Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Changing ecological determinants of conduct problems from early adolescence to early adulthood

  • ARNOLD J. SAMEROFF (a1), STEPHEN C. PECK (a1) and JACQUELYNNE S. ECCLES (a1)
Abstract

Changes in conduct problems from middle school through early adulthood were examined in a sample of 1191 African American and White males and females. Predictors were selected from a number of ecological contexts to examine the relative contribution of family, peer, school, and neighborhood factors to conduct problems during the 7th, 8th, and 11th grade and across transitions in middle school, into high school, and into young adulthood. Almost all contexts made a unique contribution to conduct problems except for the neighborhood setting. The variables that had the most regular influences during each of these periods were Family Consistent Control, Family Discipline Harshness, and Negative Peers. Positive family and positive peer variables had less consistent relations to outcomes. School variables were more influential in middle school than later. Few gender or race differences were found in the patterning of predictors across time. Studies using only one or two settings as predictors of conduct problems, may provide a misleading picture of their impact by excluding other contextual influences.The authors acknowledge the Russell Sage Foundation, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the following individuals (listed alphabetically) for support during the preparation of this article: Elaine Belansky, Todd Bartko, Heather Bouchey, Nick Butler, Celina Chatman, Diane Early, Kari Fraser, Leslie Gutman, Katie Jodl, Ariel Kalil, Linda Kuhn, Sarah Lord, Karen McCarthy, Oksana Malanchuk, Alice Michael, Melanie Overby, Robert Roeser, Sherri Steele, Erika Taylor, Janice Templeton, Cindy Winston, and Carol Wong.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Arnold Sameroff, Center for Human Growth & Development, 300 N. Ingalls Building, 10th Level, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0406; E-mail: sameroff@umich.edu.
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

Aber, J. L. (1994). Poverty, violence, and child development: Untangling family and community-level effects. In C. A. Nelson (Ed.), Threats to optimal development: Integrating biological, psychological, and social risk factors, The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 27, pp. 229272). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ackerman, B. P., Brown, E., & Izard, C. E. (2003). Continuity and change in levels of externalizing behavior in school of children from economically disadvantaged families. Child Development. 74, 694709.
Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from late teen through the twenties. American Psychologist 55, 469480.
Aseltine, R. H., & Gore, S. (1993). Mental health and social adaptation following the transition from high school. Journal of Research on Adolescence 3, 247270.
Bachman, J. G., Wallace, J. M., Jr., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Kurth, C. L., & Neighbors, H. W. (1991). Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976–1989. American Journal of Public Health 81, 372377.
Baltes, P. B. (1979). Life-span developmental psychology: Some converging observations on history and theory. In P. B. Baltes, & O. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.
Bandura, A. (1982). The psychology of chance encounters and life paths. American Psychologist 37, 747755.
Barber, B. (1997). Adolescent socialization in context—The role of connection, regulation, and autonomy in the family. Journal of Adolescent Research 12, 511.
Bardone, A. M., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology 8, 811829.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence 11, 5695.
Bennett, D. S., Bendersky, M., & Lewis, M. (2002). Children's intellectual and emotional–behavioral adjustment at 4 years as a function of cocaine exposure, maternal characteristics, and environmental risk. Developmental Psychology 38, 648658.
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development 66, 13121329.
Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., & Bukowski (2000). Deviant friends and early adolescents' emotional and behavioral adjustment. Journal of Research on Adolescence 10, 173189.
Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., Dodge, K. A., Fergusson, D., Horwood, J. L., Loeber, R., Laird, R., Lyman, D. R., Moffitt, T. E., Pettit, G. S., & Vitaro, F. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology 39, 222245.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Brown, B. B. (1990). Peer groups and peer cultures. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 171198). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brown, B. B., Lohr, M. J., & McClenahan, E. L. (1986). Early adolescents' perceptions of peer pressure. Journal of Early Adolescence 6, 139154.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance–United States, 1999. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report June 9;49(SS-5): 196.
Chang, L., Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., McBride–Chang, C. (2003). Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. Journal of Family Psychology 17, 598606.
Children's Defense Fund. (2002). The state of children in America's union: A 2002 action guide to leave no child behind. Washington, DC: Children's Defense Fund.
Cicchetti, D. (1993). Developmental psychopathology: Reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review 13, 471502.
Compton, K., Snyder, J., Schrepferman, L., Bank, L., & Shortt, J. W. (2003). The contribution of parents and siblings to antisocial and depressive behavior in adolescents: A double jeopardy coercion model. Development and Psychopathology 15, 163182
Cook, T. D., Herman, M. R., Phillips, M., & Settersten, R. A., Jr. (2002). Some ways in which neighborhoods, nuclear families, friendship groups, and schools jointly affect changes in early adolescent development. Child Development 73, 12831309.
Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Lapp, A. L. (2002). Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children's externalizing behavior: A longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience. Child Development 73, 12201237
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487496.
Deater–Deckard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited: Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychological Inquiry 8, 161175.
Deater–Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Physical discipline among African-American and European-American mothers: Links to children's externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology 32, 10651072.
Deater–Deckard, K., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E. (2003). The development of attitudes about physical punishment: An 8-year longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology 17, 351360.
Derogatis, L. R. (1983). The SCL-90: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual II (2nd ed.). Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
Derogatis, L.R., Rickels, K., & Rock, A.F. (1976). The SCL-90 and the MMPI: A step in the validation of a new self-report scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 128, 280289.
Dishion, T. J., French, D. C., & Patterson, J. R. (1995). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Development and Psychopathology: Vol. 2. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 421471). New York: Wiley.
Dishion, T. J., Patterson, J. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology 27, 172180.
Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology 39, 349371.
Eccles, J. S., Lord, S. E., & Roeser, R. W. (1994). Round holes, square pegs, rocky roads, and sore feet: A discussion of stage/environment fit theory applied to families and school. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: Vol. VII. Adolescence: Opportunities and challenges. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Eccles, J. S., & Midgley, C. (1989). Stage/environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents. In R. E. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education (Vol. 3, pp. 139186). New York: Academic Press.
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist 48, 90101.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquent behavior and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1989). Multiple problem youth: Delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems. New York: Springer–Verlag.
Elliott, D. S., & Menard, S. (1996). Delinquent friends and delinquent behavior: Temporal and developmental patterns. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquent behavior and crime: Current theories (pp. 2867). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Epstein, J. L., & McPartland, J. M. (1977). The Quality of School Life Scale and administrative and technical manual. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.) Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research (Vol. 7, pp. 189250). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Felner, R. D., Primavera, J., & Cauce, A. M. (1981). The impact of school transitions: A focus for preventive effort. American Journal of School Psychology 9, 449459.
Fiqueira–McDonough, J (1986). School context, gender, and delinquency. Journal of Youth & Adolescence 15, 7998.
Fraser, M. W. (1996). Aggressive behavior in childhood and early adolescence: An ecological–developmental perspective on youth violence. Social Work 41, 347361.
Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Almeida, D. M. (2003). Parents do matter: Trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development 74, 578594.
Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. New York: Commonwealth Fund.
Gottfredson, M., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The Academic achievement of African-American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risk, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology 30, 367399.
Haselager, G. J. T., Van Lieshout, C. F. M., Riksen–Walraven, J. M. A., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Hartup, W. W. (2002). Heterogeneity among peer-rejected boys across middle childhood: Developmental pathways of social behavior. Developmental Psychology 38, 446456.
Hektner, J. M., August, G. J., & Realmuto, G. M. (2000). Patterns and temporal changes in peer affiliation among aggressive and nonaggressive children participating in a summer school program. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 29, 603614.
Herman, M. R., Dornbusch, S. M., Herron, M. C., & Herting, J. R. (1997). The influence of family regulation, connection, and psychological autonomy on six measures of adolescent functioning. Journal of Adolescent Research 12, 3467.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Huizinga, D., & Jakob–Chien, C. (1998). The contemporaneous co-occurrence of serious and violent juvenile offending and other problem behaviors. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious & violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 4767). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ingoldsby, E. M., & Shaw, D. S. (2002). Neighborhood contextual factors and early-starting antisocial pathways. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5, 2155.
Jodl, K. M., Michael, A., Malanchuk, O., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2001). Parents' roles in shaping early adolescents' occupational aspirations. Child Development 72, 12471265.
Kazdin, A. E. (1995). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Keenan, K., Loeber, R., Zhang, Q., Stouthamer–Loeber, M., & van Kammen, W. B. (1995). The influence of deviant peers on the development of boys' disruptive and delinquent behavior: A temporal analysis. Development and Psychopathology 7, 715726.
Kupersmidt, J. B., Griesler, P. C., DeRosier, M. E., Patterson, C. J., & Davis, P. W. (1995). Childhood aggression and peer relations in the context of family and neighborhood factors. Child Development, 66, 360375.
Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Parents' monitoring—Relevant knowledge and adolescents' delinquent behavior: Evidence of correlated developmental changes and reciprocal influences. Child Development 74, 752768.
Lansford, J. E., Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2003). Friendship quality, peer group affiliation, and peer antisocial behavior as moderators of the link between negative parenting and adolescent externalizing behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence 13, 161184.
Leventhal, T., & Brooks–Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309337.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102, 133144.
Lewis, M. (1997). Altering fate: Why the past does not predict the future. New York: Guilford Press.
Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.
Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review 10, 141.
Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (2000). Young children who commit crime: Epidemiology, developmental origins, risk factors, early interventions, and policy implications. Development and Psychopathology 12, 737762.
Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer–Loeber, M., & vanKammen, W. B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology 5, 101132.
Maehr, M. L., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A schoolwide approach. Special Issue: Current issues and new directions in motivational theory and research. Educational Psychologist, 26, 399427.
Maughan, B., & Rutter, M. (1998). Continuities and discontinuities in antisocial behavior from childhood to adult life. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 20, pp. 147). New York: Plenum Press.
McClelland, G. H., & Judd, C. M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin 114, 376390.
Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hicks, L., Roeser, R. W., Urdan, T. U., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, M. J., Nelson, J., Roeser, R., & Urdan, T. (2000). Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (PALS) manual. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 6.
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology 14, 179207.
Moran, P. (1999). The epidemiology of antisocial personality disorder. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 34, 231242.
Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist 44, 329335.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Petras, H., Schaeffer, C, Ialongo, N., Hubbard, S, Muthen, B., Lambert, S., Poduska, J., & Kellam, S. (2004). When the course of aggressive behavior in childhood does not predict antisocial outcomes in adolescence and young adult: An examination of potential explanatory variables. Development and Psychopathology 16, 919941.
Pettit, S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Meece, D. W. (1999). The impact of after-school peer contact on early adolescent externalizing problems is moderated by parental monitoring, perceived neighborhood safety, and prior adjustment. Child Development 70, 768778.
Raghunathan, T. E., Lepkowski, J. M., Van Hoewyk, J., & Solenberger, P. (2001). A multivariate technique for multiply imputing missing values using a sequence of regression models. Survey Methodology 27, 8595.
Reyes, O., Gillock, K., & Kobus, K. (1994). School adjustment during the senior high school transition for urban minority adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology 22, 341370.
Rieder, J., & Coupey, S. M. (1999). Update on pubertal development. Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology 11, 45762.
Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (1998). Academic and emotional functioning in early adolescence: Longitudinal relations, patterns, and prediction by experience in middle school. Development & Psychopathology 10, 321352.
Ruble, D. N., & Seidman, E. (1996). Social transition: Windows into social psychological transactions. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 830856). New York: Guilford Press.
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Baldwin, A. L., & Baldwin, C. A. (1993). Stability of intelligence from preschool to adolescence: The influence of social and family risk factors. Child Development 64, 8097.
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277, 918924.
Schaefer, E. S. (1959). A circumplex model for maternal behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59, 226235.
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods 7, 147177.
Schulenberg, J., Bryant, A. L., & O'Malley, P. M. (2004). Taking hold of some kind of life: How developmental tasks relate to trajectories of well-being during the transition to adulthood. Development and Psychopathology 16, 11191140.
Schulenberg, J., Maggs, J., & Hurrelmann, K. (Eds.). (1997). Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sherrod, L. (1996). Leaving home: The role of individual and familial factors. In J. A. Graber & J. Semon (Eds.), Leaving home: Understanding the transition to adulthood. New directions for child development, No. 71 (pp. 111119). San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass.
Simons, R. L., Wu, C., Conger, R. D., & Lorenz, F. O. (1994). Two routes to delinquent behavior: Differences between early and late starters in the impact of parenting and deviant peers. Criminology 32, 247275.
Sinharay, S., Stern, H. S., & Russell, D. (2001). The use of multiple imputation for the analysis of missing data. Psychological Methods 6, 317329.
Smetana, J. G., Crean, H. F., & Daddis, C. (2002). Family processes and problem behaviors in middle-class African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence 12, 275304.
Sutherland, E. H., Cressey, D. R., & Luckenbill, D. F. (1992). Principles of criminology (11th ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Turner, R. J., & Gil, A. G. (2002). Psychiatric and substance disorders in South Florida: Racial/ethnic and gender contrasts in a young adult cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 4350.
Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African-American adolescents' school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality 72, 11971232.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed