Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-pftt2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-21T16:35:50.428Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Prohibition, Tolerance, Co-option: Cultural Appropriation and Francoism in Catalonia, 1939–75

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 July 2018

School of Modern Languages, Cardiff University 1.12 66a Park Place, Cathays, Cardiff, CF10 3AS;


Dictatorships, autocracies and authoritarian political systems must adapt if they wish to survive. The long-lasting dictatorship of Franco's Spain (1939–75) underwent a series of internal adaptations during its almost forty years of existence. The initial project of the Franco regime, which included the destruction of its social and political enemies, lasted until the end of the Second World War. The second phase, marked by a failed autarkic experiment, ended in 1959. The economic change that followed entailed a moderate opening in political terms, whilst maintaining a dictatorial apparatus. This article examines a further feature in the evolution of the Franco regime which initially sought to impose a monolithic national identity (Spanish) by means of the repression of its national minorities (Basque, Catalan, Galician and so on). Due to the absence of a violent political movement as existed in the Basque Country in the form of ETA, Catalonia is a particularly fruitful source to examine the shifts that took place in the Franco regime's policy towards Spain's historic nationalities. This article focuses on the intermediate spaces that appeared between overt opposition on the one hand and active collaboration on the other. This article assesses the evolving policy towards Catalan culture and identity during the dictatorship. I find three main phases in the regime's strategy: repression, followed by comparative tolerance with a final phase of the co-option of Catalan culture, for the purposes of regime legitimation.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1 Geddes, Barbara, Paradigms and Sand Castles: Theory Building and Research Design in Comparative Politics (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003), 4851Google Scholar and Weeks, Jesicca, ‘Autocratic Audience Costs: Regime Type and Signaling Resolve, International Organization, 62, 1 (2008), 3564CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 Davenport, Christian, ‘State Repression and the Tyrannical Peace’, Journal of Peace Research, 23, 4 (2007), 593601Google Scholar and Gandhi, Jennifer and Przeworski, Adam, ‘Cooperation, Cooptation and Rebellion under Dictatorship’, Economics and Politics, 18, 1 (2006), 954–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 Diani, Mario and della Porta, Donatella, Social Movements: An Introduction (Malden: Blackwell, 2006), 7Google Scholar.

4 Almendral, Raúl Moreno, ‘Franquismo y Nacionalismo Español: Una Aproximación a sus Aspectos Fundamentales’, Hispania Nova: Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 12 (2014)Google Scholar.

5 Andreu, Joan Maria Thomas i, ‘La configuración del Franquismo: El Partido y las Instituciones’, Ayer, 33, (1999), 4163Google Scholar.

6 Malefakis, Edward, ‘The Franco Dictatorship: A Bifurcated Regime?’ in Townson, Nigel, ed., Spain Transformed: The Late Franco Dictatorship, 1959–1975 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2007), 248–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Molinero, Carme and Ysàs, Pere, La Anatomía del Franquism: De la Supervivencia a la Agonía, 1945–1977 (Barcelona: Crítica, 2008)Google Scholar; Mateos, Abdon and Soto, Álvaro, El Franquismo: Desarrollo, Tecnocracia y Protesta Social, 1959–1975 (Madrid: Arlanza, 2005)Google Scholar; Cruañes, José Reig, Identificación y Alienación: La Cultura Política y el Tardofranquismo (Valencia: Universitat de València, 2007)Google Scholar and Riquer, Borja de, La Dictadura de Franco (Barcelona: Crítica, 2010)Google Scholar.

8 Allworth, Edward, The Nationality Question in Soviet Central Asia (New York: Praeger, 1973)Google Scholar; Hajda, Lubomyr and Beissinger, Mark, eds., The Nationalities Factor in Soviet Politics and Society (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1990)Google Scholar; Lewis, Robert, Nationality and Population Change in Russia and the USSR (New York: Praeger, 1976)Google Scholar; Herf, Jeffrey, ‘Post-Totalitarian Narratives in Germany: Reflections on Two Dictatorships after 1945 and 1989’, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 9, 2, 3 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 161–86; Lundgren, Åsa, The Unwelcome Neighbour: Turkey's Kurdish Policy (London: IB Taurus, 2007)Google Scholar; Barkey, Henri J. and Fuller, Graham E., Turkey's Kurdish Question (Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998)Google Scholar.

9 Nabulsi, Karma, Traditions of War: Occupation, Resistance and the Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 105–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

10 Box, Zira, España, Año Zero: La Construcción Simbólica del Franquismo (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 2010), 8895Google Scholar and ‘Secularizando el Apocalipsis: Manufactura Mítica y Discurso Nacional Franquista: La Narración de la Victoria’, Historia y Política, 12 (July – Dec. 2004), 133–60.

11 Brubaker, Rogers, ‘Nationalizing States in the Old “New Europe” and the New’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19 (1996), 411–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 37; Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) and ‘The Manichean Myth: Rethinking the Distinction Between “Civic” and “Ethnic” nationalism’, in Hanspeter Kriesi et al., eds., Nation and National Identity: The European Experience in Perspective (Zurich: Ruegger, 1999), 55–71.

12 Saz, Ismael, España Contra España: Los Nacionalismos Franquistas (Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2003)Google Scholar; Boyd, Carolyn, Historia, Patria: Politics, History, and National Identity in Spain, 1875–1975 (N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997)Google Scholar and Sánchez, Antonio Cazorla, Fear and Progress: Ordinary Lives in Franco's Spain, 1939–1975 (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2010), 90–2Google Scholar.

13 Cazorla, Antonio, La España Masacrada: Las Políticas de la Victoria: La Consolidación del Nuevo Estado Franquista (1938–1953) (Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2000)Google Scholar; Richards, Michael, A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain, 1936–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)Google Scholar and Graham, Helen, ‘The Memory of Murder: Mass Killing and the Making of Francoism’ in War and its Shadow: Spain's Civil War in Europe's Long Twentieth Century (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2012), 2549Google Scholar.

14 Claudio Hernández Burgos and Miguel Ángel del Arco Blanco, ‘Más Allá de las Tapias de los Cementerios: la Represión Cultural y Socioeconómico en la España Franquista (1936–1951)’, Cuadernos de Historia Contemporánea, 33 (2011), 71–93.

15 Conversi, Daniele, ‘We Are All Equals! Militarism, Homogenization and “Egalitarianism” in Nationalist State-Building (1789–1945)’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31, 7 (2008), 1286–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

16 Solé i Sabaté, Josep M. and Villaroya, Joan, Cronologia de la Repressió de la Llengua i la Cultura Catalanes 1939–1975 (Barcelona: Curial, 1994)Google Scholar.

17 Baulenas, Lluís-Anton, El Català no Morirà: Un Moment Decisiu per al Future de la Llengua (Barcelona: Edicions 62, 2004), 203Google Scholar.

18 Cenarro, Angela, ‘Matar, Vigilar y Delatar: La Quiebra de la Sociedad Civil Durante la Guerra y la Posguerra en España (1936–1948)’, Historia Social, 44 (2002), 6586Google Scholar.

19 Dickinson, Edward Ross, ‘Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on our Discourse about “Modernity”’, Central European History, 37, 1 (2004), 148CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

20 Dowling, Andrew, ‘The Catholic Church in Catalonia: From Cataclysm in the Civil War to the “Euphoria” of the 1950s’, Catalan Review, XX, 1 (2006), 83100Google Scholar.

21 Gemma Pérez Zalduondo, ‘Música, Censura y Falange: El Control de la Actividad Musical desde la Vicesecretaría de Educación Popular (1941–1945), ARBOR, 187 (Sept. – Oct. 2011), 875–86.

22 We can see parallel evolutions in diverse forms of political systems, such as East Germany: Palmowski, Jan, ‘Building an East German Nation: The Construction of a Socialist Heimat, 1945–1961’, Central European History, 37, 3 (2004) 365–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Rubio, Antonio Méndez, ‘Popular Music as Cultural Criticism’, Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, 2 (2001), 119–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Núñez Seixas, Xosé Manoel and Umbach, Maiken, ‘Hijacked Heimats: National Appropriations of Local and Regional Identities in Germany and Spain, 1930–1945’, European Review of History/Revue Européenne d'Histoire, 15, 3 (June 2008), 295316CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

23 Falange Española, Departamento de Secretaría, Ref: Associación Horta, Caja 1.263, Archivo Gobierno Civil de Barcelona, hereafter AGCB.

24 Front Nacional de Catalunya, Per Catalunya, 12 (10 Nov. 1945).

25 Cuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Nacionalismo, Franquismo y Nacionalcatolicismo (Madrid: Actas, 2008), 157–61Google Scholar and Callahan, William J., ‘The Evangelization of Franco's “New Spain”’, Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture, 56, 4 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Vicente, Santí Vila i, ‘De Torrasi Bages a Pujol, o la Deconstrucción de un Sustrato Integrista Común en Cataluña’, Historia y Política, 14 (July – Dec. 2005), 85118Google Scholar.

26 ‘Verdaguer’, Cristiandad: Revista Quincenal, 2, 34 (15 Aug. 1945). See also Destino, 28 July 1945; Esbart Verdaguer, Feb. 1949. See also the issues from Jan. 1948 to Jan. 1949 and Boletin de la Mare de Deu del Mont, 2, 1953, devoted to Verdaguer, with articles and poetry in Catalan.

27 Letter from Acedo Colunga to Francisco Salgado-Araujo, 3 June 1951, Caja 3, no. 1.236, AGCB.

28 Fabre, Jaume, Huertas, Josep M. and Ribas, Antoni, Vint Anys de Resistència Catalana 1939–1959 (Barcelona: La Magrana, 1978), 22Google Scholar.

29 Falange Española, Institución Folklórica Montserrat, Informe 1.628, Caja 103, AGCB.

30 Informe del Secretariat al I Congrés del Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya presentat pel Camarada Josep Moix, Fons PSUC, Arxiu Nacional de Catalunya, hereafter ANC.

31 Aspecto Político, Dec. 1958, Caja 506, AGCB.

32 Delegación Provincial de Sindicatos O.S. Educación y Descanso, Barcelona 1958, Juegos Florales Sindicales 1º de Mayo de 1958 and ‘La Festividad de San José Artesano se Celebró con Extraordinaria Brillantez’, La Vanguardia Española, 2 May 1958.

33 Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente, ‘Las Culturas del Tardofranquismo’, Ayer, 68 (2007), 89110Google Scholar.

34 Escritura de Constitución de la Sociedad Civil ‘Òmnium Cultural’, Autorizada por Don. F. Trias de Bes Año 1.961, AFH Maurici Serrahima Inv. 99, ANC. Letter from the president of Òmnium Cultural to Albert Manent, 5 July 1962, in AFH Albert Manent Caixa 21, ANC; Copy of letter from Joan Cendrós, Correspondència, Anys 1961, 1962, 1963; Carpeta 1, Arxiu d’Òmnium Cultural, hereafter AÒC. See, for example, letter to Vescompte de Güell from Frederic Roda, 10 Aug. 1968, Carpeta Música. Letters from Felix Millet to José M. Boix, 28 Nov. 1961 and to Josep Mª Cruzet, 1 Dec. 1961. Letter from the Conde de Godó to Antonio Garreta Olivella, 10 July 1962. Correspondència 1961-63, Armari, AÒC.

35 Dirección General de Seguridad (hereafter DGS), Asunto: La llegada del catalanismo a los programas de Televisión Española, 19 Sept. 1964, AGCB; El Noticiero Universal, 17 Sept. 1964 and ‘Libertad para la Lengua y la Cultura Catalanas: Declaración del Comité Ejecutivo del Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluña, 15 Jan. 1964.

36 In 1960 in an incident at the Palau de la Música, conservative Catalans produced a semi-spontaneous protest, which resulted in a wave of repression. See Crexell, Joan, Els Fets del Palau i el Consell de Guerra a Jordi Pujol, (Barcelona: La Magrana, 1982)Google Scholar.

37 Ministerio de Información y Turismo, El Uso de la Lengua Catalana, 10 Nov. 1964; Fondo Laureano López Rodó, Archivo General de la Universidad de Navarra.

38 Letter from Mnsgr. Ramón, Bishop of Seu d'Urgell to Manuel Fraga Iribarne, 10 Sept. 1964, republished in Nous Horitzons, 7 (1966).

39 González-Cuevas, Pedro Carlos, ‘La Derecha Technocrática’, Historia y Política, 18 (July-Dec. 2007), 2348Google Scholar.

40 Huneeus, Carlos, ‘Technocrats and Politicians in an Authoritarian Regime: The ODEPLAN Boys and the Gremialists in Pinochet's Chile’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 32, 2 (2000), 461501CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

41 Sánchez, Salvador Cayuela, Por la Grandeza de la Patria: La Biopolítica en la España (Madrid: FCE, 2014), 303Google Scholar and 307.

42 Giménez, Miguel Ángel, El Estado Franquista: Fundamentos Ideológicos, Bases Legales y Sistema Institucional (Madrid: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, 2014), 141–3Google Scholar.

43 Cazorla-Sánchez, Antonio, ‘Did You Hear the Sermon? Progressive Priests, Conservative Catholics and the Return of Political and Cultural Diversity in Late Francoist Spain’, Journal of Modern History, 85, 3 (2013), 528–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

44 Núñez Seixas, Xosé M., ‘Nuevos y Viejos Nacionalistas: La Cuestión Territorial en el Tardofranquismo, 1959–1975’, Ayer, 68, 4 (2007), 5987Google Scholar.

45 Marin, Martí, Els Ajuntaments Franquistes a Catalunya: Política i Administració Municipal, 1939–1979 (Lleida: Pagès Editors, 2000), 348Google Scholar.

46 ‘Cataluña: Un Plan Regional’, Triunfo, 214 (9 July 1966). In the Basque Country far greater political polarisation remained evident into the 1960s and beyond. See Molina, Fernando, ‘Lies of Our Fathers: Memory and Politics in the Basque Country under the Franco Dictatorship, 1936–1968’, Journal of Contemporary History, 49, 2 (2014), 296319CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

47 ‘Lengua y Cultura Catalana’, ABC, 24 Oct. 1964 and ‘La Maniobra “Catalanista”’, Endavant, 140 (Apr. – May 1964).

48 Tele/Estel, 1 (22 July 1966).

49 Letter from Antonio Ibáñez Freire to Manuel Fraga Iribarne, 7 Feb. 1966, Caja 506, AGCB.

50 ‘Problemática Sobre Política de “Catalanismo” en la Actualidad: Precisión de Estudiarlo y Plan de Trabajo Conjunto para Conseguirlo’, Nov. 1965, Caja 506, AGCB.

51 Dictamenes y Mociones, 28 Jan. 1967, Arxiu de la Diputació de Barcelona, hereafter ADB; ‘Fomento de la Cultura y la Lengua Catalanes’, San Jorge, Revista Trimestral de la Diputación de Barcelona, 65 (Jan. 1967).

52 ‘Cursos de Català als Municipis de la Provincia de Barcelona’, Carpeta E-213, Exp. 2, 1967–69, ADB; ‘Los Cursos de Catalán de la Diputación de Barcelona’, El Correo Catalán, 14 Apr. 1967.

53 ‘Informe Sobre los Cursos de Lengua Catalana Organizados por la Excma: Diputación Provincial de Barcelona, 18 Oct. 1974’, Carpeta Antecedents Curs, 1973–74.

54 Moción, Diputación Provincial de Barcelona, Carpeta Antecedents Curs, 1974–75.

55 Carles Santacana i Torres, ‘L'administració Local Durant el Franquisme’, in Rafael Aracil and Antoni Segura, eds., Memòria de la Transició a Espanya i a Catalunya, Vol. III: La Reforma de l'exèrcit i de l'administració Local (Barcelona: Edicions Universitat de Barcelona, 2002), 185–202.

56 El Delegado Provincial del Ministerio de Información y Turismo, Referendum 1966, Caja 70, AGCB.

57 The Diputación was the body in Spain that covered each of the country's fifty provinces created in 1833. As well as responsibility for infrastructure, it played a key role in cultural patronage. Festa de Maig de les Lletres Catalanes de Òmnium Cultural, May 1969; Assemblea General Ordinària d'Òmnium Cultural, 24 Mar. 1969, Caixa 9, AÒC; ‘Sospechoso Relación, Concomitancias e Incluso Cierta Asociación Económica entre Monasterio de Montserrat y Editorial Nova Terra’, 23 Dec. 1967; JSP Asunto, Editoras Antinacionales, 10 June 1966. See also DGS, Asunto, Intelectuales Desafectos al Régimen, 2348 (17 Mar. 1967); Carta de Julia, 29 May 1972, AHPCE Activistas, Caja 92, Carpeta 27; Untitled report, 1965, AHPCE, Nacionalidades y Regiones Cataluña, Caja 50, AGCB.

58 Tele/Estel, Year 2, 30 (10 Feb. 1967).

59 Tele/Estel, 19 Jan. 1968; ARA: Butlletí Interior del Front Nacional de Catalunya (Jan. – Feb. 1968).

60 Tele/Estel, Year 2, 51 (7 July 1967) and 55 (4 Aug. 1967); ‘Pompeu Fabra y la Lengua Catalana’, Cuadernos para el Diálogo, 55 (Apr.1968). Enric Prat de la Riba, an iconic figure in political Catalanism, was subject to harsh political critique for his ‘bourgeois nationalism’ by the communist author Jordi Solé i Tura in his study Catalanisme i Revolució Burgesa, published and widely discussed in 1967.

61 ‘Homenaje de la Diputación a Prat de la Riba’, San Jorge, 66 (Apr. 1967), 113–8.

62 ‘El Catalanismo Nacional’, ABC, 18 June 1964; ‘Recuerdo de Fernando Valls Taberner: Un Hombre de Diálogo’, Cuadernos para el Diálogo, 9 (June 1964).

63 Fernández, Carlos, Franquismo y Transición en Galicia (A Coruña: Ediciós do Castro, 1985), 215Google Scholar; Bernardo Máiz, Galicia na II República e Baixo o Franquismo (1930–1976) (Vigo: Edicions Xerais de Galicia, 1988), 69–73. Daniel Rodríguez Castelao is traditionally known only by his last name.

64 Iglesia, Ana Cabana, Xente de Ordre o Consentimento cara ao Franquismo en Galicia (Santiago: TresCtres, 2009), 209Google Scholar.

65 Martín i Berbois, Josep Lluís, La Lliga Regionalista de Sabadell o l'ocàs d'un Partit (1931–1945) (Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, 2008), 180–1Google Scholar; i Andreu, Joan Garriga, Franquisme i Poder Polític a Granollers (1939–1975) (Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, 2004), 276–7Google Scholar; Jordi Rubió i Coromina and Jordi Pujiula i Ribera, El Franquisme a Olot (Olot: Quaderns d'Història d'Olot, 2014), 26; Riquer, Borja de, L’últim Cambó (1936–1947): La Dreta Catalanista Davant la Guerra Civil i el Franquisme (Vic: Eumo, 1996), 191–2Google Scholar.

66 Recio, Glicerio Sánchez, Los Cuadros Políticos Intermedios del Régimen Franquista, 1936–1959: Diversidad de Origen e Identidad de Intereses (Alacant: Diputación Provincial, 1996), 38Google Scholar and 114–5.

67 ‘Barcelona: El Libro, la Rosa, la Canasta y Cambó in Memorium’, Triunfo, 501 (6 May 1972).

68 Letter from ‘Catalanists’ to Òmnium Cultural, 30 June 1970, Correspondència, AÒC and JSP, Asunto: Acto en el Palacio de la Musica Catalana, Con Motivo del Centenario del Nacimiento de Pompeu Fabra, 21 Feb. 1968; DGS, Asunto: Conferencia Pronunciada en la Residencia Universitaria de San Antonio, de los PP. Escolapios, Bajo el Ttítulo ‘Pompeu Fabra i la Llengua d'una Cultura’, 1114 (14 Feb. 1968), AGCB. See also Nous Horitzons, 14 (1968).

69 JSP, Notas sobre la Situación Político-Social en Cataluña, Mar. 1971, AGCB.

70 López, Carlos Garrido, ‘El Regionalismo “funcional” del Régimen de Franco’, Revista de Estudios Políticos, 115 (Jan.–Mar. 2002), 111–28Google Scholar. See also ‘¿Ordenación del Territorio o Desarrollo Regional?’, Triunfo, 372 (19 July 1969).

71 Keating, Michael, The New Regionalism in Western Europe (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998), 67–8Google Scholar; Keating, Michael and Pintarits, Silvia, ‘Europe and the Regions: Past, Present and Future’, in Englestad, Fredrik, Brochman, Grete and Kalleberg, Ragnald, Regional Cultures (Stanford: JAI Press, 1998), 3363Google Scholar.

72 Nous Horitzons, 20, 1970.

73 José Maria de Porcioles y Colomer, Mi Adiós a Barcelona (Barcelona: La Polígrafa, 1973), 14.

74 de Porcioles, José Maria, Mis Memorias (Barcelona: Editorial Prensa Ibérica, 1994), 129–30Google Scholar.

75 Manuel Vigil y Vázquez, Entre el Franquismo y el Catalanismo (Barcelona, Plaza y Janes, 1981), 74–8.

76 Sampera, Joaquim Arenas i, Catalunya, Escola i Llengua (Barcelona: La Llar del Llibre, 1987), 40Google Scholar; ‘Informe Sobre la Lengua Catalana’, Triunfo, 415 (16 May 1970); ‘La Llei General d'Educació’, Treball, 316 (Feb. 1970).

77 ‘Contesta Villar Palasí: Preguntas sobre la Ley de Educación’, Triunfo, 428 (15 Aug. 1970).

78 Dictamen Jurídic Elaborat per l'Il·lustre Col·legi d'Advocats de Vic, sobre l'Idioma Català a les Escoles de Catalunya, in Carpeta Tramessos al socis, Caixa 119, AÒC. See also Hoja Diocesana de Vic, 12 Nov. 1972 and Vida Parroquíal, Arenys de Mar, July 1972.

79 Òmnium Cultural Assemblea Ordinària 1972, 4 Mar. 1972, Caixa 9, AÒC.

80 See, for example, letters from Salvador Comas i Lladó, 30 Mar. 1973; Jaume Planas i Palissa to Genari Martorell, 20 Nov. 1974; Informe sobre la Distribució de 80 Ejemplars del ‘Dossier’: Toponomia, 11 Mar. 1974. All in Carpeta Toponomia Altres, Caixa 51, AÒC.

81 ‘El Nuevo Mapa de Cataluña’, San Jorge, 95 (June 1975).

82 Treball, 410 (18 Mar. 1975).

83 Entrevista Celebrada el Dia 21 d'abril de 1975 pels Srs. Riera, Cendrós, Mas i Currulla amb el Ministre d'Educació i Ciència, D. Cruz Martínez, Caja 536, AGCB.

84 A useful examination of these intermediate spaces can be found in Fulbrook, Mary, Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR 1949–1989 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 271–4Google Scholar.

85 Tarrow, Sidney, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 4Google Scholar. A useful comparison can be made with Brezhnev's strategy of ‘indigenisation’ launched in the early 1970s. Sébastien Peyrouse, ‘Nationhood and the Minority Question in Central Asia: The Russians in Kazakhstan’, Europe-Asia Studies, 59, 3 (2007), 481–501.

86 Goodfellow, Samuel, ‘Fascism and Regionalism in interwar Alsace’, National Identities, 12, 2 (2010), 133–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

87 Decreto 2929/1975, Boletín Oficial del Estado, 274 (15 Nov. 1975).

88 Valle, José del, ‘La Lengua, Patria Comun: La Hispanofonia y el Nacionalismo Panhispanico’, in La Lengua, Patria Comun? Ideas e Ideologias del Español (Frankfurt and Madrid: Vervuert and Iberoamericana, 2007), 3356Google Scholar; Boletín Oficial del Estado, 156 (1 July 1975).

89 Ysàs, Pere and Molinero, Carme, Els Anys del PSUC, el Partit de l'Antifranquisme (1956–1981) (Barcelona: L'Avenç, 2010), 55Google Scholar and 67.

90 ‘Las Regiones Naturales’, Triunfo, 490 (19 Feb. 1972).

91 ‘La Descentralización Territorial del Poder Público’, Triunfo, 583 (1 Dec. 1972).

92 Conversi, Daniele, ‘The Smooth Transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question’, National Identities, 4, 3 (2002), 223–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar.