Aniskiewicz, A. S. (1979). Autonomic components of vicarious conditioning and psychopathic traits. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 60–67.
Baron, M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
Barry, C. T., Frick, P. J., Grooms, T., McCoy, M. G., Ellis, M. L., & Loney, B. R. (2000). The importance of callous-unemotional traits for extending the concept of psychopathic traits to children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 335–340.
Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Osterman, K. (1992). The direct and indirect aggression scales. Vasa, Finland: Abo Akademi University, Department of Social Sciences.
Blair, R. J. R. (1995). A cognitive developmental approach to morality: Investigating the psychopath. Cognition, 57, 1–29.
Blair, R. J. R. (1999). Responsiveness to distress cues in the child with psychopathic tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 135–145.
Blair, R. J. R. (2001). Neuro-cognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders and psychopathic traits. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 71, 727–731.
Blair, R. J. R., Budhani, S., Colledge, E., & Scott, S. (2005). Deafness to fear in boys with psychopathic tendencies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 46, 327–336.
Blair, R. J. R., Colledge, E., Murray, L., & Mitchell, D. G. V. (2001). A selective impairment in the processing of sad and fearful expressions in children with psychopathic tendencies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 491–498.
Blair, R. J. R., Jones, L., Clark, F., & Smith, M. (1997). The psychopathic individual: A lack of responsiveness to distress cues? Psychophysiology, 34, 192–198.
Blair, R. J. R., Mitchell, D. G. V., Richell, R. A., Kelly, S., Leonard, A., Newman, C., et al. (2002). Turning a deaf ear to fear: Impaired recognition of vocal affect in psychopathic individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 682–686.
Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., Falla, S. J., & Hamilton, L. R. (1998). Attentional bias for threatening facial expressions in anxiety: Manipulation of stimulus durations. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 737–753.
Brinkley, C. A., Newman, J. P., Widiger, T. A., & Lynam, D. R. (2004). Two approaches to parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathic traits. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 11, 69–94.
Brown, K., Atkins, M. S., Osborne, M. L., & Milnamow, M. (1996). A revised teacher rating scale for reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 473–480.
Camras, L. A., Ribordy, S., Hill, J., Martino, S., Sachs, V., Spaccarelli, S., et al. (1990). Maternal facial behavior and the recognition and production of emotional expression by maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Developmental Psychology, 26, 304–312.
Cooley, M. R., Turner, S. M., & Beidel, D. C. (1995). The emotional impact of children's exposure to community violence: A preliminary study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1362–1368.
Cooley-Quille, M., Boyd, R. C., Frantz, E., & Walsh, J. (2001). Emotional and behavioral impact of exposure to community violence in inner-city adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 199–206.
Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589–600.
Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1146–1158.
Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 349–371.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, third edition: Examiner's manual and norms booklet. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Elsesser, K., Sartory, G., & Tackenberg, A. (2004). Attention, heart rate, and startle response during exposure to trauma-relevant pictures: A comparison of recent trauma victims and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 289–301.
Essau, C. A., Sasagawa, S., & Frick, P. J. (2006). Callous-unemotional traits in community sample of adolescents. Assessment, 13, 454–469.
Eysenck, H. J. (1964). Crime and personality. Oxford: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Falkenbach, D. M., Poythress, N. G., & Heide, K. M. (2003). Psychopathic features in a juvenile diversion population: Reliability and predictive validity of two self-report measures. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 787–805.
Farrell, A. D., & Bruce, S. E. (1997). Impact of exposure to community violence on violent behavior and emotional distress among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 2–14.
Fisher, L., & Blair, R. J. R. (1998). Cognitive impairment and its relationship to psychopathic tendencies in children with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 511–519.
Fitzpatrick, K. M. (1993). Exposure to violence and presence of depression among low-income African American youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 528–531.
Fox, E. (2002). Processing emotional facial expression: The role of anxiety and awareness. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 2, 52–63.
Frick, P. J. (2004). The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. Unpublished manuscript.
Frick, P. J. (2006). Developmental pathways to conduct disorder. Child Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15, 311–332.
Frick, P. J., Bodin, S. D., & Barry, C. T. (2000). Psychopathic traits and conduct problems in community and clinic-referred samples of children: Further development of the Psychopathic Traits Screening Device. Psychological Assessment, 12, 382–393.
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457–470.
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Bodin, S. D., Dane, H. E., Barry, C. T., & Loney, B. R. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and developmental pathways to severe conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 246–260.
Frick, P. J., & Dickens, C. (2006). Current perspectives on conduct disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 8, 59–72.
Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D. (2001). The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Frick, P. J., Lilienfeld, S. O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., & Silverthorn, P. (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathic traits dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383–392.
Frick, P. J., & Marsee, M. A. (2006). Psychopathic traits and developmental pathways to antisocial behavior in youth. In Patrick, C. J. (Eds.), Handbook of psychopathic traits (pp. 355–374). New York: Guilford Press.
Frick, P. J., & Morris, A. S. (2004). Temperament and developmental pathways to conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 54–68.
Frick, P. J., Stickle, T. R., Dandreaux, D. M., Farrell, J. M., & Kimonis, E. R. (2005). Callous-unemotional traits in predicting the severity and stability of conduct problems and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 471–487.
Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589–600.
Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K., & Dubrow, N. (1991). What children can tell us about living in danger. American Psychologist, 46, 376–383.
Haapasalo, J., & Pulkkinen, L. (1992). The psychopathic traits checklist and non-violent offender groups. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 2, 315–328.
Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., & Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathic traits and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 391–398.
Hiatt, K. D., Lorenz, A. R., & Newman, J. P. (2002). Assessment of emotion and language processing in psychopathic offenders: Results from a dichotic listening task. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1255–1268.
Holmbeck, G. N. (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 87–96.
House, T. H., & Milligan, W. L. (1976). Autonomic responses to modeled distress in prison psychopaths. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 556–560.
Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. F., et al. (2002). Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children's anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development, 73, 1101–1118.
Ishikawa, S. S., Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., & Lacasse, L. (2001). Autonomic stress reactivity and executive functions in successful and unsuccessful criminal psychopaths from the community. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 423–432.
Jaccard, J., Turrisi, R., & Wan, C.K. (1990). Interaction effects in multiple regression. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Jonson-Reid, M. (1998). Youth violence and exposure to violence in childhood: An ecological review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3, 159–179.
Karpman, B. (1948). Conscience in the psychopath: Another version. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 18, 455–491.
Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., & Barry, C. T. (2004). Callous-unemotional traits and delinquent peer affiliation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 956–966.
Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Fazekas, H., & Loney, B. R. (2006). Psychopathic traits, aggression, and the processing of emotional stimuli in non-referred children. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24, 21–37.
Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Skeem, J. L., Marsee, M. A., Cruise, K., Munoz, L.C., et al. (in press). Callous-unemotional traits in male and female adolescent offenders: Validation of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.
Kimonis, E. R., Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2004). The Peer Conflict Scale. Unpublished manuscript.
Klimes-Dougan, B., & Kistner, J. (1990). Physically abused preschoolers' responses to peers' distress. Developmental Psychology, 26, 599–602.
Kochanska, G. (1993). Toward a synthesis of parental socialization and child temperament in early development of conscience. Child Development, 64, 325–347.
Kosson, D. S., Smith, S. S., & Newman, J. P. (1990). Evaluation of the construct validity of psychopathic traits and black and white male inmates: Three preliminary studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 250–259.
Kruh, I. P., Frick, P. J., & Clements, C. B. (2005). Historical and personality correlates to the violence patterns of juveniles tried as adults. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32, 69–96.
Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1997). International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Washington, DC: NIMH Center for the Study of Emotions and Attention.
Laursen, B. & Hoff, E. (2006). Person-centered and variable-centered approaches to longitudinal data. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 52, 377–389.
Levenson, M. R., Kiehl, K. A., & Fitzpatrick, C. M. (1995). Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 151–158.
Levenston, G. K., Patrick, C. J., Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2000). The psychopath as observer: Emotion and attention in picture processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 373–385.
Little, T. D., Jones, S. M., Henrich, C. C., & Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–133.
Loney, B. R., Frick, P. J., Clements, C. B., Ellis, M. L., & Kerlin, K. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits, impulsivity, and emotional processing in antisocial adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 66–80.
Lorenz, A. R., & Newman, J. P. (2002a). Do emotion and information processing deficiencies found in Caucasian psychopaths generalize to African American psychopaths? Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1077–1086.
Lorenz, A. R., & Newman, J. P. (2002b). Utilization of emotion cues in male and female offenders with antisocial personality disorder: Results from a lexical decision task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 513–516.
Lykken, D. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1988). Anxiety and the allocation of attention to threat. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 40, 653–670.
MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Tata, P. (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 15–20.
Main, M., & George, C. (1985). Responses of abused and disadvantaged toddlers to distress in agemates: A study in the day care setting. Developmental Psychology, 21, 407–412.
McManis, M. H., Bradley, M. M., Berg, W. K., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (2001). Emotional reactions in children: Verbal, physiological, and behavioral responses to affective pictures. Psychophysiology, 38, 222–231.
Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523–599.
Newman, J. P., & Brinkley, C. A. (1997). Reconsidering the low-fear explanation for primary psychopathic traits. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 236–244.
Ney, P. G., Fung, T., & Wickett, A. R. (1994). The worst combinations of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 705–714.
Ohman, A. (1993). Fear and anxiety as emotional phenomena: Clinical phenomenology, evolutionary perspectives, and information processing mechanisms. In Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. New York: Guilford Press.
Osofsky, J. D. (1995). The effects of exposure to violence on young children. American Psychologist, 50, 782–788.
Patrick, C. (1994). Emotion and psychopathic traits: Startling new insights. Psychophysiology, 31, 319–330.
Patrick, C., Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1993). Emotion in the criminal psychopath: Startle reflex modulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 82–92.
Patrick, C. J., Cuthbert, B. N., & Lang, P. J. (1994). Emotion in the criminal psychopath: Fear image processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 523–534.
Pitts, T. B. (1997). Reduced heart rate levels in aggressive children. In Raine, A., Brennan, P., Farrington, B. P., & Mednick, S. A. (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence. NATO ASI series A: Life sciences (Vol. 292). New York: Plenum Press.
Pollak, S. D., Cicchetti, D., Hornung, K., & Reed, A. (2000). Recognizing emotion in faces: Developmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Psychology, 36, 679–688.
Porter, S. (1996). Without conscience or without active conscience? The etiology of psychopathic traits revisited. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1, 179–189.
Poythress, N. G., Douglas, K. S., Falkenbach, D., Cruise, K., Lee, Z., Murrie, D. C., et al. (2006). Internal consistency reliability of the self-report Antisocial Process Screening Device. Assessment, 13, 107–113.
Pynoos, R. S. (1993). Traumatic stress and developmental psychopathology in children and adolescents. Review of Psychiatry, 12, 205–238.
Schmitt, W. A., & Newman, J. P. (1999). Are all psychopathic individuals low-anxious? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 353–358.
Skeem, J. L., Edens, J. F., Camp, J., & Colwell, L. H. (2004). Are there ethnic differences in levels of psychopathy? A meta-analysis. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 505–527.
Skeem, J. L., Edens, J. F., Sanford, G. M., & Hauser, L. (2004). Psychopathic personality and racial/ethnic differences reconsidered. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1439–1462.
Skeem, J. L., Poythress, N., Edens, J. F., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Cale, E. M. (2003). Psychopathic personality or personalities? Exploring potential variants of psychopathic traits and their implications for risk assessment. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8, 513–546.
Stevens, D., Charman, T., & Blair, R. J. R. (2001). Recognition of emotion in facial expressions and vocal tones in children with psychopathic tendencies. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162, 201–211.
Straus, M. A., & Hamby, S. L. (1997). Measuring physical and psychological maltreatment of children with the conflict tactics scales. In Kaufman Kantor, G. & Jasinski, J. L. (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Trainham, A. (2000). Manual for multi-faceted assessment of juvenile offender risk (developed for Jefferson Parish). Baton Rouge, LA: Lousiana State University, School of Social Work, Office of Social Service Research and Development.
Troy, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (1987). Victimization among preschoolers: Role of attachment relationship history. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 166–172.
Vasey, M. W., Daleidon, E. L., Williams, L. L., & Brown, L. M. (1995). Biased attention in childhood anxiety disorders: A preliminary study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 267–279.
Vasey, M. W., El-Hag, N., & Daleidon, E. L. (1996). Anxiety and the processing of emotionally threatening stimuli: Distinctive patterns of selective attention among high and low-test-anxious children. Child Development, 67, 1173–1185.
Verona, E., Patrick, C. J., Curtin, J. J., Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2004). Psychopathy and physiological response to emotionally evocative sounds. Journal of Abnormal Psychopathy, 113, 99–108.
Viding, E., Blair, R. J. R., Moffitt, T., & Plomin, R. (2005). Evidence for a substantial genetic risk for psychopathic traits in 7-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 592–597.
Vincent, G. M., Vitacco, M. J., Grisso, T., & Corrado, R. R. (2003). Subtypes of adolescent offenders: Affective traits and antisocial behavior patterns. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 695–712.
Williamson, S., Harpur, T. J., & Hare, R. D. (1991). Abnormal processing of affective words by psychopaths. Psychophysiology, 28, 260–273.
Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: Characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 436–445.