Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Phenotype–environment correlations in longitudinal twin models

  • Christopher R. Beam (a1) and Eric Turkheimer (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Gene–environment correlation (rGE) exists both within and between families. Between families, accumulating rGE has been used to explain dramatic changes in phenotypic means over time. The Dickens and Flynn model of increases in cognitive ability over generational time, for example, suggests that small changes in phenotype can lead to subsequent reallocation of environmental resources. This process sets up a reciprocal feedback loop between phenotype and environment, producing accumulating rGE that can cause large changes in the mean of ability, even though ability remains highly heritable in cross-sectional data. We report simulations suggesting that similar processes may operate within twin and sibling pairs. Especially in dizygotic twins and siblings, small differences in phenotype can become associated with reallocations of environmental resources within families. We show that phenotype–environment effects can account for age-related increases in rGE, rapid differentiation of siblings raised together, and widely reported increases in the heritability of behavior during childhood and adolescence.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Christopher R. Beam, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22904; E-mail: crb8v@virginia.edu.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. Bartels , E. J. C. G. van den Oord , J. J. Hudziak , M. J. H. Rietveld , C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt , & D. I. Boomsma (2004). Genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying stability and change in problem behaviors at ages 3, 7, 10, and 12. Developmental Psychology, 40, 852867.

E. G. Bishop , S. S. Cherny , R. Corley , R. Plomin , J. C. DeFries , & J. K. Hewitt (2003). Development genetic analysis of general cognitive ability from 1 to 12 years in a sample of adoptees, biological siblings, and twins. Intelligence, 31, 3149.

O. S. P. Davis , C. M. A. Haworth , & R. Plomin (2009). Dramatic increase in heritability of cognitive development from early to middle childhood: An 8-year longitudinal study of 8700 pairs of twins. Psychological Science, 20, 13011308.

W. T. Dickens , & J. R. Flynn (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox revisited. Psychological Review, 108, 346369.

L. J. Eaves , J. Long , & A. C. Heath (1986). A theory of developmental change in quantitative phenotypes applied to cognitive development. Behavior Genetics, 16, 143162.

C. M. A. Haworth , S. Carnell , E. L. Meaburn , S. P. D. Oliver , R. Plomin , & J. Wardle (2008). Increasing heritability of BMI and stronger associations with the FTO gene over childhood. Obesity, 16, 26632668.

R. A. Hoekstra , D. Bartels , & D. I. Boomsma (2007). Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 97114.

J. L. Jinks , & D. W. Fulker (1970). Comparison of the biometrical genetical, MAVA, and classical approaches to the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 73, 311349.

K. L. Klump , M. McGue , & W. G. Iacono (2000). Age differences in genetic and environmental influences on eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent and adolescent female twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 239251.

J. J. McArdle , & D. Epstein (1987). Latent growth curves within developmental structural equation models. Child Development, 58, 110133.

M. C. Neale , & L. R. Cardon (1992). Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

R. Plomin , & F. M. Spinath (2004). Intelligence: Genetics, genes, and genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 112129.

S. Scarr , & K. McCartney (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype → environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424435.

R. S. Wilson (1983). The Louisville Twin Study: Developmental synchronies in behavior. Child Development, 54, 298316.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 27 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 238 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.