Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 349
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bakker, M.J. Greven, C.U. Buitelaar, J.K. and Glennon, J.C. 2016. Practitioner Review: Psychological treatments for children and adolescents with conduct disorder problems - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,

    Barlow, Jane Bergman, Hanna Kornør, Hege Wei, Yinghui Bennett, Cathy and Barlow, Jane 2016. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Campbell, Susan B. Denham, Susanne A. Howarth, Grace Z. Jones, Stephanie M. Whittaker, Jessica Vick Williford, Amanda P. Willoughby, Michael T. Yudron, Monica and Darling-Churchill, Kristen 2016. Commentary on the review of measures of early childhood social and emotional development: Conceptualization, critique, and recommendations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,

    Caudill, Jonathan W. and Trulson, Chad R. 2016. The hazards of premature release: Recidivism outcomes of blended-sentenced juvenile homicide offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 46, p. 219.

    de Boer, Sjoukje Berdina Beike Boon, Albert Eduard Verheij, Fop Donker, Marianne Catharina Henriëtte and Vermeiren, Robert 2016. Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Inpatients With Early-Onset and Adolescent-Onset Disruptive Behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology,

    Frick, P.J. and Thornton, L.C. 2016. Encyclopedia of Mental Health.

    Graziano, Paulo A. Fabiano, Gregory Willoughby, Michael T. Waschbusch, Daniel Morris, Karen Schatz, Nicole and Vujnovic, Rebecca 2016. Callous-Unemotional Traits Among Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Associations with Parenting. Child Psychiatry & Human Development,

    Jackson, Dylan B. 2016. The link between poor quality nutrition and childhood antisocial behavior: A genetically informative analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 44, p. 13.

    Jambroes, Tijs Jansen, Lucres M. C. Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M. Doreleijers, Theo A. H. Colins, Olivier F. and Popma, Arne 2016. The clinical usefulness of the new LPE specifier for subtyping adolescents with conduct disorder in the DSM 5. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 25, Issue. 8, p. 891.

    Lee, Matthew T. Pagano, Maria E. Johnson, Byron R. and Post, Stephen G. 2016. Love and Service in Adolescent Addiction Recovery. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 197.

    Maguire, Lisa K. Niens, Ulrike McCann, Mark and Connolly, Paul 2016. Emotional development among early school-age children: gender differences in the role of problem behaviours. Educational Psychology, Vol. 36, Issue. 8, p. 1408.

    McFarland, Patrick Sanders, James and Hagen, Bradley 2016. Perspectives on the aetiology of ODD and CD: a grounded theory approach. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 241.

    Medlow, Sharon Klineberg, Emily Jarrett, Carmen and Steinbeck, Katharine 2016. A systematic review of community-based parenting interventions for adolescents with challenging behaviours. Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 52, p. 60.

    Mikolajewski, Amy J. Bobadilla, Leonardo and Taylor, Jeanette 2016. Encyclopedia of Adolescence.

    Nijjar, Rami Ellenbogen, Mark A. and Hodgins, Sheilagh 2016. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents’ Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,

    Patalay, Praveetha Fink, Elian Fonagy, Peter and Deighton, Jessica 2016. Unpacking the associations between heterogeneous externalising symptom development and academic attainment in middle childhood. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 25, Issue. 5, p. 493.

    Sentse, Miranda Kretschmer, Tina de Haan, Amaranta and Prinzie, Peter 2016. Conduct Problem Trajectories Between Age 4 and 17 and Their Association with Behavioral Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,

    Bosick, Stacey J. Bersani, Bianca E. and Farrington, David P. 2015. Relating Clusters of Adolescent Problems to Adult Criminal Trajectories: a Person-Centered, Prospective Approach. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, p. 169.

    Boutwell, Brian B. Barnes, J.C. Beaver, Kevin M. Haynes, Raelynn Deaton Nedelec, Joseph L. and Gibson, Chris L. 2015. A unified crime theory: The evolutionary taxonomy. Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 25, p. 343.

    Carmen Orte and Dr Joan Amer, Dr and Özdemir, Metin 2015. How much do we know about the long-term effectiveness of parenting programmes? Advances, shortcomings, and future directions. Journal of Children's Services, Vol. 10, Issue. 2, p. 120.


Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years

  • Terrie E. Moffitt (a1), Avshalom Caspi (a1), Nigel Dickson (a2), Phil Silva (a2) and Warren Stanton (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2009

We report data that support the distinction between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset type conduct problems. Natural histories are described from a representative birth cohort of 457 males studied longitudinally from age 3 to 18 years. Childhood- and adolescent-onset cases differed on temperament as early as age 3 years, but almost half of childhood-onset cases did not become seriously delinquent. Type comparisons were consistent with our contention that males whose antisocial behavior follows a life-course-persistent path differ from males who follow an adolescence-limited path. As adolescents, the two types differed on convictions for violent crime, personality profiles, school leaving, and bonds to family. These differences can be attributed to developmental history because the two groups were well matched on measures of antisocial conduct at age 18 years: parent-reports, self-reports, and adjudication records. By age 18 years, many conduct-problem boys had encountered factors that could ensnare them in an antisocial future: substance dependence, unsafe sex, dangerous driving habits, delinquent friends, delinquent perceptions, and unemployment. Implications for theory, research design, prevention, and therapeutic treatment of conduct problems are highlighted.

Corresponding author
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dept. of Psychology, 1202 W. Johnson St., Madison, WI 53706
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. C. Anderson , S. M. Williams , R. O. McGee , & P. A. Silva (1987). DSM-III disorders in preadoles-cent children—Prevalence in a large sample from the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 6976.

A. Blumstein , & J. Cohen (1987). Characterizing criminal careers. Science, 237, 985991.

A. Caspi , B. Henry , R. O. McGee , T. E. Moffitt , & P. A. Silva (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age 3 to age 15. Child Development, 66, 5568.

C. R. Cloninger (1987). A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 573588.

J. Cohen (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

D. S. Elliott , & D. Huizinga (1989). Improving self-reported measures of delinquency. In M. W. Klein (Ed.), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency, (pp. 155186). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

D. P. Farrington (1986). Age and crime. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research (pp. 189250). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

D. P. Farrington , L. Ohlin , & J. Q. Wilson (1986). Understanding and controlling crime. New York: Springer Verlag.

M. Feehan , R. McGee , S. NadaRaja , & S. Williams (1994). DSM-III-R disorders in New Zealand 18-year-olds. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 28, 8799.

M. Fendrich , & C. Vaughn (1994). Diminished lifetime substance abuse over time. Public Opinion Quarterly, 58, 96123.

B. Henry , T. E. Moffitt , A. Caspi , J. Langley , & P. A. Silva (1994). On the “remembrance of things past”: A longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method. Psychological Assessment, 6, 92101.

A. E. Kazdin (1987). Treatment of antisocial behavior in children: Current status and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 187203.

A. E. Kazdin , & J. L. Mazurick (1994). Dropping out of child psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 10691074.

S. G. Kellam , G. W. Rebok , N. Ialongo , & L. Mayer (1994). The course and malleability of aggressive behavior from early first grade into middle school: Results of a developmental epidemiologically based preventive trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 259281.

M. W. Klein (1986). Labelling theory and delinquency policy. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 13, 4779.

R. Krueger , P. S. Schmutte , A. Caspi , T. E. Moffitt , K. Campbell , & P. A. Silva (1994). Personality traits are linked to crime among males and females: Evidence from a birth cohort. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103. 328338.

R. Loeber , & M. LeBlanc (1990). Toward a developmental criminology. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (pp. 375473). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

R. Loeber , & K. B. Schmaling (1985). Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 337352.

R. McGee , M. Feehan , S. Williams , & J. Anderson (1992). DSM-III disorders from age 11 to 15 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 5059.

R. McGee , S. M. Williams , & P. A. Silva (1985). Factor structure and correlates of ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and antisocial behavior in a large sample of 9 year old children from the general population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 480490.

T. E. Moffitt (1989). Accommodating self-report methods to a low-delinquency culture: Experience from New Zealand. In M. W. Klein (Ed.), Crossnational research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 4366). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

T. E. Moffitt (1990). Juvenile delinquency and attention-deficit disorder: Developmental trajectories from age three to fifteen. Child Development, 61, 893910.

T. E. Moffitt (1993a). “Life-course-persistent” and “adolescent-limited” antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.

T. E. Moffitt , D. Lynam , & P. A. Silva (1994). Neuropsychological tests predict persistent male delinquency. Criminology, 32, 101124.

D. S. Nagin , D. P. Farrington , & T. E. Moffitt (1995). Life-course trajectories of different types of offenders. Criminology, 33, 111140.

D. S. Nagin , & K. C. Land (1993). Age, criminal careers, and population heterogeneity: Specification and estimation of a nonparametric, mixed poison model. Criminology, 31, 327362.

H. C. Quay (1964). Personality dimensions in delinquent males as inferred from the factor analysis of behavior ratings. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1, 3337.

A. Raine (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. New York: Academic Press.

A. Raine , P. Brennan , & S. A. Mednick (1994). Birth complications combined with early maternal rejection at age 1 year predispose to violent crime at age 18 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 984988.

L. N. Robins , & D. A. Regier (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America. New York: Free Press.

J. Shedler , & J. Block (1990). Adolescent drug use and psychological health. American Psychologist, 45, 612630.

P. A. Silva (1990). The Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study: A fifteen-year longitudinal study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 4, 96127.

J. White , T. E. Moffitt , A. Caspi , D. Jeglum-Bartusch , D. Needles , & M. Stouthamer-Loeber (1994). Measuring impulsivity and examining its relation to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 192205.

H. Yoshikawa (1994). Prevention as cumulative protection: Effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 2854.

M. Zuckerman (1989). Personality in the third dimension: A psychobiological approach. Personality and Individual Differences. 10, 391418.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *