Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood: Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships

  • Barbara Menting (a1) (a2) (a3), Pol A. C. Van Lier (a1) (a2), Hans M. Koot (a1) (a2), Dustin Pardini (a4) and Rolf Loeber (a4)...
Abstract
Abstract

Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence of children's cognitive impulsivity on delinquency development across adolescence and early adulthood, while taking possible interactions with intelligence also into account. Delinquent behavior of 412 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study was measured annually from ages 13 to 29 years with official arrest records. Cognitive impulsivity (neurocognitive test scores) and intelligence were assessed at age 12–13. Parenting behaviors (persistence of discipline, positive reinforcement, and parental knowledge), peer delinquency, and peer conventional activities were assessed between ages 10 and 13 years. Results showed that, while controlling for intelligence, the influence of youths' cognitive impulsivity on delinquency depended on their parents' behaviors. An interaction was found among cognitive impulsivity, intelligence, and peer delinquency, but instead of cognitive impulsivity, the effect of intelligence on delinquency was particularly moderated. Overall, findings suggest that when there was moderation, high cognitive impulsivity and low intelligence were associated with an increased probability for engaging in delinquency predominantly among boys in a good social environment, but not in a poor social environment.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Barbara Menting, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), PO Box 71304, 1008 BH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; E-mail: BMenting@nscr.nl.
References
Hide All
Barker E. D., Seguin J. R., White H. R., Bates M. E., Lacourse E., Carbonneau R., et al. (2007). Developmental trajectories of male physical violence and theft: Relations to neurocognitive performance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 592599.
Barker E. D., Tremblay R. E., Van Lier P. A. C., Vitaro F., Nagin D. S., Assaad J. M., et al. (2011). The neurocognition of conduct disorder behaviors: Specificity to physical aggression and theft after controlling for ADHD symptoms. Aggressive Behavior, 37, 6372.
Belsky J., Bakermans-Kranenburg M. J., & van IJzendoorn M. H. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300304.
Benoit A., Lacourse E., & Claes M. (2013). Pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: The moderating role of individual, peer, and parental factors. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 455471.
Biederman J., Petty C. R., Fried R., Doyle A. E., Spencer T., Seidman L. J., et al. (2007). Stability of executive function deficits into young adult years: A prospective longitudinal follow-up study of grown-up males with ADHD. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116, 129136.
Blumstein A., Cohen J., Roth J. A., & Visher C. A. (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals.” Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Booth J. A., Farrell A., & Varano S. P. (2008). Social control, serious delinquency, and risky behavior: A gendered analysis. Crime & Delinquency, 54, 423456.
Carroll A., Hemingway F., Bower J., Ashman A., Houghton S., & Durkin K. (2006). Impulsivity in juvenile delinquency: Differences among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offenders. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 519529.
Dawson J. F., & Richter A. W. (2006). Probing three-way interactions in moderated multiple regression: Development and application of a slope difference test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 917926.
Deater-Deckard K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 565579.
Diamond A., & Lee K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959964.
Dishion T. J., Spracklen K. M., Andrews D. W., & Patterson G. R. (1996). Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behavior Therapy, 27, 373390.
Dodge K. A., & Pettit G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 349371.
Dodrill C. B. (1978). A neuropsychological battery for epilepsy. Epilepsia, 19, 611623.
Farrington D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In Tonry M. & Morris N. (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 189250). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Farrington D. P., & Ttofi M. M. (2011). Protective and promotive factors in the development of offending. In Bliesener T., Beelmann A., & Stemmler M. (Eds.), Antisocial behavior and crime: Contributions of developmental and evaluation research to prevention and intervention (pp. 7188). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Gifford-Smith M., Dodge K. A., Dishion T. J., & McCord J. (2005). Peer influence in children and adolescents: Crossing the bridge from developmental to intervention science. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 255265.
Grosbras M. H., Jansen M., Leonard G., McIntosh A., Osswald K., Poulsen C., et al. (2007). Neural mechanisms of resistance to peer influence in early adolescence. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 80408045.
Henggeler S. W., Cunningham P. B., Pickrel S. G., Schoenwald S. K., & Brondino M. J. (1996). Multisystemic therapy: An effective violence prevention approach for serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 4761.
Henry B., Caspi A., Moffitt T. E., & Silva P. A. (1996). Temperament and familial predictors of violent and nonviolent criminal convictions: Age 3 to age 18. Developmental Psychology, 32, 614623.
Hoeve M., Dubas J. S., Eichelsheim V. I., Van der Laan P. H., Smeenk W., & Gerris J. R. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 749775.
Hollingshead A. B. (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished manuscript.
Holmbeck G. N. (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 8796.
Ishikawa S. S., & Raine A. (2003). Prefrontal deficits and antisocial behavior: A causal model. In Lahey B. B., Moffitt T. E., & Caspi A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 277304). New York: Guilford Press.
Jolliffe D., & Farrington D. P. (2010). Individual differences and offending. In McLaughlin E. & Newburn T. (Eds.), The Sage handbook of criminological theory (pp. 4055). London: Sage.
Kerr M., Stattin H., & Burk W. J. (2010). A reinterpretation of parental monitoring in longitudinal perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 3964.
Kirk D. S. (2006). Examining the divergence across self-report and official data sources on inferences about the adolescent life-course of crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22, 107129.
Klingberg T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 317324.
Larson R. W., Richards M. H., Moneta G., Holmbeck G., & Duckett E. (1996). Changes in adolescents' daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744754.
Loeber R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 141.
Loeber R., Farrington D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber M., & Van Kammen W. B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Loeber R., Farrington D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber M., & White H. R. (2008). Violence and serious theft: Development and prediction from childhood to adulthood. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Loeber R., & Hay D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371410.
Loeber R., Menting B., Lynam D. R., Moffitt T. E., Stouthamer-Loeber M., Stallings R., et al. (2012). Findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study: Cognitive impulsivity and intelligence as predictors of the age-crime curve. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 11361149.
Loeber R., & Stouthamer-Loeber M. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In Tonry M. & Morris N. (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 29149). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lynam D. R., Caspi A., Moffitt T. E., Wikstrom P. O., Loeber R., & Novak S. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: The effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 563574.
Marshal M. P., Molina B. S., & Pelham W. E. Jr. (2003). Childhood ADHD and adolescent substance use: An examination of deviant peer group affiliation as a risk factor. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 17, 293302.
Matsueda R. L., & Anderson K. (1998). The dynamics of delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Criminology, 36, 269308.
Matthys W., Vanderschuren L. J., Schutter D. J., & Lochman J. E. (2012). Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Implications for interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15, 234246.
Mednick S. A. (1977). A bio-social theory of the learning of law-abiding behavior. In Mednick S. A. & Christiansen K. O. (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior (pp. 18). New York: Gardner Press.
Meier M. H., Slutske W. S., Arndt S., & Cadoret R. J. (2008). Impulsive and callous traits are more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in higher risk neighborhoods among boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 377385.
Moffitt T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Harrington H., & Milne B. J. (2002). Males on the life course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179207.
Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Silva P. A., & Stouthamer-Loeber M. (1995). Individual differences in personality and intelligence are linked to crime: Cross-context evidence from nations, neighborhoods, genders, races, and age-cohorts. In Hagan J. (Ed.), Current perspectives on aging and the life cycle: Vol. 4. Delinquency and disrepute in the life course (pp. 134). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Molero Samuelson Y., Hodgins S., Larsson A., Larm P., & Tengström A. (2010). Adolescent antisocial behavior as predictor of adverse outcomes to age 50. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 158174.
Morgan A. B., & Lilienfeld S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 113136.
Mulford C. F., & Redding R. E. (2008). Training the parents of juvenile offenders: State of the art and recommendations for service delivery. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 629648.
Nigg J. T., & Huang-Pollock C. L. (2003). An early-onset model of the role of executive functions and intelligence in conduct disorder/delinquency. In Lahey B. B., Moffitt T. E., & Caspi A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 227253). New York: Guilford Press.
Ogilvie J. M., Stewart A. L., Chan R. C. K., & Sum D. H. K. (2011). Neuropsychological measures of executive function and antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 49, 10631107.
Pardini D. A., Fite P. J., & Burke J. D. (2008). Bidirectional associations between parenting practices and conduct problems in boys from childhood to adolescence: The moderating effect of age and African-American ethnicity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 647662.
Petersen A. C., Crockett L., Richards M., & Boxer A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 117133.
Raine A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311326.
Rubin K. H., Bukowski W. M., & Parker J. G. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In Eisenberg N., Damon W., & Lerner R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 571645). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Rutter M. (2003). Commentary: Causal processes leading to antisocial behavior. Developmental Psychology, 39, 372378.
Sampson R. J., & Laub J. H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology, 41, 555592.
Shults J., Sun W., Tu X., Kim H., Amsterdam J., Hilbe J. M., et al. (2009). A comparison of several approaches for choosing between working correlation structures in generalized estimating equation analysis of longitudinal data. Statistics in Medicine, 28, 23382355.
Silveri M. M., Sneider J. T., Crowley D. J., Covell M. J., Acharya D., Rosso I. M., et al. (2013). Frontal lobe γ-aminobutyric acid levels during adolescence: Associations with impulsivity and response inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 296304.
StataCorp. (2009). Stata: Release 11 [Computer software]. College Station, TX: Author.
Steinberg L. (2001). We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 119.
Steinberg L. (2008). A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review, 28, 78106.
Steinberg L. (2010). A dual systems model of adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 216224.
Steinberg L., & Monahan K. C. (2007). Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 15311543.
Sternberg R. J. (2008). Increasing fluid intelligence is possible after all. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 67916792.
Stroop J. P. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643662.
Tuvblad C., Grann M., & Lichtenstein P. (2006). Heritability for adolescent antisocial behavior differs with socioeconomic status: Gene-environment interaction. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 734743.
Wechsler D. (1974). Manual of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Welsh B. C., Loeber R., Stevens B. R., Stouthamer-Loeber M., Cohen M. A., & Farrington D. P. (2008). Costs of juvenile crime in urban areas: A longitudinal perspective. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 327.
White J. L., Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Bartusch D. J., Needles D. J., & Stouthamer-Loeber M. (1994). Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 192205.
Wiesner M., Capaldi D. M., & Kim H. K. (2007). Arrest trajectories across a 17-year span for young men: Relation to dual taxonomies and self-reported offense trajectories. Criminology, 45, 835863.
Wong T. M., Loeber R., Slotboom A.-M., Bijleveld C. C., Hipwell A. E., Stepp S. D., et al. (2013). Sex and age differences in the risk threshold for delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 641652.
Yudin L. W. (1966). An abbreviated form of the WISC for use with emotionally disturbed children. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30, 272275.
Zeger S. L., Liang K.-Y., & Albert P. S. (1988). Models for longitudinal data: A generalized estimating equation approach. Biometrics, 44, 10491060.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 42
Total number of PDF views: 275 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1075 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.