Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-98q29 Total loading time: 0.623 Render date: 2022-06-28T22:08:07.223Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Eight-year trajectories of behavior problems and resilience in children exposed to early-life intimate partner violence: The overlapping and distinct effects of individual factors, maternal characteristics, and early intervention

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 March 2022

Maria M. Galano*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts – Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA
Sara F. Stein
Affiliation:
School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Hannah M. Clark
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
Affiliation:
School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Sandra A. Graham-Bermann
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
*
Corresponding author: Maria M. Galano, email: mgalano@umass.edu

Abstract

Childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) can have lasting effects on well-being. Children also display resilience following IPV exposure. Yet, little research has prospectively followed changes in both maladaptive and adaptive outcomes in children who experience IPV in early life. The goal of the current study was to investigate how child factors (irritability), trauma history (severity of IPV exposure), maternal factors (mental health, parenting), and early intervention relate to trajectories of behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing problems) and resilience (prosocial behavior, emotion regulation), over 8 years. One hundred twenty mother-child dyads participated in a community-based randomized controlled trial of an intervention for IPV-exposed children and their mothers. Families completed follow-up assessments 6–8 months (N = 71) and 6–8 years (N = 68) later. Although intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant intervention effects, per-protocol analyses suggested that participants receiving an effective dose (eight sessions) of the treatment had fewer internalizing problems over time. Child irritability and maternal parenting were associated with both behavior problems and resilience. Maternal mental health was uniquely associated with child behavior problems, whereas maternal positive parenting was uniquely associated with child resilience. Results support the need for a dyadic perspective on child adjustment following IPV exposure.

Type
Regular Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
Alloy, L. B., Hamilton, J. L., Hamlat, E. J., & Abramson, L. Y. (2016). Pubertal development, emotion regulatory styles, and the emergence of sex differences in internalizing disorders and symptoms in adolescence. Clinical Psychological Science, 4(5), 867881. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702616643008 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, M. A., Wolfe, C. D., Diaz, A., & Liu, R. (2017). Cognition and emotion in development. In LoBue, V., Perez-Edgar, K., & Buss, K. A. (Eds.), Handbook of Emotional Development (pp. 375403). Springer.Google Scholar
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 57(1), 289-300.Google Scholar
Brajša-Žganec, A., Merkaš, M., & Šakić Velić, M. (2019). The relations of parental supervision, parental school involvement, and child’s social competence with school achievement in primary school. Psychology in the Schools, 56(8), 12461258. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brambor, T., Clark, W. R., & Golder, M. (2006). Understanding interaction models: Improving empirical analyses. Political Analysis, 14(1), 6382. https://doi.org/10.1093/pan/mpi014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breiding, M. J., Basile, K. C., Smith, S. G., Black, M. C., & Mahendra, R. (2015). Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance: Uniform Defintions and Recommended Data Elements Version 2.0. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://doi.org/10.2307/1319341 Google Scholar
Brotman, M. A., Kircanski, K., Stringaris, A., Pine, D. S., & Leibenluft, E. (2017). Irritability in youths: A translational model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(6), 520532. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16070839 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caputi, M., Lecce, S., Pagnin, A., & Banerjee, R. (2012). Longitudinal effects of theory of mind on later peer relations: The role of prosocial behavior. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 257270. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025402 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Casey, B. J., Getz, S., & Galvan, A. (2008). The adolescent brain. Developmental Review, 28(1), 6277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (2016). Socioemotional, personality, and biological development: Illustrations from a multilevel developmental psychopathology perspective on child maltreatment. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 187211. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033259 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, S. Y., Feng, Z., & Yi, X. (2017). A general introduction to adjustment for multiple comparisons. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 9(6), 17251729. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2017.05.34 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Champely, S. (2018). Pwr: Basic functions for power analysis (Version 1.3-0). [Package]. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pwr/pwr.pdf Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: The coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 50(1-2), 1625. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01979.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2016). Child maltreatment and developmental psychopathology: A multilevel perspective. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Maladaptation and psychopathology (pp. 457–512). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119125556.devpsy311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, H. M., Galano, M. M., Grogan-Kaylor, A. C., Stein, S. F., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2021a). Treating attention problems in children exposed to intimate partner violence: Evaluating the Preschool Kids’ Club. Children and Youth Services Review, 128, 106138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2021.106138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, H. M., Grogan-Kaylor, A. C., Galano, M. M., Stein, S. F., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2021b). Preschoolers’ intimate partner violence exposure and their speeded control abilities eight years later: A longitudinal mediation analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8862605211035883. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211035883 Google ScholarPubMed
Clough, A., Wagman, J., Rollins, C., Barnes, J., Connor-Smith, J., Holditch-Niolon, P., McDowell, S., Martinez-Bell, E., Bloom, T., Baker, C., & Glass, N. (2011). The SHARE project: Maximizing participant retention in a longitudinal study with victims of intimate partner violence. Field Methods, 23(1), 86101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X10384446 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coe, J. L., Parade, S. H., Seifer, R., Frank, L., & Tyrka, A. R. (2020). Household chaos moderates indirect pathways involving domestic violence, parenting practices, and behavior problems among preschool children. Journal of Family Violence, 35(5), 405416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00093-9 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Science (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Google Scholar
Dadds, M. R., Maujean, A., & Fraser, J. A. (2003). Parenting and conduct problems in children: Australian data and psychometric properties of the alabama parenting questionnaire. Australian Psychologist, 38(3), 238241. https://doi.org/10.1080/00050060310001707267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derella, O. J., Johnston, O. G., Loeber, R., & Burke, J. D. (2019). CBT-enhanced emotion regulation as a mechanism of improvement for childhood irritability. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 48(sup1), S146S154. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1270832 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dichter, M. E., Sorrentino, A. E., Haywood, T. N., Tuepker, A., Newell, S., Cusack, M., & True, G. (2019). Women’s participation in research on intimate partner violence: Findings on recruitment, retention, and participants’ experiences. Women’s Health Issues, 29(5), 440446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2019.03.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, S. C., Bonadio, F. T., Bearman, S. K., Ugueto, A. M., Chorpita, B. F., & Weisz, J. R. (2019). Assessing the irritable and defiant dimensions of youth oppositional behavior using CBCL and YSR items. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division, 53, 116. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2019.1622119 Google Scholar
Fantuzzo, J. W., & Fusco, R. A. (2007). Children’s direct exposure to types of domestic violence crime: A population-based investigation. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 543552. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9105-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Hamby, S. L. (2015). Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse: Results from the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(8), 746754. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0676 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foa, E. B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., & Perry, K. (1997). The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment, 9(4), 445451. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.9.4.445 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galano, M. M., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Clark, H. M., Stein, S. F., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2019). Examining the 8-year trajectory of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children exposed to intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36, NP8454NP8481. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260519844280 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galano, M. M., Grogan-Kaylor, A. C., Stein, S. F., Clark, H. M., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2020). Dyadic Profiles of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Mothers and Children Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence. Child Psychiatry & Human Development.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gewirtz, A. H., DeGarmo, D. S., & Medhanie, A. (2011). Effects of mother’s parenting practices on child internalizing trajectories following partner violence. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(1), 2938. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022195 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gouley, K. K., Brotman, L. M., Huang, K. Y., & Shrout, P. E. (2008). Construct validation of the social competence scale in preschool-age children. Social Development, 17(2), 380398. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00430.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, A. M., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2012). Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3: Associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(1), 105114. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026722 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2000). Fostering Resilience in Young Children Exposed to Violence. Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2012). The Moms’ Empowerment Program: A Training Manual. Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Graham-Bermann, S. A., Castor, L. E., Miller, L. E., & Howell, K. H. (2012). The impact of intimate partner violence and additional traumatic events on trauma symptoms and PTSD in preschool-aged children. Journal of Traumatic, 25(4), 393400. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21724 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graham-Bermann, S. A., Gruber, G., Howell, K. H., & Girz, L. (2009). Factors discriminating among profiles of resilience and psychopathology in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Child Abuse and Neglect, 33(9), 648660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham-Bermann, S. A., Howell, K. H., Miller-Graff, L. E., Galano, M. M., Lilly, M. M., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2019). The moms’ empowerment program addresses traumatic stress in mothers with preschool-age children experiencing intimate partner violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 28(10), 122. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2018.1494652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham-Bermann, S. A., Lynch, S., Banyard, V., DeVoe, E. R., & Halabu, H. (2007). Community-based intervention for children exposed to intimate partner violence: An efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(2), 199209. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.2.199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham-Bermann, S. A., Miller-Graff, L. E., Howell, K. H., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2015). An efficacy trial of an intervention program for children exposed to intimate partner violence. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(6), 928939. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-015-0532-4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graham-Bermann, S. A., & Perkins, S. (2010). Effects of early exposure and lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on child adjustment. Violence and Victims, 25(4), 427439. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.25.4.427 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greene, C. A., Chan, G., McCarthy, K. J., Wakschlag, L. S., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2018). Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children’s mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 77, 168179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.01.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffith, J. M., Young, J. F., & Hankin, B. L. (2021). Longitudinal coupling of depression in parent-adolescent dyads: Within- and between-dyads effects over time. Clinical Psychological Science, 9(6), 10591079. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702621998313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grogan-Kaylor, A., Galano, M. M., Howell, K. H., Miller-Graff, L., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2019a). Reductions in parental use of corporal punishment on pre-school children following participation in the momsʼ empowerment program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(8), 15631582. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516651627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grogan-Kaylor, A. C., Stein, S., Galano, M., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2019b). Contributions to parenting under stress for women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse, 10(2), 164179. https://doi.org/10.1891/1946-6560.10.2.164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamby, S. (2016). Self-Report measures that do not produce gender parity in intimate partner violence: A multi-study investigation. Psychology of Violence, 6(2), 323335. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, K. H., Graham-Bermann, S. A., Czyz, E., & Lilly, M. (2010). Assessing resilience in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence. Violence and Victims, 25(2), 150164. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.25.2.150 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howell, K. H., Miller, L. E., Lilly, M. M., Burlaka, V., Grogan-Kaylor, A. C., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2015). Strengthening positive parenting through intervention: Evaluating the moms’ empowerment program for women experiencing intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(2), 232252. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514533155 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howell, K. H., Miller, L. E., Lilly, M. M., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (2013). Fostering social competence in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence: Evaluating the preschool kids’ club intervention. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(4), 425445. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2013.775986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, K. H., & Miller-Graff, L. E. (2014). Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38(12), 19851994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.10.010 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., Spiller, L., Norwood, W. D., Swank, P. R., Stephens, N., Ware, H., & Buzy, W. M. (2001). Reducing conduct problems among children of battered women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 774785. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.69.5.774 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jouriles, E. N., McFarlane, J., Vu, N. L., Maddoux, J., Rosenfield, D., Symes, L., Fredland, N., & Paulson, R. (2018). Mothers’ posttraumatic stress and child adjustment problems in families seeking services for intimate partner violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(7), 604614. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000318 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koenig, A. L., Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2004). Moral development: The association between maltreatment and young children’s prosocial behaviors and moral transgressions. Social Development, 13(1), 87106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.00258.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lannert, B. K., Garcia, A. M., Smagur, K. E., Yalch, M. M., Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A., & Lonstein, J. S. (2014). Relational trauma in the context of intimate partner violence. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38(12), 19661975.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehrner, A., & Allen, N. E. (2014). Construct validity of the Conflict Tactics Scales: A mixed-method investigation of women’s intimate partner violence. Psychology of Violence, 4(4), 477490. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levendosky, A. A., Leahy, K. L., Bogat, G. A., Davidson, W. S., & von Eye, A. (2006). Domestic violence, maternal parenting, maternal mental health, and infant externalizing behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 544552. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.4.544 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
López-Romero, L., Romero, E., & Andershed, H. (2015). Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence: Developmental trajectories, predictors and outcomes in a six-year follow up. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(5), 762773. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0518-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez-Torteya, C., Anne Bogat, G., Von Eye, A., & Levendosky, A. A. (2009). Resilience among children exposed to domestic violence: The role of risk and protective factors. Child Development, 80(2), 562577. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01279.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S. (2014). Global perspectives on resilience in children and youth. Child Development, 85(1), 620. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12205 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonald, R., Jouriles, E. N., & Skopp, N.a (2006). Reducing conduct problems among children brought to women’s shelters: Intervention effects 24 months following termination of services. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(1), 127136. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.127 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McFarlane, J., Fredland, N. M., Symes, L., Zhou, W., Jouriles, E. N., Dutton, M. A., & Greeley, C. S. (2017). The intergenerational impact of intimate partner violence against mothers on child functioning over four years. Journal of Family Violence, 32, 645655. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-017-9913-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McFarlane, J., Symes, L., Binder, B. K., Maddoux, J., & Paulson, R. (2014). Maternal-child dyads of functioning: The intergenerational impact of violence against women on children. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18, 22362243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1473-4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., & Lambert, H. K. (2017). Child trauma exposure and psychopathology: Mechanisms of risk and resilience. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 14, 2934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.10.004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller-Graff, L. E., Scheid, C. R., Guzmán, D. B., & Grein, K. (2020). Caregiver and family factors promoting child resilience in at-risk families living in Lima, Peru. Child Abuse and Neglect, 108, 104639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104639 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, K. J., Moschella, E. A., Hamby, S., & Banyard, V. (2020). Developmental stage of onset, poly-victimization, and persistence of childhood victimization: Impact on adult well-being in a rural community-based study. Child Maltreatment, 25(1), 2031. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559519859080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morales, S., Ram, N., Buss, K. A., Cole, P. M., Helm, J. L., & Chow, S. M. (2018). Age-related changes in the dynamics of fear-related regulation in early childhood. Developmental Science, 21(5), 113. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12633 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Negriff, S., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Pubertal timing, depression, and externalizing problems: A framework. Review, and Examination of Gender Differences, 21(3), 717746. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00708.x Google Scholar
Pastorelli, C., Lansford, J. E., Luengo Kanacri, B. P., Malone, P. S., Di Giunta, L., Bacchini, D., Bombi, A. S., Zelli, A., Miranda, M. C., Bornstein, M. H., Tapanya, S., Uribe Tirado, L. M., Alampay, L. P., Al-Hassan, S. M., Chang, L., Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Oburu, P., Skinner, A. T., & Sorbring, E. (2016). Positive parenting and children’s prosocial behavior in eight countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 57(7), 824834. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12477 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radloff, L. S. (1977). A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Public Health Action Support Team. (2019). Public Health Textbook. (Public Health Support Team Ed.). HealthKnowledge.Google Scholar
Rizo, C. F., Macy, R. J., Ermentrout, D. M., & Johns, N. B. (2011). A review of family interventions for intimate partner violence with a child focus or child component. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(2), 144166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberson-Nay, R., Leibenluft, E., Brotman, M. A., Myers, J., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Kendler, K. S. (2015). Longitudinal stability of genetic and environmental influences on irritability: From childhood to young adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(7), 657664. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14040509 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheeringa, M. S., Myers, L., Putnam, F. W., & Zeanah, C. H. (2015). Maternal factors as moderators or mediators of PTSD symptoms in very young children: A two-year prospective study. Journal of Family Violence, 30, 633642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheeringa, M. S., & Zeanah, C. H. (2001). A relational perspective on PTSD in early childhood. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(4), 799815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shelton, K. K., Frick, P. J., & Wootton, J. (1996). Assessment of parenting practices in families of elementary school-age children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25(3), 317329. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2503_8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, L., Gavidia-Payne, S., Brown, S., & Giallo, R. (2019). Mechanisms underlying exposure to partner violence and children’s emotional-behavioral difficulties. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(6), 730741. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000532 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snyder, H. R., Young, J. F., & Hankin, B. L. (2017). Strong homotypic continuity in common psychopathology-, internalizing-, and externalizing-specific factors over time in adolescents. Clinical Psychological Science, 5(1), 98110. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702616651076 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Southwick, S. M., Bonanno, G. A., Masten, A. S., Panter-Brick, C., & Yehuda, R. (2014). Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: Interdisciplinary perspectives. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.25338 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 6974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scale (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283316. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251396017003001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stringaris, A., Zavos, H., Leibenluft, E., Maughan, B., & Eley, T. (2012). Adolescent irritability: Phenotypic associations and genetic links with depressed mood. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(1), 4754. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.10101549 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Symes, L., Mcfarlane, J., Fredland, N., Maddoux, J., & Zhou, W. (2016). Parenting in the wake of abuse: Exploring the mediating role of PTSD symptoms on the relationship between parenting and child functioning. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30, 9095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2015.08.020 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tseng, W.-L., Moroney, E., Machlin, L., Roberson-Nay, R., Hettema, J. M., Carney, D., Stoddard, J., Towbin, K. A., Pine, D. S., Leibenluft, E., & Brotman, M. A. (2017). Test-Retest reliability and validity of a frustration paradigm and irritability measures. Journal of Affective Disorders, 212, 3845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.01.024 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vu, N. L., Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., & Rosenfield, D. (2016). Children’s exposure to intimate partner violence: A meta-analysis of longitudinal associations with child adjustment problems. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 2533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, M., Wang, J., Deng, X., & Chen, W. (2019). Why are empathic children more liked by peers? The mediating roles of prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 144, 1923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.02.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whittaker, J. E. V., Harden, B. J., See, H. M., Meisch, A. D., & Westbrook, T. R. (2011). Family risks and protective factors: Pathways to Early Head Start toddlers’ social-emotional functioning. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 7486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiggins, J. L., Mitchell, C., Stringaris, A., & Leibenluft, E. (2014). Developmental trajectories of irritability and bidirectional associations with maternal depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(11), 11911205.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.08.005 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yule, K., Houston, J., & Grych, J. (2019). Resilience in children exposed to violence: A meta-analysis of protective factors across ecological contexts. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 22(3), 406431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-019-00293-1 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Resiliency theory: A strengths-based approach to research and practice for adolescent health. Health Education and Behavior, 40(4), 381383. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198113493782 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Eight-year trajectories of behavior problems and resilience in children exposed to early-life intimate partner violence: The overlapping and distinct effects of individual factors, maternal characteristics, and early intervention
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Eight-year trajectories of behavior problems and resilience in children exposed to early-life intimate partner violence: The overlapping and distinct effects of individual factors, maternal characteristics, and early intervention
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Eight-year trajectories of behavior problems and resilience in children exposed to early-life intimate partner violence: The overlapping and distinct effects of individual factors, maternal characteristics, and early intervention
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *