Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-t5pn6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-18T22:44:44.979Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Empathy as a “risky strength”: A multilevel examination of empathy and risk for internalizing disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 November 2014

Erin B. Tone*
Georgia State University
Erin C. Tully
Georgia State University
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Erin B. Tone, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5010, Atlanta, GA 30302-5010; E-mail:


Learning to respond to others' distress with well-regulated empathy is an important developmental task linked to positive health outcomes and moral achievements. However, this important interpersonal skill set may also confer risk for depression and anxiety when present at extreme levels and in combination with certain individual characteristics or within particular contexts. The purpose of this review is to describe an empirically grounded theoretical rationale for the hypothesis that empathic tendencies can be “risky strengths.” We propose a model in which typical development of affective and cognitive empathy can be influenced by complex interplay among intraindividual and interindividual moderators that increase risk for empathic personal distress and excessive interpersonal guilt. These intermediate states in turn precipitate internalizing problems that map onto empirically derived fear/arousal and anhedonia/misery subfactors of internalizing disorders. The intraindividual moderators include a genetically influenced propensity toward physiological hyperarousal, which is proposed to interact with genetic propensity to empathic sensitivity to contribute to neurobiological processes that underlie personal distress responses to others' pain or unhappiness. This empathic personal distress then increases risk for internalizing problems, particularly fear/arousal symptoms. In a similar fashion, interactions between genetic propensities toward negative thinking processes and empathic sensitivity are hypothesized to contribute to excess interpersonal guilt in response to others' distress. This interpersonal guilt then increases the risk for internalizing problems, especially anhedonia/misery symptoms. Interindividual moderators, such as maladaptive parenting or chronic exposure to parents' negative affect, further interact with these genetic liabilities to amplify risk for personal distress and interpersonal guilt as well as for consequent internalizing problems. Age-related increases in the heritability of depression, anxiety, and empathy-related constructs are consistent with developmental shifts toward greater influence of intraindividual moderators throughout childhood and adolescence, with interindividual moderators exerting their greatest influence during early childhood. Efforts to modulate neurobiological and behavioral expressions of genetic dysregulation liabilities and to promote adaptive empathic skills must thus begin early in development.

Regular Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abela, J. R. Z., & Sarin, S. (2002). Cognitive vulnerability to hopelessness depression: A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 811829.Google Scholar
Adams, G. R., Schvaneveldt, J. D., & Jenson, G. O. (1979). Sex, age and perceived competency as correlates of empathic ability in adolescence. Adolescence, 14, 811818.Google Scholar
Altshuler, J. L., & Ruble, D. N. (1989). Developmental changes in children's awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress. Child Development, 60, 13371349.Google Scholar
Andersen, S. L., Tomada, A., Vincow, E. S., Valente, E., Polcari, A., & Teicher, M. H. (2008). Preliminary evidence for the sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20, 292301.Google Scholar
Anokhin, A. P., Golosheykin, S., & Heath, A. C. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on emotion-modulated startle reflex: A twin study. Psychophysiology, 44, 106112.Google Scholar
Antypa, N. N., & Van der Does, A. W. (2010). Serotonin transporter gene, childhood emotional abuse and cognitive vulnerability to depression. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 9, 615620.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Apter-Levy, Y., Feldman, M., Vakart, A., Ebstein, R. P., & Feldman, R. (2013). Impact of maternal depression across the first 6 years of life on the child's mental health, social engagement, and empathy: The moderating role of oxytocin. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 11611168.Google Scholar
Armbruster, D., Moser, D. A., Strobel, A., Hensch, T., Kirschbaum, C., Lesch, K.-P., et al. (2009). Serotonin transporter gene variation and stressful life events impact processing of fear and anxiety. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 12, 393401.Google Scholar
Armbruster, D., Mueller, A., Strobel, A., Kirschbaum, C., Lesch, K.-P., & Brocke, B. (2010). Influence of functional tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene variation and sex on the startle response in children, young adults, and older adults. Biological Psychology, 83, 214221.Google Scholar
Atzil, S., Hendler, T., Zagoory-Sharon, O., Winetraub, Y., & Feldman, R. (2012). Synchrony and specificity in the maternal and the paternal brain: Relations to oxytocin and vasopressin. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 798811.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailey, P. E., Henry, J. D., & Von Hippel, W. (2008). Empathy and social functioning in late adulthood. Aging & Mental Health, 12, 499503.Google Scholar
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2008). Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 128134.Google Scholar
Bales, K. L. (2014). Comparative and developmental perspectives on oxytocin and vasopressin. In Mikulincer, M. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Mechanisms of social connection: From brain to group (pp. 1531). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bales, K. L., & Perkeybile, A. M. (2012). Developmental experiences and the oxytocin receptor system. Hormones and Behavior, 61, 313319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Band, E. B., & Weisz, J. R. (1988). How to feel better when it feels bad: Children's perspectives on coping with everyday stress. Developmental Psychology, 24, 247253.Google Scholar
Barrett, J., Wonch, K. E., Gonzalez, A., Ali, N., Steiner, M., Hall, G. B., et al. (2012). Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces. Social Neuroscience, 7, 252268.Google Scholar
Bartz, J. A., & Hollander, E. (2006). The neuroscience of affiliation: Forging links between basic and clinical research on neuropeptides and social behavior. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 518528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartz, J., Simeon, D., Hamilton, H., Kim, S., Crystal, S., Braun, A., et al. (2011). Oxytocin can hinder trust and cooperation in borderline personality disorder. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 6, 556563.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartz, J. A., Zaki, J., Bolger, N., & Ochsner, K. N. (2011). Social effects of oxytocin in humans: Context and person matter. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 301309.Google Scholar
Bartz, J. A., Zaki, J., Ochsner, K. N., Bolger, N., Kolevzon, A., Ludwig, N., et al. (2010). Effects of oxytocin on recollections of maternal care and closeness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 2137121375.Google Scholar
Baskerville, T., & Douglas, A. (2010). Dopamine and oxytocin interactions underlying behaviors: Potential contributions to behavioral disorders. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 16, e92e123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batson, C. (2009). These things called empathy: Eight related but distinct phenomena. In Decety, J. & Ickes, W. (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 315). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batson, C. (2010). Empathy-induced altruistic motivation. In Mikulincer, M. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature (pp. 1534). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumgartner, T., Heinrichs, M., Vonlanthen, A., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2008). Oxytocin shapes the neural circuitry of trust and trust adaptation in humans. Neuron, 58, 639650.Google Scholar
Beevers, C. G., Wells, T. T., & McGeary, J. E. (2009). The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with rumination in healthy adults. Emotion, 9, 579584.Google Scholar
Belacchi, C., & Farina, E. (2012). Feeling and thinking of others: Affective and cognitive empathy and emotion comprehension in prosocial/hostile preschoolers. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 150165.Google Scholar
Bengtsson, H., & Arvidsson, Å. (2011). The impact of developing social perspective-taking skills on emotionality in middle and late childhood. Social Development, 20, 353375.Google Scholar
Bierman, K. L., Domitrovich, C. E., Nix, R. L., Gest, S. D., Welsh, J. A., Greenberg, M. T., et al. (2008). Promoting academic and social–emotional school readiness: The Head Start REDI program. Child Development, 79, 18021817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blair, R. J. R. (2005). Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 698718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bons, D., van den Broek, E., Scheepers, F., Herpers, P., Rommelse, N., & Buitelaaar, J. K. (2013). Motor, emotional, and cognitive empathy in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 425443.Google Scholar
Bos, P. A., Terburg, D., & van Honk, J. (2010). Testosterone decreases trust in socially naive humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 99919995.Google Scholar
Boyd, R. C., & Gillham, J. E. (2009). Review of interventions for parental depression from toddlerhood to adolescence. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 5, 226235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2008). Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: A test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 124131.Google Scholar
Britton, J. C., Bar-Haim, Y., Clementi, M. A., Sankin, L. S., Chen, G., Shechner, T., et al. (2013). Training-associated changes and stability of attention bias in youth: Implications for attention bias modification treatment for pediatric anxiety. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 452464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brocke, B., Armbruster, D., Müller, J., Hensch, T., Jacob, C. P., Lesch, K. P., et al. (2006). Serotonin transporter gene variation impacts innate fear processing: Acoustic startle response and emotional startle. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 11061112.Google Scholar
Bruno, S., Lutwak, N., & Agin, M. A. (2009). Conceptualizations of guilt and the corresponding relationships to emotional ambivalence, self-disclosure, loneliness and alienation. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 487491.Google Scholar
Bryant, B. K. (1982). An index of empathy for children and adolescents. Child Development, 53, 413425.Google Scholar
Buchanan, T. W., Bagley, S. L., Stansfield, R., & Preston, S. D. (2012). The empathic, physiological resonance of stress. Social Neuroscience, 7, 191201.Google Scholar
Carlo, G., Allen, J. B., & Buhman, D. C. (1999). Facilitating and disinhibiting prosocial behaviors: The nonlinear interaction of trait perspective taking and trait personal distress on volunteering. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 189197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, S. R., Katsanis, J., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (1997). Emotional modulation of the startle reflex in twins: Preliminary findings. Biological Psychology, 46, 235246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carmel, S., & Glick, S. M. (1996). Compassionate–empathic physicians: Personality traits and social-organizational factors that enhance or inhibit this behavior pattern. Social Science and Medicine, 43, 12531262.Google Scholar
Carr, L., Iacoboni, M., Dubeau, M., Mazziotta, J. C., & Lenzi, G. (2005). Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: A relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. In Cacioppo, J. T. & Berntson, G. G. (Eds.) , Social neuroscience: Key readings (pp. 143152). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386389.Google Scholar
Castillo, R., Salguero, J. M., Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Balluerka, N. (2013). Effects of an emotional intelligence intervention on aggression and empathy among adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 883892.Google Scholar
Catherine, N. A., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2011). Children's perceptions and comforting strategies to infant crying: Relations to age, sex, and empathy-related responding. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 524551.Google Scholar
Chow, C., Ruhl, H., & Buhrmester, D. (2013). The mediating role of interpersonal competence between adolescents' empathy and friendship quality: A dyadic approach. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 191200.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (1995). Perspectives on developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and methods (pp. 320). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescent depression. In Nolen-Hoeksema, S. & Hilt, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 332). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
Clark, C. L., St. John, N., Pasca, A. M., Hyde, S. A., Hornbeak, K., Abramova, M., et al. (2013). Neonatal CSF oxytocin levels are associated with parent report of infant soothability and sociability. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 12081212.Google Scholar
Clasen, P. C., Wells, T. T., Knopik, V. S., McGeary, J. E., & Beevers, C. G. (2011). 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms moderate effects of stress on rumination. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 10, 740746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cliffordson, C. (2002). The hierarchical structure of empathy: Dimensional organization and relations to social functioning. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 4959.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Compas, B. E., Forehand, R., Thigpen, J. C., Keller, G., Hardcastle, E. J., Cole, D. A., et al. (2011). Family group cognitive–behavioral preventive intervention for families of depressed parents: 18- and 24-month outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 488499.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cornell, A. H., & Frick, P. J. (2007). The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36, 305318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costa, B., Pini, S., Gabelloni, P., Abelli, M., Lari, L., Cardini, A., et al. (2009). Oxytocin receptor polymorphisms and adult attachment style in patients with depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 15061514.Google Scholar
Cox, C. L., Uddin, L. Q., Di Martino, A., Castellanos, F., Milham, M. P., & Kelly, C. (2012). The balance between feeling and knowing: Affective and cognitive empathy are reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional dynamics. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 727737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cramer, D., & Jowett, S. (2010). Perceived empathy, accurate empathy and relationship satisfaction in heterosexual couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 327349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuthbert, B. N., Lang, P. J., Strauss, C., Drobes, D., Patrick, C. J., & Bradley, M. M. (2003). The psychophysiology of anxiety disorder: Fear memory imagery. Psychophysiology, 40, 407422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, M. H., & Franzoi, S. L. (1991). Stability and change in adolescent self-consciousness and empathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 25, 7087.Google Scholar
Davis, M. H., Luce, C., & Kraus, S. J. (1994). The heritability of characteristics associated with dispositional empathy. Journal of Personality, 62, 369391.Google Scholar
de Vignemont, F., & Singer, T. (2006). The empathic brain: How, when and why? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 435441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J. (2007). A social cognitive neuroscience model of human empathy. In Harmon-Jones, E. & Winkielman, P. (Eds.), Social neuroscience: Integrating biological and psychological explanations of social behavior (pp. 246270). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Decety, J. (2010). The neurodevelopment of empathy in humans. Developmental Neuroscience, 32, 257267.Google Scholar
Decety, J. (2011). Dissecting the neural mechanisms mediating empathy. Emotion Review, 3, 92108.Google Scholar
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 406412.Google Scholar
Decety, J., & Michalska, K. J. (2010). Neurodevelopmental changes in the circuits underlying empathy and sympathy from childhood to adulthood. Developmental Science, 13, 886899.Google Scholar
Decety, J., & Moriguchi, Y. (2007). The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: Implications for intervention across different clinical conditions. Biopsychosocial Medicine, 1(22). doi:10.1186/1751-0759-1-22 Google Scholar
Diamond, L. M., Fagundes, C. P., & Butterworth, M. R. (2012). Attachment style, vagal tone, and empathy during mother–adolescent interactions. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 165184.Google Scholar
Diego, M. A., & Jones, N. A. (2007). Neonatal antecedents for empathy. In Farrow, T. & Woodruff, P. (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness (pp. 145167). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donatelli, J. A., Bybee, J. A., & Buka, S. L. (2007). What do mothers make adolescents feel guilty about? Incidents, reactions, and relation to depression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 859875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dondi, M., Simion, F., & Caltran, G. (1999). Can newborns discriminate between their own cry and the cry of another newborn infant? Developmental Psychology, 35, 418426.Google Scholar
Ebstein, R. P., Israel, S., Lerer, E., Uzefovsky, F., Shalev, I., Gritsenko, I., et al. (2009). Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin modulate human social behavior. In Vilarroya, O., Altran, S., Navarro, A., Ochsner, K., & Tobeña, A. (Eds.), Values, empathy, and fairness across social barriers. (Vol. 1167, pp. 87102). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
Ebstein, R. P., Knafo, A., Mankuta, D., Chew, S., & Lai, P. (2012). The contributions of oxytocin and vasopressin pathway genes to human behavior. Hormones and Behavior, 61, 359379.Google Scholar
Ehringer, M. A., Rhee, S., Young, S., Corley, R., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: A study of twins and their siblings. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 117.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N. (1989). Empathy and sympathy. In Damon, W. (Ed.), Child development today and tomorrow (pp. 137154). San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N. (2010). Empathy-related responding: Links with self-regulation, moral judgment, and moral behavior. In Mikulincer, M. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature (pp. 129148). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Carlo, G., Murphy, B., & Van Court, P. (1995). Prosocial development in late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 11791197.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., & Shepard, S. A. (2005). Age changes in prosocial responding and moral reasoning in adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 235260.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Karbon, M., Smith, M., & Maszk, P. (1996). The relations of children's dispositional empathy-related responding to their emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Developmental Psychology, 32, 195209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In Eisenberg, N., Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 646718). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 91119.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children's maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 495525.Google Scholar
Eley, T. C., Gregory, A. M., Clark, D. M., & Ehlers, A. (2007). Feeling anxious: A twin study of panic/somatic ratings, anxiety sensitivity and heartbeat perception in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 11841191.Google Scholar
Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2012). Attention bias modification: the emperor's new suit? BMC Medicine, 10(63). doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-63 Google Scholar
Empathy. (2013). In Retrieved October 4, 2013, from Google Scholar
Everaert, J., Koster, E. H. W., & Derakshan, N. (2012). The combined cognitive bias hypothesis in depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 413424.Google Scholar
Farrant, B. M., Devine, T. J., Maybery, M. T., & Fletcher, J. (2012). Empathy, perspective taking and prosocial behaviour: The importance of parenting practices. Infant and Child Development, 21, 175188.Google Scholar
Feldman, R. (2007). Parent–infant synchrony: Biological foundations and developmental outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 340345.Google Scholar
Ferguson, F. J., & Austin, E. J. (2010). Associations of trait and ability emotional intelligence with performance on theory of mind tasks in an adult sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 414418.Google Scholar
Feshbach, N. D., & Roe, K. (1968). Empathy in six- and seven-year-olds. Child Development, 39, 133.Google Scholar
Field, T. M., Woodson, R., Greenberg, R., & Cohen, D. (1983). Discrimination and imitation of facial expressions by neonates. In Chess, S. & Thomas, A. (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development (pp. 119125). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
Fox, E., Zougkou, K., Ridgewell, A., & Garner, K. (2011). The serotonin transporter gene alters sensitivity to attention bias modification: Evidence for a plasticity gene. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 10491054.Google Scholar
Fu, X., Du, Y., Au, S., & Lau, J. F. (2013). Reducing negative interpretations in adolescents with anxiety disorders: A preliminary study investigating the effects of a single session of cognitive bias modification training. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 429–37.Google Scholar
Gabor, C. S., Phan, A., Clipperton-Allen, A. E., Kavaliers, M., & Choleris, E. (2012). Interplay of oxytocin, vasopressin, and sex hormones in the regulation of social recognition. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126, 97109.Google Scholar
Garcia, S. E., Tully, E. C., Tarantino, N., South, S., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2013). Changes in genetic and environmental influences on trait anxiety from middle adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 4653.Google Scholar
Geangu, E., Hauf, P., Bhardwaj, R., & Bentz, W. (2011). Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions. PLOS One, 6(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027132 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibb, B. E., Benas, J. S., Grassia, M., & McGeary, J. (2009). Children's attentional biases and 5-HTTLPR genotype: Potential mechanisms linking mother and child depression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 415426.Google Scholar
Gleason, K. A., Jensen-Campbell, L. A., & Ickes, W. (2009). The role of empathic accuracy in adolescents' peer relations and adjustment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 9971011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A. C., et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 81748179.Google Scholar
Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127.Google Scholar
Gotlib, I. H., & Joormann, J. (2010). Cognition and depression: Current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 285312.Google Scholar
Gray, P. B., & Campbell, B. C. (2009). Human male testosterone, pair-bonding, and fatherhood. In Ellison, P. T. & Gray, P. B. (Eds.), Endocrinology of social relationships (pp. 270293). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Groen, Y. Y., Wijers, A. A., Tucha, O. O., & Althaus, M. M. (2013). Are there sex differences in ERPs related to processing empathy-evoking pictures? Neuropsychologia, 51, 142155.Google Scholar
Grossmann, T. (2013). Mapping prefrontal cortex functions in human infancy. Infancy, 18, 303324.Google Scholar
Grühn, D., Rebucal, K., Diehl, M., Lumley, M., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (2008). Empathy across the adult life span: Longitudinal and experience-sampling findings. Emotion, 8, 753765.Google Scholar
Guastella, A. J., Howard, A. L., Dadds, M. R., Mitchell, P., & Carson, D. S. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of intranasal oxytocin as an adjunct to exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 917923.Google Scholar
Hakamata, Y., Lissek, S., Bar-Haim, Y., Britton, J. C., Fox, N. A., Leibenluft, E., et al. (2010). Attention bias modification treatment: A meta-analysis toward the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 982990.Google Scholar
Harold, G. T., Rice, F. F., Hay, D. F., Boivin, J. J., van den Bree, M. M., & Thapar, A. A. (2011). Familial transmission of depression and antisocial behavior symptoms: Disentangling the contribution of inherited and environmental factors and testing the mediating role of parenting. Psychological Medicine, 41, 11751185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, J. C., & Carter, C. (2013). Therapeutic interventions with oxytocin: Current status and concerns. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 9981000.Google Scholar
Hastings, P. D., Zahn-Waxler, C., Robinson, J., Usher, B., & Bridges, D. (2000). The development of concern for others in children with behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 36, 531546.Google Scholar
Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. (2007). Tuning in to Kids: Emotionally intelligent parenting program manual. Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K. R., Harley, A. E., Prior, M. R., & Kehoe, C. (2010). Tuning in to Kids: Improving emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children-findings from a community trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 13421350.Google Scholar
Hay, D. F., Nash, A., & Pedersen, J. (1981). Responses of six-month-olds to the distress of their peers. Child Development, 52, 10711075.Google Scholar
Helson, R., Jones, C., & Kwan, V. S. Y. (2002). Personality change over 40 years of adulthood: Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of two longitudinal samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 752766.Google Scholar
Herting, M. M., Maxwell, E. C., Irvine, C., & Nagel, B. J. (2012). The impact of sex, puberty, and hormones on white matter microstructure in adolescents. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 19791992.Google Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (1985). Interaction of affect and cognition in empathy. In Izard, C. E., Kagan, J., & Zajonc, R. B. (Eds.), Emotions, cognition, and behavior (pp. 103131). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hofmann, S. G., Moscovitch, D. A., & Kim, H. (2006). Autonomic correlates of social anxiety and embarrassment in shy and non-shy individuals. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 61, 134142.Google Scholar
Hutman, T., Rozga, A., DeLaurentis, A., Sigman, M., & Dapretto, M. (2012). Infants' pre-empathic behaviors are associated with language skills. Infant Behavior & Development, 35, 561569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ishak, W. W., Kahloon, M., & Fakhry, H. (2011). Oxytocin role in enhancing well-being: A literature review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130, 19.Google Scholar
Ickes, W., Stinson, L., Bissonnette, V., & Garcia, S. (1990). Naturalistic social cognition: Empathic accuracy in mixed-sex dyads. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 730742.Google Scholar
Johnson, J. A., Cheek, J. M., & Smither, R. (1983). The structure of empathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 12991312.Google Scholar
Jones, A. P., Happé, F. G. E., Gilbert, F., Burnett, S., & Viding, E. (2010). Feeling, caring, knowing: Different types of empathy deficit in boys with psychopathic tendencies and autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 11881197.Google Scholar
Kalani, M. Y., Kalani, M. A., Gwinn, R., Keogh, B., & Tse, V. C. (2009). Embryological development of the human insula and its implications for the spread and resection of insular gliomas. Neurosurgical Focus, 27(2), E2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanat-Maymon, M., & Assor, A. (2010). Perceived maternal control and responsiveness to distress as predictors of young adults' empathic responses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 3346.Google Scholar
Karniol, R., Gabay, R., Ochion, Y., & Harari, Y. (1998). Is gender or gender-role orientation a better predictor of empathy in adolescence? Sex Roles, 39, 4559.Google Scholar
Katz, S. J., Hammen, C. L., & Brennan, P. A. (2013). Maternal depression and the intergenerational transmission of relational impairment. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 8695.Google Scholar
Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 929937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerr, D. R., Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Natsuaki, M. N., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., et al. (2013). Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 723734.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617627.Google Scholar
Kestenbaum, R., Farber, E. A., & Sroufe, L. (1989). Individual differences in empathy among preschoolers: Relation to attachment history. New Directions for Child Development, 44, 5164.Google Scholar
Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Bush, N. R. (2011). Temperament variation in sensitivity to parenting: Predicting changes in depression and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 11991212.Google Scholar
Kindt, M., & Van Den Hout, M. (2001). Selective attention and anxiety: A perspective on developmental issues and the causal status. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 193202.Google Scholar
Kirsch, P., Esslinger, C., Chen, Q., Mier, D., Lis, S., Siddhanti, S., et al. (2005). Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 1148911493.Google Scholar
Klapwijk, E. T., Goddings, A., Heyes, S., Bird, G., Viner, R. M., & Blakemore, S. (2013). Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing. Hormones and Behavior, 64, 314322.Google Scholar
Klimecki, O., & Singer, T. (2012). Empathic distress fatigue rather than compassion fatigue? Integrating findings from empathy research in psychology and social neuroscience. In Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G., & Wilson, D. (Eds.), Pathological altruism (pp. 368383). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Klimecki, O., & Singer, T. (2013). Empathy from the perspective of social neuroscience. In Armony, J. & Vuilleumier, P. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of human affective neuroscience (pp. 533549). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Knafo, A., Israel, S., & Ebstein, R. P. (2011). Heritability of children's prosocial behavior and differential susceptibility to parenting by variation in the dopamine receptor D4 gene. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 5367.Google Scholar
Knafo, A., & Uzefovsky, F. (2013). Variation in empathy: The interplay of genetic and environmental factors. In Legerstee, M., Haley, D. W., & Bornstein, M. H. (Eds.), The infant mind: Origins of the social brain (pp. 97120). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Davidov, M., Hulle, C. V., Robinson, J. L., & Rhee, S. H. (2009). Empathy in early childhood: Genetic, environmental, and affective contributions. In Vilarroya, O., Altran, S., Navarro, A., Ochsner, K., & Tobeña, A. (Eds.), Values, empathy, and fairness across social barriers (pp. 103114). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
Knafo, A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Van Hulle, C., Robinson, J. L., & Rhee, S. H. (2008). The developmental origins of a disposition toward empathy: Genetic and environmental contributions. Emotion, 8, 737752.Google Scholar
Konrath, S. H., O'Brien, E. H., & Hsing, C. (2011). Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 180198 Google Scholar
Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435, 673676.Google Scholar
Krueger, F., Parasuraman, R., Iyengar, V., Thornburg, M., Weel, J., Lin, M., et al. (2012). Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Understanding psychopathology: Melding behavior genetics, personality, and quantitative psychology to develop an empirically based model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 113117.Google Scholar
Lackner, C. L., Bowman, L. C., & Sabbagh, M. A. (2010). Dopaminergic functioning and preschoolers' theory of mind. Neuropsychologia, 48, 17671774.Google Scholar
Lackner, C., Sabbagh, M. A., Hallinan, E., Liu, X., & Holden, J. A. (2012). Dopamine receptor D4 gene variation predicts preschoolers' developing theory of mind. Developmental Science, 15, 272280.Google Scholar
Ladouceur, C. D. (2012). Neural systems supporting cognitive–affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6.Google Scholar
Lamm, C., Decety, J., & Singer, T. (2011). Meta-analytic evidence for common and distinct neural networks associated with directly experienced pain and empathy for pain. NeuroImage, 54, 24922502.Google Scholar
Lamm, C., & Singer, T. (2010). The role of anterior insular cortex in social emotions. Brain Structure & Function, 214, 579591.Google Scholar
Larson, C. L., Nitschke, J. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Common and distinct patterns of affective response in dimensions of anxiety and depression. Emotion, 7, 182191.Google Scholar
Lau, J. F., Rijsdijk, F., & Eley, T. C. (2006). I think, therefore I am: A twin study of attributional style in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 696703.Google Scholar
Laurent, H. K., & Ablow, J. C. (2013). A face a mother could love: Depression-related maternal neural responses to infant emotion faces. Social Neuroscience, 8, 228239.Google Scholar
Lazary, J., Juhasz, G., Anderson, I. M., Jacob, C. P., Nguyen, T., Lesch, K., et al. (2011). Epistatic interaction of CREB1 and KCNJ6 on rumination and negative emotionality. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21, 6370.Google Scholar
Lonsdorf, T. B., Weike, A. I., Nikamo, P., Schalling, M., Hamm, A. O., & Ohman, A. (2009). Genetic gating of human fear learning and extinction. Psychological Science, 20, 198206.Google Scholar
Losoya, S., Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Developmental issues in the study of coping. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22, 287313.Google Scholar
Martin-Soelch, C., Stöcklin, M., Dammann, G., Opwis, K., & Seifritz, E. (2006). Anxiety trait modulates psychophysiological reactions, but not habituation processes related to affective auditory stimuli. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 61, 8797.Google Scholar
Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (2005). Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 167195.Google Scholar
McGrath, L. M., Weill, S., Robinson, E. B., MacRae, R., & Smoller, J. W. (2012). Bringing a developmental perspective to anxiety genetics. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 11791193.Google Scholar
McGrath, M. P., & Zook, J. M. (2011). Maternal control of girls versus boys: Relations to empathy and persuasive style with peers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 5765.Google Scholar
Merrill, K. A., Steinmetz, J. E., Viken, R. J., & Rose, R. J. (1999). Genetic influences on human conditionability: A twin study of the conditioned eyeblink response. Behavior Genetics, 29, 95102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mestre, M., Samper, P., Frías, M., & Tur, A. (2009). Are women more empathetic than men? A longitudinal study in adolescence. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12, 7683.Google Scholar
Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Domes, G., Kirsch, P., & Heinrichs, M. (2011). Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: Social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 524538.Google Scholar
Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Kolachana, B., Gold, B., Olsh, A., Nicodemus, K. K., Mattay, V., et al. (2009). Genetic variants in AVPR1A linked to autism predict amygdala activation and personality traits in healthy humans. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 968975.Google Scholar
Michalska, K. J., Kinzler, K. D., & Decety, J. (2013). Age-related sex differences in explicit measures of empathy do not predict brain responses across childhood and adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 3, 2232.Google Scholar
Miklikowska, M., Duriez, B., & Soenens, B. (2011). Family roots of empathy-related characteristics: The role of perceived maternal and paternal need support in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 47, 13421352.Google Scholar
Miller, P. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1988). The relation of empathy to aggressive and externalizing/antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 324344.Google Scholar
Miller, R. R., Wankerl, M. M., Stalder, T. T., Kirschbaum, C. C., & Alexander, N. N. (2013). The serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress reactivity: A meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 10181024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mobbs, D., Marchant, J. L., Hassabis, D., Seymour, B., Tan, G., Gray, M., & et al. (2009). From threat to fear: The neural organization of defensive fear systems in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 1223612243.Google Scholar
Mooradian, T. A., Davis, M., & Matzler, K. (2011). Dispositional empathy and the hierarchical structure of personality. American Journal of Psychology, 124, 99109.Google Scholar
Muftuler, L., Davis, E., Buss, C., Head, K., Hasso, A. N., & Sandman, C. A. (2011). Cortical and subcortical changes in typically developing preadolescent children. Brain Research, 1399, 1524.Google Scholar
Muscatell, K. A., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2012). A social neuroscience perspective on stress and health. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 890904.Google Scholar
Nelson, E. E., & Guyer, A. E. (2011). The development of the ventral prefrontal cortex and social flexibility. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 233245.Google Scholar
Neumann, I. D. (2002). Involvement of the brain oxytocin system in stress coping: Interactions with the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis. Progress in Brain Research, 139, 147162.Google Scholar
Oakley, B., Knafo, A., & McGrath, M. (2012). Pathological altruism—An introduction. In Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G., & Wilson, D. S. (Eds.), Pathological altruism (pp. 39). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
O'Brien, E., Konrath, S. H., Grühn, D., & Hagen, A. (2013). Empathic concern and perspective taking: Linear and quadratic effects of age across the adult life span. Journals of Gerontology, 68B, 168175.Google Scholar
O'Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Lewis, T., Mulherin, K., & Crisostomo, P. S. (2007). Empathy and depression: The moral system on overdrive. In Farrow, T. & Woodruff, P. (Eds.), Empathy in mental illness (pp. 4975). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
O'Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Lewis, T. B., & Stiver, D. J. (2012). Empathy-based pathogenic guilt, pathological altruism, and psychopathology. In Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G., & Wilson, D. (Eds.), Pathological altruism (pp. 1030). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
O'Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., & Weiss, J. (1999). Interpersonal guilt, shame, and psychological problems. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18, 181203.Google Scholar
O'Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Weiss, J., & Gilbert, P. (2002). Guilt, fear, submission, and empathy in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71, 1927.Google Scholar
Ollendick, T. H., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2002). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 4458.Google Scholar
Olweus, D., & Endresen, I. M. (1998). The importance of sex-of-stimulus object: Age trends and sex differences in empathic responsiveness. Social Development, 7, 370388.Google Scholar
Out, D., Pieper, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. van (2010), Physiological reactivity to infant crying: A behavioral genetic study. Genes Brain and Behavior, 9, 868876.Google Scholar
Owen, S. F., Tuncdemir, S. N., Bader, P. L., Tirko, N. N., Fishell, G., & Tsien, R. W. (2013). Oxytocin enhances hippocampal spike transmission by modulating fast-spiking interneurons. Nature, 500, 458462.Google Scholar
Pergamin-Hight, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2012). Variations in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene and biased attention for emotional information: A meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 373379.Google Scholar
Phelps, E. A. (2009). The human amygdala and the control of fear. In Whalen, P. J. & Phelps, E. A. (Eds.), The human amygdala (pp. 204219). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Pine, D. S. (2007). Research review: A neuroscience framework for pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 631648.Google Scholar
Preston, S. D., & de Waal, F. M. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 120.Google Scholar
Radke-Yarrow, M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Richardson, D. T., & Susman, A. (1994). Caring behavior in children of clinically depressed and well mothers. Child Development, 65, 14051414.Google Scholar
Rakow, A., Forehand, R., McKee, L., Coffelt, N., Champion, J., Fear, J., et al. (2009). The relation of parental guilt induction to child internalizing problems when a caregiver has a history of depression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 367377.Google Scholar
Razza, R. A., Bergen-Cico, D., & Raymond, K. (2013). Enhancing preschoolers' self-regulation via mindful yoga. Journal of Child and Family Studies.Google Scholar
Rhee, S., Boeldt, D. L., Friedman, N. P., Corley, R. P., Hewitt, J. K., Young, S. E., et al. (2013). The role of language in concern and disregard for others in the first years of life. Developmental Psychology, 49, 197214.Google Scholar
Rice, J. A., Levine, L. J., & Pizarro, D. A. (2007). “Just stop thinking about it”: Effects of emotional disengagement on children's memory for educational material. Emotion, 7, 812823.Google Scholar
Riem, M. E., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Pieper, S., Tops, M., Boksem, M. S., Vermeiren, R. M., et al. (2011). Oxytocin modulates amygdala, insula, and inferior frontal gyrus responses to infant crying: A randomized controlled trial. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 291297.Google Scholar
Riem, M. E., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Tops, M., Boksem, M. S., Rombouts, S. B., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). No laughing matter: Intranasal oxytocin administration changes functional brain connectivity during exposure to infant laughter. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37, 12571266.Google Scholar
Riggs, N. R., Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., & Pentz, M. (2006). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social–emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS curriculum. Prevention Science, 7, 91102.Google Scholar
Rilling, J. K., DeMarco, A. C., Hackett, P. D., Thompson, R., Ditzen, B., Patel, R., et al. (2012). Effects of intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on cooperative behavior and associated brain activity in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 447461.Google Scholar
Robinson, J. L., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Emde, R. N. (1994). Patterns of development in early empathic behavior: Environmental and child constitutional influences. Social Development, 3, 125145.Google Scholar
Rodrigues, S. M., Saslow, L. R., Garcia, N., John, O. P., & Keltner, D. (2009). Oxytocin receptor genetic variation relates to empathy and stress reactivity in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 2143721441.Google Scholar
Romeo, R. D. (2013). The teenage brain: The stress response and the adolescent brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 140145.Google Scholar
Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., Saccomanno, L., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Modifying brain networks underlying self-regulation. In Romer, D. & Walker, E. F. (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain: Integrating brain and prevention science (pp. 401419). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Şahin, M. (2012). An investigation into the efficiency of empathy training program on preventing bullying in primary schools. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 13251330.Google Scholar
Schiller, D., Levy, I., Niv, Y., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (2008). From fear to safety and back: Reversal of fear in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 1151711525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schipper, M., & Petermann, F. (2013). Relating empathy and emotion regulation: Do deficits in empathy trigger emotion dysregulation? Social Neuroscience, 8, 101107.Google Scholar
Schnell, K., Bluschke, S., Konradt, B., & Walter, H. (2011). Functional relations of empathy and mentalizing: An fMRI study on the neural basis of cognitive empathy. NeuroImage, 54, 17431754.Google Scholar
Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Smith, V., Zaidman-Zait, A., & Hertzman, C. (2012). Promoting children's prosocial behaviors in school: Impact of the “Roots of Empathy” program on the social and emotional competence of school-aged children. School Mental Health, 4, 121.Google Scholar
Schreiter, S., Pijnenborg, G. H. M., & aan het Rot, M. (2013). Empathy in adults with clinical or subclinical depressive symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders.Google Scholar
Schulte-Rüther, M., Markowitsch, H. J., Shah, N., Fink, G. R., & Piefke, M. (2008). Gender differences in brain networks supporting empathy. NeuroImage, 42, 393403.Google Scholar
Schwartz, J. A. J., Kaslow, N. J., Seeley, J., & Lewinsohn, P. (2000). Psychological, cognitive, and interpersonal correlates of attributional change in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 188198.Google Scholar
Shamay-Tsoory, S. G. (2011). The neural bases for empathy. Neuroscientist, 17, 1824.Google Scholar
Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Aharon-Peretz, J., & Perry, D. (2009). Two systems for empathy: A double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 132, 617627.Google Scholar
Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Tomer, R. R., Goldsher, D. D., Berger, B. D., & Aharon-Peretz, J. J. (2004). Impairment in cognitive and affective empathy in patients with brain lesions: Anatomical and cognitive correlates. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26, 11131127.Google Scholar
Shaw, P., Kabani, N. J., Lerch, J. P., Eckstrand, K., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., et al. (2008). Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 35863594.Google Scholar
Shikishima, C., Hiraishi, K., Yamagata, S., & Ando, J. (2011). Factors affecting the formation of empathy: A gene–environment interaction model. Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 188201.Google Scholar
Shiner, R. L., & Masten, A. S. (2012). Childhood personality as a harbinger of competence and resilience in adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 507528.Google Scholar
Singer, T., Snozzi, R., Bird, G., Petrovic, P., Silani, G., Heinrichs, M., et al. (2008). Effects of oxytocin and prosocial behavior on brain responses to direct and vicariously experienced pain. Emotion, 8, 781791.Google Scholar
Smith, R. L., & Rose, A. J. (2011). The “cost of caring” in youths' friendships: Considering associations among social perspective taking, co-rumination, and empathetic distress. Developmental Psychology, 47, 17921803.Google Scholar
Sodian, B. (2011). Theory of mind in infancy. Child Development Perspectives, 5, 3943.Google Scholar
Soenens, B., Duriez, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Goossens, L. (2007). The intergenerational transmission of empathy-related responding in adolescence: The role of maternal support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 299311.Google Scholar
Solantaus, T., Paavonen, E. J., Toikka, S., & Punamäki, R.-L. (2010). Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: Children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 883892.Google Scholar
Spinrad, T. L., & Stifter, C. A. (2006). Toddlers' empathy-related responding to distress: Predictions from negative emotionality and maternal behavior in infancy. Infancy, 10, 97121.Google Scholar
Strayer, J. (1980). A naturalistic study of empathic behaviors and their relation to affective states and perspective-taking skills in preschool children. Child Development, 51, 815822.Google Scholar
Sze, J. A., Gyurak, A., Goodkind, M. S., & Levenson, R. W. (2012). Greater emotional empathy and prosocial behavior in late life. Emotion, 12, 11291140.Google Scholar
Taylor, Z. E., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Eggum, N. D., & Sulik, M. J. (2013). The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood. Emotion, 13, 822831.Google Scholar
Thoma, P., Zalewski, I., von Reventlow, H., Norra, C., Juckel, G., & Daum, I. (2011). Cognitive and affective empathy in depression linked to executive control. Psychiatry Research, 189, 373378.Google Scholar
Tong, L., Shinohara, R., Sugisawa, Y., Tanaka, E., Yato, Y., Yamakawa, N., et al. (2012). Early development of empathy in toddlers: Effects of daily parent–child interaction and home-rearing environment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 24572478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tost, H., Kolachana, B., Hakimi, S., Lemaitre, H., Verchinski, B. A., Mattay, V. S., et al. (2010). A common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) impacts prosocial temperament and human hypothalamic-limbic structure and function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 1393613941.Google Scholar
Tully, E. C., Donohue, M. R., & Garcia, S. E. (2014). Children's empathy responses and their understanding of mother's emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 28, 112.Google Scholar
Tully, E. C., & Iacono, W. G. (2014). An integrative common genetic liabilities model for the comorbidity of substance use disorders with externalizing and internalizing disorders. In Sher, K. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of substance use disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tully, E. C., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2010). Changes in genetic and environmental influences on the development of nicotine dependence and major depressive disorder from middle adolescence to early adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 831848.Google Scholar
Ungerer, J. A., Dolby, R., Waters, B., Barnett, B., Kelk, N., & Lewin, V. (1990). The early development of empathy: Self-regulation and individual differences in the first year. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 93106.Google Scholar
Uzefovsky, F., Shalev, I., Israel, S., Knafo, A., & Ebstein, R. P. (2012). Vasopressin selectively impairs emotion recognition in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 576580.Google Scholar
Valiente, C., & Eisenberg, N. (2006). Parenting and children's adjustment: The role of children's emotion regulation. In Snyder, D. K., Simpson, J., & Hughes, J. N. (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health (pp. 123142). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Van der Graaff, J., Branje, S., De Wied, M., Hawk, S., Van Lier, P., & Meeus, W. (2014). Perspective taking and empathic concern in adolescence: Gender differences in developmental changes. Developmental Psychology, 50, 881888.Google Scholar
van der Mark, I. L., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2002). Development of empathy in girls during the second year of life: Associations with parenting, attachment, and temperament. Social Development, 11, 451468.Google Scholar
Verhofstadt, L. L., Buysse, A., Ickes, W., Davis, M., & Devoldre, I. (2008). Support provision in marriage: The role of emotional similarity and empathic accuracy. Emotion, 8, 792802.Google Scholar
Vinik, J., Almas, A., & Grusec, J. (2011). Mothers' knowledge of what distresses and what comforts their children predicts children's coping, empathy, and prosocial behavior. Parenting: Science and Practice, 11, 5671.Google Scholar
Volbrecht, M. M., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007). Examining the familial link between positive affect and empathy development in the second year. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168, 105129.Google Scholar
Wang, Y., Adamson, C., Yuan, W., Altaye, M., Rajagopal, A., Byars, A. W., et al. (2012). Sex differences in white matter development during adolescence: A DTI study. Brain Research, 1478, 115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, A. M., Pittaway, M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Pine, D. S. (2013). Attention training towards positive stimuli in clinically anxious children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 7784.Google Scholar
Whitmer, A. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2012). Depressive rumination and the C957T polymorphism of the DRD2 gene. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 741747.Google Scholar
Wilson, K. R., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2012). Tuning in to kids: An effectiveness trial of a parenting program targeting emotion socialization of preschoolers. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 5665.Google Scholar
Wood, J. V., Saltzberg, J. A., & Goldsamt, L. A. (1990). Does affect induce self-focused attention? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 899908.Google Scholar
Wu, N., Li, Z., & Su, Y. (2012). The association between oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR) and trait empathy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 138, 468472.Google Scholar
Xia, H., Wu, N., & Su, Y. (2012). Investigating the genetic basis of theory of mind (ToM): The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms. PLOS ONE, 7(11). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049768 Google Scholar
Yamasue, H., Yee, J. R., Hurlemann, R., Rilling, J. K., Chen, F. S., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., et al. (2012). Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: From animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 1410914117.Google Scholar
Yirmiya, N., Rosenberg, C., Levi, S., Salomon, S., Shulman, C., Nemanov, L., et al. (2006). Association between the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) gene and autism in a family-based study: Mediation by socialization skills. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 488494.Google Scholar
Yoo, H., Feng, X., & Day, R. D. (2013). Adolescents' empathy and prosocial behavior in the family context: A longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 18581872.Google Scholar
Young, L. J., & Wang, Z. (2004). The neurobiology of pair bonding. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 10481054.Google Scholar
Zahn-Waxler, C., Cole, P. M., & Barrett, K. C. (1991). Guilt and empathy: Sex differences and implications for the development of depression. In Garber, J. & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 243272). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Zahn-Waxler, C., Kochanska, G., Krupnick, J., & McKnew, D. (1990). Patterns of guilt in children of depressed and well mothers. Developmental Psychology, 26, 5159.Google Scholar
Zahn-Waxler, C., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1990). The origins of empathic concern. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 107130.Google Scholar
Zahn-Waxler, C., & Van Hulle, C. (2012). Empathy, guilt, and depression: When caring for others becomes costly to children. In Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G., & Wilson, D. (Eds.), Pathological Altruism (pp. 321344). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zajdel, R. T., Bloom, J., Fireman, G., & Larsen, J. T. (2013). Children's understanding and experience of mixed emotions: The roles of age, gender, and empathy. Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 174, 582603.Google Scholar
Zavos, H. M. S., Gregory, A. M., & Eley, T. C. (2012). Longitudinal genetic analysis of anxiety sensitivity. Developmental Psychology, 48, 204212.Google Scholar
Zelazo, P., Carlson, S. M., & Kesek, A. (2008). The development of executive function in childhood. In Nelson, C. A., & Luciana, M. (Eds.), Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 553574). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Zink, C. F., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2012). Human neuroimaging of oxytocin and vasopressin in social cognition. Hormones and Behavior, 61, 400409.Google Scholar