Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-6zkrn Total loading time: 0.558 Render date: 2023-02-06T19:32:06.378Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

The genetic and environmental etiology of child maltreatment in a parent-based extended family design

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 February 2019

Katharina Pittner*
Affiliation:
Centre for Forensic Family and Youth Care Studies, Leiden University Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden
Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn
Affiliation:
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University, Rotterdam Primary Care Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge
Lenneke R. A. Alink
Affiliation:
Centre for Forensic Family and Youth Care Studies, Leiden University Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden
Renate S. M. Buisman
Affiliation:
Centre for Forensic Family and Youth Care Studies, Leiden University
Laura H. C. G. C. Compier-de Block
Affiliation:
Centre for Forensic Family and Youth Care Studies, Leiden University Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden
Lisa J. M. van den Berg
Affiliation:
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Unit, Leiden University, Leiden
Bernet M. Elzinga
Affiliation:
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Unit, Leiden University, Leiden
Jolanda Lindenberg
Affiliation:
Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing, Leiden
Marieke S. Tollenaar
Affiliation:
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Unit, Leiden University, Leiden
Vincent P. Diego
Affiliation:
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville
Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg
Affiliation:
Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden Primary Care Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge Clinical Child and Family Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Katharina Pittner, Centre for Forensic Family and Youth Care Studies, P.O. Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands; Email: pittner.katharina@gmail.com.

Abstract

Child maltreatment has been associated with various cumulative risk factors. However, little is known about the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences between parents in perpetrating child maltreatment. To estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to perpetrating maltreatment we used a parent-based extended family design. Child-reported perpetrated maltreatment was available for 556 parents (283 women) from 63 families. To explore reporter effects (i.e., child perspective on maltreatment), child reports were compared to multi-informant reports. Based on polygenic model analyses, most of the variance related to the perpetration of physical abuse and emotional neglect was explained by common environmental factors (physical abuse: c2 = 59%, SE = 12%, p = .006; emotional neglect: c2 = 47%, SE = 8%, p < .001) whereas genetic factors did not significantly contribute to the model. For perpetrated emotional abuse, in contrast, genetic factors did significantly contribute to perpetrated emotional abuse (h2 = 33%, SE = 8%, p < .001), whereas common environment factors did not. Multi-informant reports led to similar estimates of genetic and common environmental effects on all measures except for emotional abuse, where a multi-informant approach yielded higher estimates of the common environmental effects. Overall, estimates of unique environment, including measurement error, were lower using multi-informant reports. In conclusion, our findings suggest that genetic pathways play a significant role in perpetrating emotional abuse, while physical abuse and emotional neglect are transmitted primarily through common environmental factors. These findings imply that interventions may need to target different mechanisms dependings on maltreatment type.

Type
Special Section Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

The study was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MJBK: VICI Grant 453-09-003; LRAA: VIDI Grant 016.145.360; and MHvIJ: NWO SPINOZA prize) and grants of Leiden University to initiate and support the Research Profile Area Health, Prevention and the Human Life Cycle awarded to M.H. van IJzendoorn, P. Assendelft, and B. van Hemert.

We are grateful to all the families who have invested their time by participating in this study and to the students whose contribution to the data collection was invaluable. We thank Mariëlle Linting for her feedback on the manuscript and Rudi Westendorp for his contribution to the conception of the study.

References

Almasy, L., & Blangero, J. (1998). Multipoint quantitative-trait linkage analysis in general pedigrees. American Journal of Human Genetics, 62, 11981211. doi:10.1086/301844CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Almasy, L., & Blangero, J. (2010). Variance component methods for analysis of complex phenotypes. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 2010, 115. doi:10.1101/pdb.top77CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aspé-Sánchez, M., Moreno, M., Rivera, M. I., Rossi, A., & Ewer, J. (2016). Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene polymorphisms: Role in social and psychiatric traits. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9, 510. doi:10.3389/fnins.2015.00510CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Avinun, R., & Knafo, A. (2014). Parenting as a reaction evoked by children's genotype: A meta-analysis of children-as-twins studies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 87102. doi:10.1177/1088868313498308CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2016). Attachment, parenting, and genetics. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Bartlett, J. D., Kotake, C., Fauth, R., & Easterbrooks, M. A. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter? Child Abuse & Neglect, 63, 8494. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.11.021CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belsky, J. (1993). Etiology of child maltreatment: A developmental-ecological analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 413434. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.413CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernstein, D. P., Fink, L., Handeisman, L., Foote, J., Lovejoy, M., Wenzel, K., … Ruggiero, J. (1994). Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 11321136. doi:10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132Google ScholarPubMed
Blangero, J., Diego, V. P., Dyer, T. D., Almeida, M., Peralta, J., Jack, W., … Göring, H. H. H. (2014). A kernel of truth: Statistical advances in polygenic variance component models for complex human pedigrees. Advances in Genetics, 81, 131. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-407677-8.00001-4Google Scholar
Buss, C., Entringer, S., Moog, N. K., Toepfer, P., Fair, D. A., Simhan, H. N., … Wadhwa, P. D. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of maternal childhood maltreatment exposure: Implications for fetal brain development. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56, 373382. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cecil, C. A. M., Viding, E., Fearon, P., Glaser, D., & Mccrory, E. J. (2017). Disentangling the mental health impact of childhood abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 63, 106119. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.11.024CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, K. L. (2015). Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 44, 170183. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.11.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Compier-de Block, L. H. C. G., Alink, L. R., Linting, M., van den Berg, L. J., Elzinga, B. M., Voorthuis, A., … Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2017). Parent-child agreement on parent-to-child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 32, 207217. doi:10.1007/s10896-016-9902-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corfield, E., Yang, Y., Martin, N., & Nyholt, D. (2017). A continuum of genetic liability for minor and major depression. Translational Psychiatry, 7, e1131. doi:10.1038/tp.2017.99CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. (2013). Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics, 45, 984994. doi:10.1038/ng.2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, J. F. (2010). On epistasis: Why it is unimportant in polygenic directional selection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365, 12411244. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0275CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diego, V. P., Kent, J. W. J., & Blangero, J. (2015). Familial studies: Genetic inferences. In Wright, J. D. (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 52595265). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Diego, V. P., Rainwater, D. L., Wang, X., Cole, S. A., Curran, J. E., Johnson, M. P., … Blangero, J. (2007). Genotype x adiposity interaction linkage analyses reveal a locus on chromosome 1 for lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2, a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80, 168177. doi:10.1086/510497CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Docherty, A. R., Kremen, W. S., Panizzon, M. S., Prom-Wormley, E. C., Franz, C. E., Lyons, M. J., … Neale, M. C. (2015). Comparison of twin and extended pedigree designs for obtaining heritability estimates. Behavior Genetics, 45, 461466. doi:10.1007/s10519-015-9720-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Euser, S., Alink, L. R. A., Pannebakker, F., Vogels, T., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 841851. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.07.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Everson, M. D., Smith, J. B., Hussey, J. M., English, D., Litrownik, A. J., Dubowitz, H., … Runyan, D. K. (2008). Concordance between adolescent reports of childhood abuse and Child Protective Service determinations in an at-risk sample of young adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 13, 1426. doi:10.1177/1077559507307837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, R., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2017). Oxytocin: A parenting hormone. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 1318. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.02.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, H. L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wertz, J., Gray, R., Newbury, J., … Arseneault, L. (2015). Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Developmenal Psychopathology, 57, 742768. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000838Google Scholar
Gilbert, R., Kemp, A., Thoburn, J., Sidebotham, P., Radford, L., Glaser, D., & MacMillan, H. L. (2009). Recognising and responding to child maltreatment. Lancet, 373, 167180. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61707-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet, 373, 6881. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61706-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gimpl, G., & Fahrenholz, F. (2001). The oxytocin receptor system: Structure, function, and regulation. Physiological Review, 81, 629683. doi:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.2.629CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, J. G. (2003). Twinning. Lancet, 362, 735743. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14237-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: Review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 45, 260273. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00218.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatemi, P. K., Hibbing, J. R., Medland, S. E., Keller, M. C., John, R., Smith, K. B., … Virginia, L. J. E. (2010). Political beliefs not by twins alone: Using the extended family on political to investigate genetic influence design of Iowa of Colorado. American Journal of Political Science, 54, 798814. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00461.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawn, S. E., Overstreet, C., Stewart, K. E., & Amstadter, A. B. (2015). Recent advances in the genetics of emotion regulation: A review. Current Opinion in Psychology, 3, 108116. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2014.12.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, W. G. (2010). Understanding and using quantitative genetic variation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365, 7385. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0203CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, W. G., Goddard, M. E., & Visscher, P. M. (2008). Data and theory point to mainly additive genetic variance for complex traits. PLOS Genetics, 4, e1000008. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R., Bowes, L., Ouellet-Morin, I., Fisher, H. L., Moffitt, T. E., Merrick, M. T., & Arseneault, L. (2013). Safe, stable, nurturing relationships break the intergenerational cycle of abuse: A prospective nationally representative cohort of children in the United Kingdom. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, S4S10. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.04.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Tomas, M., Price, T. S., & Taylor, A. (2004). The limits of child effects: Evidence for genetically mediated child effects on corporal punishment but not on physical maltreatment. Developmental Psychology, 40, 10471058. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joosen, K. J., Mesman, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants. Child Maltreatment, 18, 252263. doi:10.1177/1077559513494762CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keller, M. C., Medland, S. E., & Duncan, L. E. (2010). Are extended twin family designs worth the trouble? A comparison of the bias, precision, and accuracy of parameters estimated in four twin family models. Behavior Genetics, 40, 377393. doi:10.1007/s10519-009-9320-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., & Baker, J. H. (2007). Genetic influences on measures on the environment: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 37, 615626. doi:10.1017/S0033291706009524CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Larsson Lönn, S., Morris, N. A., Sundquist, J., Långström, N., & Sundquist, K. (2014). A Swedish national adoption study of criminality. Psychological Medicine, 44, 19131925. doi:10.1017/S0033291713002638CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klahr, A. M., & Burt, S. A. (2014). Elucidating the etiology of individual differences in parenting: A meta-analysis of behavioral genetic research. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 544586. doi:10.1037/a0034205CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knafo, A., & Jaffee, S. R. (2013). Gene-environment correlation in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 16. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000855CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krueger, R. F., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Bleske, A., & Silva, P. A. (1998). Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications. Behavior Genetics, 28, 173185. doi:10.1023/A:1021419013124CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lansford, J. E., Godwin, J., Maria, L., Tirado, U., Zelli, A., Al-Hassan, S. M., … Alampay, A. (2015). Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 14171428. doi:10.1017/S095457941500084XCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lynch, S. K., Turkheimer, E., D'Onofrio, B. M., Mendle, J., Emery, R. E., Slutske, W. S., & Martin, N. G. (2006). A genetically informed study of the association between harsh punishment and offspring behavioral problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 190198. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.20.2.190CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macgregor, S., Cornes, B. K., Martin, N. G., & Visscher, P. M. (2006). Bias, precision and heritability of self-reported and clinically measured height in Australian twins. Human Genetics, 120, 571580. doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0240-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackenzie, M. J., Kotch, J. B., & Lee, L.-C. (2011). Toward a cumulative ecological risk model for the etiology of child maltreatment. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 16381647. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madigan, S., Cyr, C., Eirich, R., Fearon, R. M. P., Ly, A., Rash, C., … Alink, L. R. A. (2019). Testing the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis: Meta-analytic evidence of the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment. Development and Psychopathology, 31, 2351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mäki-Tanila, A., & Hill, W. G. (2014). Influence of gene interaction on complex trait variation with multilocus models. Genetics, 198, 355367. doi:10.1534/genetics.114.165282CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manolio, T. A., Collins, F. S., Cox, N. J., Goldstein, D. B., Hindorff, L. A., Hunter, D. J., … Visscher, P. M. (2009). Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases. Nature, 461, 747753. doi:10.1038/nature08494CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marceau, K., Knopik, V. S., Neiderhiser, J. M., Lichtenstein, P., Spotts, E. L., Ganiban, J. M., & Reiss, D. (2016). Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent–adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype–environment correlation. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 149166. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000358CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Markon, K. E., Chmielewski, M., & Miller, C. J. (2011). The reliability and validity of discrete and continuous measures of psychopathology: A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 856879. doi:10.1037/a0023678CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAdams, T. A., Neiderhiser, J. M., Rijsdijk, F. V, Narusyte, J., Lichtenstein, P., & Eley, T. C. (2014). Accounting for genetic and environmental confounds in associations between parent and child characteristics: A systematic review of children-of-twins studies. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 11381173. doi:10.1037/a0036416CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miles, D. R., & Carey, G. (1997). Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 207217. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.207CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mileva-Seitz, V. R., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2016). Genetic mechanisms of parenting. Hormones and Behavior, 70, 211223. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.06.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Min, J., Chiu, D. T., & Wang, Y. (2013). Variation in the heritability of body mass index based on diverse twin studies: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 14, 871882. doi:10.1111/obr.12065CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moss, E., Dubois-Comtois, K., Cyr, C., Tarabulsy, G. M., St.-Laurent, D., & Bernier, A. (2011). Efficacy of a home-visiting intervention aimed at improving maternal sensitivity, child attachment, and behavioral outcomes for maltreated children: A randomized control trial. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 195210. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000738CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Pedersen, N. L., Lichtenstein, P., Spotts, E. L., Hansson, K., … Elthammer, O. (2004). Genetic and environmental influences on mothering of adolescents: A comparison of two samples. Developmental Psychology, 40, 335351. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.3.335CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neiss, M. B., Sedikides, C., & Stevenson, J. (2006). Genetic influences on level and stability of self-esteem. Self and Identity, 5, 247266. doi:10.1080/15298860600662106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nivard, M. G., Dolan, C. V, Kendler, K. S., Kan, K.-J., Willemsen, G., Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., … Boomsma, D. I. (2015). Stability in symptoms of anxiety and depression as a function of genotype and environment: A longitudinal twin study from ages 3 to 63 years. Psychological Medicine, 45, 10391049. doi:10.1017/S003329171400213XCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olds, D. L. (2006). The Nurse-Family Partnership: An evidence-based preventive intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 525. doi:10.1002/imhj.20077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olvera, R. L., Bearden, C. E., Velligan, D. I., Almasy, L., Carless, M. A., Curran, J. E., … Glahn, D. C. (2011). Common genetic influences on depression, alcohol, and substance use disorders in Mexican-American families. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 156, 561568. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oveisi, S., Ardabili, H. E., Dadds, M. R., Majdzadeh, R., Mohammadkhani, P., Rad, J. A., & Shahrivar, Z. (2010). Primary prevention of parent-child conflict and abuse in Iranian mothers: A randomized-controlled trial. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 206213. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.05.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patwardhan, I., Hurley, K. D., Thompson, R. W., Mason, W. A., & Ringle, J. L. (2017). Child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk: Findings from the intensive family preservation program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 70, 9299. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.06.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penninx, B. W., Beekman, A. T., Smit, J. H., Zitman, F. G., Nolen, W. A., Spinhoven, P., … Van Dyck, R. (2008). The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): Rationale, objectives and methods. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17, 121140. doi:10.1002/mpr.256CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pison, G., & D'Addato, A. V. (2006). Frequency of twin births in developed countries. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 250259. doi:10.1375/twin.9.2.250CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309322. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.84.2.309CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R., & Simpson, M. A. (2013). The future of genomics for developmentalists. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 12631278. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000606CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reijman, S., Alink, L. R. A., Compier-De Block, L. H. C. G., Werner, C. D., Maras, A., Rijnberk, C., … Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2017). Attachment representations and autonomic regulation in maltreating and nonmaltreating mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 10751087. doi:10.1017/S0954579416001036CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanders, M. R. (1999). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: Towards an empirically validated multilevel parenting and family support strategy for the prevention of behavior and emotional problems in children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 7190. doi:10.1023/A:1021843613840CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scherpenzeel, A., & Toepoel, V. (2012). Recruiting a probability sample for an online panel: Effects of contact mode, incentives, and information. Public Opinion Quarterly, 76, 470490. doi:10.1093/poq/nfs037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulz-Heik, R. J., Rhee, S. H., Silvern, L. E., Haberstick, B. C., Hopfer, C., Lessem, J. M., & Hewitt, J. K. (2010). The association between conduct problems and maltreatment: Testing genetic and environmental mediation. Behavior Genetics, 40, 338348. doi:10.1007/s10519-009-9324-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulz-Heik, R. J., Rhee, S. H., Silvern, L., Lessem, J. M., Haberstick, B. C., Hopfer, C., & Hewitt, J. K. (2009). Investigation of genetically mediated child effects on maltreatment. Behavior Genetics, 39, 265276. doi:10.1007/s10519-009-9261-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, K. M., McLaughlin, K. A., Smith, D. A. R., & Ellis, P. M. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and DSM-IV adult mental disorders: Comparison of prospective and retrospective findings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200, 469475. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.103267CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Serbin, L. A., Kingdon, D., Ruttle, P. L., & Stack, D. M. (2015). The impact of children's internalizing and externalizing problems on parenting: Transactional processes and reciprocal change over time. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 969986. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000632CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sidebotham, P., & Heron, J. (2006). Child maltreatment in the “children of the nineties”: A cohort study of risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 497522. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.11.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sierau, S., Brand, T., Manly, J. T., Schlesier-Michel, A., Klein, A. M., Andreas, A., … White, L. O. (2017). A multisource approach to assessing child maltreatment from records, caregivers, and children. Child Maltreatment, 22, 4557. doi:10.1177/1077559516675724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2012). Unraveling the effect of genes and environment in the transmission of parental antisocial behavior to children's conduct disturbance, depression and hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 53, 668677. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02494.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simons, L. G., & Conger, R. D. (2007). Linking mother–father differences in parenting to a typology of family parenting styles and adolescent outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 212241. doi:10.1177/0192513X06294593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 75, 417453. doi:10.3102/00346543075003417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
South, S. C., Schafer, M. H., & Ferraro, K. F. (2015). Genetic and environmental overlap between childhood maltreatment and adult physical health. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 18, 533544. doi:10.1017/thg.2015.62CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spinath, F. M., & O'Connor, T. G. (2003). A behavioral genetic study of the overlap between personality and parenting. Journal of Personality, 71, 785808. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.7105004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stieger, S., Kandler, C., Tran, U. S., Pietschnig, J., & Voracek, M. (2017). Genetic and environmental sources of implicit and explicit self-esteem and affect: Results from a genetically sensitive multi-group design. Behavior Genetics, 47, 175192. doi:10.1007/s10519-016-9829-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., … Dees, J. E. M. E. G. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 1329. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Alink, L. R., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2015). The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses. Child Abuse Review, 24, 3750. doi:10.1002/car.2353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the parent-child Conflict Tactics Scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 249270. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(97)00174-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thombs, B. D., Bernstein, D. P., Lobbestael, J., & Arntz, A. (2009). A validation study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor structure, reliability, and known-groups validity. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 518523. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.03.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, R. (2006). Exploring the link between maternal history of childhood victimization and child risk of maltreatment. Journal of Trauma Practice, 5, 5772. doi:10.1300/J189v05n02_04CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornberry, T. P., Knight, K. E., & Lovegrove, P. J. (2012). Does maltreatment beget maltreatment? A systematic review of the intergenerational literature. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 13, 135–52. doi:10.1177/1524838012447697CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thornberry, T. P., Matsuda, M., Greenman, S. J., Bears Augustyn, M., Henry, K. L., Smith, C. A., & Ireland, T. O. (2014). Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 706722. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.08.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toth, S. L., Gravener-Davis, J. A., Guild, D. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2013). Relational interventions for child maltreatment: Past, present, and future perspectives. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 16011617. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000795CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turner, H., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2007). Family structure variations in patterns and predictors of child victimization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 282295. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.77.2.282CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Euser, E. M., Prinzie, P., Juffer, F., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2009). Elevated risk of child maltreatment in families with stepparents but not with adoptive parents. Child Maltreatment, 14, 369375. doi:10.1177/1077559509342125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wade, T. D., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). The genetic epidemiology of parental discipline. Psychological Medicine, 30, 13031313. doi:10.1017/S0033291799003013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wesseldijk, L. W., Bartels, M., Vink, J. M., Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Ligthart, L., Boomsma, D. I., & Middeldorp, C. M. (2017). Genetic and environmental influences on conduct and antisocial personality problems in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s00787-017-1014-yGoogle Scholar
White, K. R. (1982). The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 461481. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.91.3.461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., & DuMont, K. A. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Real or detection bias? Science, 347, 14801485. doi:10.1126/science.1259917CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, J., Lee, S. H., Goddard, M. E., & Visscher, P. M. (2011). GCTA: A tool for genome-wide complex trait analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 88, 7682. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.11.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhu, Z., Bakshi, A., Vinkhuyzen, A. A. E., Hemani, G., Lee, S. H., Nolte, I. M., … Yang, J. (2015). Dominance genetic variation contributes little to the missing heritability for human complex traits. American Journal of Human Genetics, 96, 377385. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The genetic and environmental etiology of child maltreatment in a parent-based extended family design
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The genetic and environmental etiology of child maltreatment in a parent-based extended family design
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The genetic and environmental etiology of child maltreatment in a parent-based extended family design
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *