sea: The Mediterranean, 1798–1956,” European Review of History 19, 1 (2012): 113, 7; Driessen, Henk, “Mediterranean Port Cities: Cosmopolitanism Reconsidered,” History and Anthropology 16, 1 (2005): 129–41, 138. See also Bayly, C. A. and Fawaz, Leila Tarazi, “Introduction: The Connected World of Empires,” in Bayly, C. A. and Fawaz, Leila Tarazi, eds., Modernity and Culture: From the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 15 . For other case-studies, see Fahmy, Ziad, “Jurisdictional Borderlands: Extraterritoriality and ‘Legal Chameleons’ in Precolonial Alexandria, 1840–1870,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 55, 2 (2013): 305–29; Marglin, Jessica M., “The Two Lives of Masʿud Amoyal: Pseudo-Algerians in Morocco, 1830–1912,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44, 4 (2012): 651–70.

167 Torpey, John, The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 93 .

168 Turcato, Making Sense of Anarchism, 180.

169 Clancy-Smith, Julia Ann, Mediterraneans: North Africa and Europe in an Age of Migration, c. 1800–1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011).

170 Vertovec, Transnationalism, 16, 21.

171 Khedivial Ministry Interior, Cairo, to Italian Consul, Cairo, 5 June 1904, Grossi Tito, B84, AE, ASDMAE. Khedivial Ministry Interior, Cairo, to Italian Diplomatic Agency, Cairo, 11 July 1904, Guelfi/Guelfo, B84, AE, ASDMAE.

172 Werner and Zimmermann, “Penser l'histoire croisée,” 144.

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