This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
A. Caspi , B. W. Roberts , & R. L. Shiner (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484.
J. K. Connor-Smith , & C. Flachsbart (2007). Relations between personality and coping: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1080–1107.
J. M. Digman (1997). Higher-order factors of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1246–1256.
M. B. Donnellan , K. J. Conger , K. K. McAdams , & T. K. Neppl (2009). Personality characteristics and resilience to economic hardship and its consequences: Conceptual issues and empirical illustrations. Journal of Personality, 77, 1645–1675.
N. M. Else-Quest , J. S. Hyde , H. H. Goldsmith , & C. Van Hulle (2006). Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 33–72.
D. Finkelman , M. J. Ferrarese , & N. Garmezy (1989). A factorial, reliability, and validity study of the Devereux Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 64, 535–547.
S. D. Gest , M.-G. Reed , & A. S. Masten (1999). Measuring developmental changes in exposure to adversity: A Life Chart and rating scale approach. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 171–192.
R. M. Hauser , & D. L. Featherman (1977). The process of stratification: Trends and analysis. New York: Academic Press.
J. E. Herbers , J. J. Cutuli , T. L. Lafavor , D. Vrieze , C. Leibel , J. Obradović , (2011). Direct and indirect effects of parenting on academic functioning of young homeless children. Early Education and Development, 22, 77–104.
P. C. Kendall , D. S. Pellegrini , & E. S. Urbain (1981). Approaches to assessment for cognitive–behavioral interventions for children. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.), Assessment strategies for cognitive–behavioral interventions with children (pp. 227–285). New York: Academic Press.
K. M. King , B. S. G. Molina , & L. Chassin (2008). A state-trait model of negative life event occurrence in adolescence: Predictors of stability in the occurrence of stressors. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 848–859.
B. Laursen , C. A. Hafen , K H. Rubin , C. Booth-LaForce , & L. Rose-Krasnor (2010). The distinctive difficulties of disagreeable youth. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 56, 80–103.
S. Luthar , D. Cicchetti , & B. Becker (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.
A. S. Masten (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.
A. S. Masten , & J. D. Coatsworth (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.
A. S. Masten , N. Garmezy , A. Tellegen , D. S. Pellegrini , K. Larkin , & A. Larsen (1988). Competence and stress in school children: The moderating effects of individual and family qualities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 29, 745–764.
A. S. Masten , P. Morison , & D. S. Pellegrini (1985). A revised class method of peer assessment. Developmental Psychology, 21, 523–533.
A. H. Mezulis , J. S. Hyde , & L. Y. Abramson (2006). The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: Temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style. Developmental Psychology, 42, 1012–1025.
P. Morison , & A. S. Masten (1991). Peer reputation in middle childhood as a predictor of adaptation in adolescence: A seven-year follow-up. Child Development, 62, 991–1007.
J. Obradović , K. B. Burt , & A. S. Masten (2010). Testing a dual cascade model linking competence and symptoms over 20 years from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 90–102.
B. W. Roberts , N. R. Kuncel , R. L. Shiner , A. Caspi , & L. R. Goldberg (2007), The power of personality: The comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 2, 313–345.
G. I. Roisman , A. S. Masten , J. D. Coatsworth , & A. Tellegen (2004). Salient and emerging developmental tasks in the transition to adulthood. Child Development, 75, 123–133.
M. Rutter (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.
A. J. Sameroff (2000). Developmental systems and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 297–312.
J. K. Sapienza , & A. S. Masten (2011). Understanding and promoting resilience in children and youth. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24, 267–273.
R. L. Shiner (1998). How shall we speak of children's personalities in middle childhood?: A preliminary taxonomy. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 308–332.
R. L. Shiner (2000). Linking childhood personality with adaptation: Evidence for continuity and change across time into late adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 310–325.
R. L. Shiner , & A. Caspi (2003). Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: Measurement, development, and consequences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 2–32.
R. L. Shiner , A. S. Masten , & J. M. Roberts (2003). Childhood personality foreshadows adult personality and life outcomes two decades later. Journal of Personality, 71, 1145–1170.
L. Steinberg (2009). Should the science of adolescent brain development inform public policy? American Psychologist, 64, 739–750.
E. Waters , & L. A. Sroufe (1983). Social competence as a developmental construct. Developmental Review, 3, 79–97.
E. E. Werner (1996). Vulnerable but invincible: High risk children from birth to adulthood. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(Suppl. 1), 47–51.