Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-2qt69 Total loading time: 0.553 Render date: 2022-08-09T22:15:49.656Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Witnessing substance use increases same-day antisocial behavior among at-risk adolescents: Gene–environment interaction in a 30-day ecological momentary assessment study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 December 2015

Michael A. Russell
Affiliation:
Pennsylvania State University
Lin Wang
Affiliation:
Duke University
Candice L. Odgers*
Affiliation:
Duke University
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Candice L. Odgers, Department of Public Policy, Psychology and Neuroscience, 218 Rubenstein Hall, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708; E-mail: candice.odgers@duke.edu.

Abstract

Many young adolescents are embedded in neighborhoods, schools, and homes where alcohol and drugs are frequently used. However, little is known about (a) how witnessing others' substance use affects adolescents in their daily lives and (b) which adolescents will be most affected. The current study used ecological momentary assessment with 151 young adolescents (ages 11–15) to examine the daily association between witnessing substance use and antisocial behavior across 38 consecutive days. Results from multilevel logistic regression models indicated that adolescents were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior on days when they witnessed others using substances, an association that held when substance use was witnessed inside the home as well as outside the home (e.g., at school or in their neighborhoods). A significant Gene × Environment interaction suggested that the same-day association between witnessing substance use and antisocial behavior was significantly stronger among adolescents with, versus without, the dopamine receptor D4 seven repeat (DRD4-7R) allele. The implications of the findings for theory and research related to adolescent antisocial behavior are discussed.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allison, P. D. (2005). Fixed effects regressions for longitudinal data using SAS. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2011). Facts for families: Children of alcoholics. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Anda, R. F., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D., Edwards, V. J., Dube, S. R., et al. (2002). Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services, 53, 10011009.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Asghari, V., Sanyal, S., Buchwaldt, S., Paterson, A., Jovanovic, V., & Van Tol, H. H. M. (1995). Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants. Journal of Neurochemistry, 65, 11571165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to rearing environment depending on dopamine-related genes: New evidence and a meta-analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 3952.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Pijlman, F. T. A., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers' externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J., Jonassaint, C., Pluess, M., Stanton, M., Brummett, B., & Williams, R. (2009). Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes? Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 746754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjamin, J., Li, L., Patterson, C., Greenberg, B. D., Murphy, D. L., & Hamer, D. H. (1996). Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 8184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolger, N., & Laurenceau, J.-P. (2013). Intensive longtiudinal methods: An introduction to diary and experience sampling research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradburn, N. M., Rips, L. J., & Shevell, S. K. (1987). Answering autobiographical questions: The impact of memory and inference on surveys. Science, 236, 157161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burt, S. A., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2009). Nonshared environmental mediation of the association between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors over time: Results from a cross-lagged monozygotic twin differences design. Developmental Psychology, 45, 17521760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byrd, A. L., & Manuck, S. B. (2014). MAOA, childhood maltreatment, and antisocial behavior: Meta-analysis of a gene-environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 917.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cardon, L. R., & Palmer, L. J. (2003). Population stratification and spurious allelic association. Lancet, 361, 598604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Opinion: Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: Joining forces with neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 583590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chassin, L., Pillow, D. R., Curran, P. J., Molina, B. S. G., & Barrera, M. Jr. (1993). Relation of parental alcoholism to early adolescent substance use: A test of three mediating mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chassin, L., Rogosch, F., & Barrera, M. (1991). Substance use and symptomatology among adolescent children of alcoholics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 449463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cleveland, H. H., Schlomer, G. L., Vandenbergh, D. J., Feinberg, M., Greenberg, M., Spoth, R., et al. (2015). The conditioning of intervention effects on early adolescent alcohol use by maternal involvement and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genetic variants. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 5167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Congdon, E., Lesch, K. P., & Canli, T. (2008). Analysis of DRD4 and DAT polymorphisms and behavioral inhibition in healthy adults: Implications for impulsivity. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 147B, 2732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crum, R. M., Lillie-Blanton, M., & Anthony, J. C. (1996). Neighborhood environment and opportunity to use cocaine and other drugs in late childhood and early adolescence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 43, 155161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dick, D. M. (2011). Gene-environment interaction in psychological traits and disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 383409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ding, Y. C., Chi, H. C., Grady, D. L., Morishima, A., Kidd, J. R., Kidd, K. K., et al. (2002). Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 99, 309314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dishion, T. J. (2000). Cross-setting consistency in early adolescent psychopathology: Deviant friendships and problem behavior sequelae. Journal of Personality, 68, 11091126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755764.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 503541). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Dishion, T. J., Spracklen, K. M., Andrews, D. W., & Patterson, G. R. (1996). Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behavior Therapy, 27, 373390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dmitrieva, J., Chen, C. S., Greenberger, E., Ogunseitan, O., & Ding, Y. C. (2011). Gender-specific expression of the DRD4 gene on adolescent delinquency, anger and thrill seeking. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 8289.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In Lerner, R. M. & Damon, W. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 719786). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Duncan, D. T., Palamar, J. J., & Williams, J. H. (2014). Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among US high school seniors. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 9, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., Osher, Y., Blaine, D., et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 7880.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edwards, E. P., Eiden, R. D., Colder, C., & Leonard, K. E. (2006). The development of aggression in 18- to 48-month-old children of alcoholic parents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 393407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faraone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., et al. (2005). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 13131323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Nagin, D. S. (2000). Offending trajectories in a New Zealand birth cohort. Criminology, 38, 525551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forbes, E. E., Brown, S. M., Kimak, M., Ferrell, R. E., Manuck, S. B., & Hariri, A. R. (2009). Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 6070.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, B. F. (2000). Estimates of US children exposed to alcohol abuse and dependence in the family. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 112126.Google Scholar
Haber, J. R., Bucholz, K. K., Jacob, T., Grant, J. D., Scherrer, J. F., Sartor, C. E., et al. (2010). Effect of paternal alcohol and drug dependence on offspring conduct disorder: Gene-environment interplay. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 652663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haber, J. R., Jacob, T., & Heath, A. C. (2005). Paternal alcoholism and offspring conduct disorder: Evidence for the “common genes” hypothesis. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 8, 120131.Google ScholarPubMed
Harter, S. L. (2000). Psychosocial adjustment of adult children of alcoholics: A review of the recent empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 311337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, S. Y., & Muka, D. (1996). Childhood psychopathology in children from families of alcoholic female probands. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 725733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hussong, A. M., Huang, W. J., Curran, P. J., Chassin, L., & Zucker, R. A. (2010). Parent alcoholism impacts the severity and timing of children's externalizing symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 367380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutchison, K. E., LaChance, H., Niaura, R., Bryan, A., & Smolen, A. (2002). The DRD4 VNTR polymorphism influences reactivity to smoking cues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 134143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutchison, K. E., McGeary, J., Smolen, A., Bryan, A., & Swift, R. M. (2002). The DRD4 VNTR polymorphism moderates craving after alcohol consumption. Health Psychology, 21, 139146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R., & Price, T. S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: A review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 432442.Google ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R., Strait, L. B., & Odgers, C. L. (2012). From correlates to causes: Can quasi-experimental studies and statistical innovations bring us closer to identifying the causes of antisocial behavior? Psychological Bulletin, 138, 272295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2014). Monitoring the Future national results on drug use, 1975–2013: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
Kendler, K. S., Jacobson, K., Myers, J. M., & Eaves, L. J. (2008). A genetically informative developmental study of the relationship between conduct disorder and peer deviance in males. Psychological Medicine, 38, 10011011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, R. C., & Greenberg, D. F. (1981). Linear panel analysis: Models of quantitative change. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., Williams, B., Newcombe, R., Craig, I. W., et al. (2006). MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children's mental health: New evidence and a meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 903913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, H., van der Zwaluw, C. S., Overbeek, G., Granic, I., Franke, B., & Engels, R. (2010). A variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene affects social adaptation of alcohol use: Investigation of a gene-environment interaction. Psychological Science, 21, 10641068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larson, R. W. (2001). How US children and adolescents spend time: What it does (and doesn't) tell us about their development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 160164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laucht, M., Becker, K., El-Faddagh, M., Hohm, E., & Schmidt, M. H. (2005). Association of the DRD4 exon III polymorphism with smoking in fifteen-year-olds: A mediating role for novelty seeking? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 477484.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loukas, A., Zucker, R. A., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Krull, J. L. (2003). Developmental trajectories of disruptive behavior problems among sons of alcoholics: Effects of parent psychopathology, family conflict, and child undercontrol. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 119131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lusher, J. M., Chandler, C., & Ball, D. (2001). Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is associated with novelty seeking (NS) and substance abuse: The saga continues. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 497499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monroe, S. M., & Simons, A. D. (1991). Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: Implications for the depressive disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 406425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Center on Addiction and Substance Use at Columbia University. (2012). National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse: Vol. 17. Teens. New York: Author.Google Scholar
Nock, M. K., Kazdin, A. E., Hiripi, E., & Kessler, R. C. (2006). Prevalence, subtypes, and correlates of DSM-IV conduct disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 36, 699710.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 673716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pampel, F. C. (2000). Logistic regression: A primer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Rutter, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2006). Gene-environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 226261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M., & Silberg, J. (2002). Gene-environment interplay in relation to emotional and behavioral disturbance. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 463490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoots, O., & Van Tol, H. (2003). The human dopamine D4 receptor repeat sequences modulate expression. Pharmacogenomics Journal, 3, 343348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sher, K. J. (1997). Psychological characteristics of children of alcoholics. Alcohol Health and Research World, 21, 247254.Google ScholarPubMed
Sher, K. J., Walitzer, K. S., Wood, P. K., & Brent, E. E. (1991). Characteristics of children of alcoholics: Putative risk-factors, substance use and abuse, and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 427448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiffman, S. (2009). Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use. Psychological Assessment, 21, 486497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiffman, S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinha, R. (2001). How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse? Psychopharmacology, 158, 343359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Storr, C., Chen, C., & Anthony, J. (2004). “Unequal opportunity”: Neighbourhood disadvantage and the chance to buy illegal drugs. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58, 231237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality Data spotlight: More than 7 million children live with a parent with alcohol problems. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
Swadi, H. (1999). Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55, 209224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swanson, J., Deutsch, C., Cantwell, D., Posner, M., Kennedy, J. L., Barr, C. L., et al. (2001). Genes and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 1, 207216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Urberg, K. A., Luo, Q., Pilgrim, C., & Degirmencioglu, S. M. (2003). A two-stage model of peer influence in adolescent substance use: Individual and relationship-specific differences in susceptibility to influence. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 12431256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Belsky, J., Beach, S., Brody, G., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2011). Gene-by-environment experiments: A new approach to finding the missing heritability. Nature Reviews Genetics, 12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Tol, H. H. M., Wu, C. M., Guan, H. C., Ohara, K., Bunzow, J. R., Civelli, O., et al. (1992). Multiple dopamine-D4 receptor variants in the human population. Nature, 358, 149152.Google ScholarPubMed
Wacholder, S., Rothman, N., & Caporaso, N. (2000). Population stratification in epidemiologic studies of common genetic variants and cancer: Quantification of bias. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92, 11511158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waldron, M., Martin, N. G., & Heath, A. C. (2009). Parental alcoholism and offspring behavior problems: Findings in Australian children of twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12, 433440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Witnessing substance use increases same-day antisocial behavior among at-risk adolescents: Gene–environment interaction in a 30-day ecological momentary assessment study
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Witnessing substance use increases same-day antisocial behavior among at-risk adolescents: Gene–environment interaction in a 30-day ecological momentary assessment study
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Witnessing substance use increases same-day antisocial behavior among at-risk adolescents: Gene–environment interaction in a 30-day ecological momentary assessment study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *