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Emotional relationships between mothers and infants: Knowns, unknowns, and unknown unknowns

  • Marc H. Bornstein (a1), Joan T. D. Suwalsky (a1) and Dana A. Breakstone (a1)


An overview of the literature pertaining to the construct of emotional availability is presented, illustrated by a sampling of relevant studies. Methodological, statistical, and conceptual problems in the existing corpus of research are discussed, and suggestions for improving future investigations of this important construct are offered.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Marc H. Bornstein, Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Suite 8030, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-7971; E-mail:


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Emotional relationships between mothers and infants: Knowns, unknowns, and unknown unknowns

  • Marc H. Bornstein (a1), Joan T. D. Suwalsky (a1) and Dana A. Breakstone (a1)


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