Skip to main content Accessibility help

Prenatal stress and the developing brain: Risks for neurodevelopmental disorders

  • Bea R. H. Van den Bergh (a1) (a2), Robert Dahnke (a3) and Maarten Mennes (a4)
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.


The prenatal period is increasingly considered as a crucial target for the primary prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Understanding their pathophysiological mechanisms remains a great challenge. Our review reveals new insights from prenatal brain development research, involving (epi)genetic research, neuroscience, recent imaging techniques, physical modeling, and computational simulation studies. Studies examining the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal distress on offspring brain development, using brain imaging techniques, reveal effects at birth and up into adulthood. Structural and functional changes are observed in several brain regions including the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as the cerebellum, hippocampus, and amygdala. Furthermore, alterations are seen in functional connectivity of amygdalar–thalamus networks and in intrinsic brain networks, including default mode and attentional networks. The observed changes underlie offspring behavioral, cognitive, emotional development, and susceptibility to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. It is concluded that used brain measures have not yet been validated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, or robustness in predicting neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, more prospective long-term longitudinal follow-up studies starting early in pregnancy should be carried out, in order to examine brain developmental measures as mediators in mediating the link between prenatal stress and offspring behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems and susceptibility for disorders.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Bea R. H. Van den Bergh, Health Psychology, KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium; E-mail:


Hide All

This research was supported by funding from EU FP7/Health.2011.2.22-2 and GA2798219 (to B.v.d.B.).



Hide All
Alansary, A., Rajchl, M., McDonagh, S. G., Murgasova, M., Damodaram, M., Lloyd, D. F., … Kainz, B. (2017). PVR: Patch-to-volume reconstruction for large area motion correction of fetal MRI. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 36. doi:10.1109/TMI.2017.2737081
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Arcos-Burgos, M., Vélez, J. I., Solomon, B. D., & Muenke, M. (2012). A common genetic network underlies substance use disorders and disruptive or externalizing disorders. Human Genetics, 131, 917929. doi:10.1007/s00439-012-1164-4
Ashburner, J., & Friston, K. J. (2000). Voxel-based morphometry—The methods. NeuroImage, 11(6, Pt. 1), 805821. doi:10.1006/nimg.2000.0582
Ashburner, J., & Friston, K. J. (2011). Diffeomorphic registration using geodesic shooting and Gauss-Newton optimisation. NeuroImage, 55, 954967. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.12.049
Atasoy, S., Donnelly, I., & Pearson, J. (2016). Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves. Nature Communications, 7, 10340. doi:10.1038/ncomms10340
Avants, B. B., Tustison, N. J., Song, G., Cook, P. A., Klein, A., & Gee, J. C. (2011). A reproducible evaluation of ANTs similarity metric performance in brain image registration. NeuroImage, 54, 20332044. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.025
Babb, J. A., Deligiannidis, K. M., Murgatroyd, C. A., & Nephew, B. C. (2015). Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures. Behavioural Brain Research, 276, 3244. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.03.039
Ball, G., Aljabar, P., Zebari, S., Tusor, N., Arichi, T., Merchant, N., … Counsell, S. J. (2014). Rich-club organization of the newborn human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 74567461. doi:10.1073/pnas.1324118111
Barch, D. M., & Carter, C. S. (2016). Functional and structural brain connectivity in psychopathology. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 1, 196198. doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.03.006
Barker, D. J. (1990). The fetal and infant origins of adult disease. British Medical Journal, 301, 1111.
Batalle, D., Hughes, E. J., Zhang, H., Tournier, J. D., Tusor, N., Aljabar, P., … Counsell, S. J. (2017). Early development of structural networks and the impact of prematurity on brain connectivity. NeuroImage, 149, 379392. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.01.065
Bauer, A., Parsonage, M., Knapp, M., Iemmi, V., & Adelaja, B. (2014). Costs of perinatal mental health problems London: London School of Economics.
Bayly, P. V., Taber, L. A., & Kroenke, C. D. (2014). Mechanical forces in cerebral cortical folding: A review of measurements and models. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 29, 568581. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.02.018
Behan, P., & Geschwind, N. (1985). Dyslexia, congenital anomalies, and immune disorders: The role of the fetal environmenta. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 457, 1318. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1985.tb20796.x
Behrens, T. E. J., & Sporns, O. (2012). Human connectomics. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 22, 144153. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2011.08.005
Ben-Ari, Y. (2008). Neuro-archaeology: Pre-symptomatic architecture and signature of neurological disorders. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 626636. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2008.09.002
Ben-Ari, Y., & Spitzer, N. C. (2010). Phenotypic checkpoints regulate neuronal development. Trends in Neurosciences, 33, 485492. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2010.08.005
Benasich, A. A., Choudhury, N., Friedman, J. T., Realpe-Bonilla, T., Chojnowska, C., & Gou, Z. (2006). The infant as a prelinguistic model for language learning impairments: Predicting from event-related potentials to behavior. Neuropsychologia, 44, 396411. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.06.004
Benes, F. M., Vincent, S. L., & Todtenkopf, M. (2001). The density of pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenic and bipolar subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 395406. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01084-8
Bernadskaya, Y., & Christiaen, L. (2016). Transcriptional control of developmental cell behaviors. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 32, 77101. doi:10.1146/annurev-cellbio-111315-125218
Billiet, T., Vandenbulcke, M., Mädler, B., Peeters, R., Dhollander, T., Zhang, H., … Emsell, L. (2015). Age-related microstructural differences quantified using myelin water imaging and advanced diffusion MRI. Neurobiology of Aging, 36, 21072121. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.02.029
Bock, J., Rether, K., Gröger, N., Xie, L., & Braun, K. (2014). Perinatal programming of emotional brain circuits: An integrative view from systems to molecules. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8, 11. doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00011
Bock, J., Wainstock, T., Braun, K., & Segal, M. (2015). Stress in utero: Prenatal programming of brain plasticity and cognition. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 315326. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.02.036
Bowers, M. E., & Yehuda, R. (2016). Intergenerational transmission of stress in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 232244. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.247
Braun, K., Bock, J., Wainstock, T., Matas, E., Gaisler-Salomon, I., Fegert, J., … Segal, M. (2017). Experience-induced transgenerational (re-)programming of neuronal structure and functions: Impact of stress prior and during pregnancy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.05.021
Brummelte, S. (2017). Introduction: Early adversity and brain development. Neuroscience, 342, 13. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.09.041
Budday, S., Steinmann, P., & Kuhl, E. (2015). Physical biology of human brain development. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 9. doi:10.3389/fncel.2015.00257
Buss, C., Davis, E. P., Muftuler, L. T., Head, K., & Sandman, C. A. (2010). High pregnancy anxiety during mid-gestation is associated with decreased gray matter density in 6–9-year-old children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 141153. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.07.010
Buss, C., Davis, E. P., Shahbaba, B., Pruessner, J. C., Head, K., & Sandman, C. A. (2012). Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, E1312E1319. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201295109
Cao, M., Wang, Z., & He, Y. (2015). Connectomics in psychiatric research: Advances and applications. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment, 11, 28012810.
Castellanos, F. X., & Aoki, Y. (2016). Intrinsic functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A science in development. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 1, 253261. doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.03.004
Castellanos, F. X., & Proal, E. (2012). Large-scale brain systems in ADHD: Beyond the prefrontal–striatal model. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 1726. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2011.11.007
Chang, Y. S., Owen, J. P., Pojman, N. J., Thieu, T. U., Bukshpun, P., Wakahiro, M. L. J., … Mukherjee, P. (2015). White matter changes of neurite density and fiber orientation dispersion during human brain maturation. PLOS ONE, 10, 123. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123656
Charil, A., Laplante, D. P., Vaillancourt, C., & King, S. (2010). Prenatal stress and brain development. Brain Research Reviews, 65, 5679. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2010.06.002
Chen, L., Pan, H., Tuan, T. A., Teh, A. L., MacIsaac, J. L., Mah, S. M., … Holbrook, J. D. (2015). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism influences the association of the methylome with maternal anxiety and neonatal brain volumes. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 137150. doi:10.1017/S0954579414001357
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 587600.
Choudhry, Z., Sengupta, S. M., Grizenko, N., Fortier, M.-E., Thakur, G. A., Bellingham, J., & Joober, R. (2012). LPHN3 and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Interaction with maternal stress during pregnancy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 892902. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02551.x
Cicchetti, D., Handley, E. D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2015). Child maltreatment, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms: Investigating the roles of C-reactive protein, gene variation, and neuroendocrine regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 553566. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000152
Cole, D. M., Smith, S. M., & Beckmann, C. F. (2010). Advances and pitfalls in the analysis and interpretation of resting-state FMRI data. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 4, 8. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2010.00008
Collin, G., & van den Heuvel, M. P. (2013). The ontogeny of the human connectome: Development and dynamic changes of brain connectivity across the life span. Neuroscientist, 19, 616628. doi:10.1177/1073858413503712
Conti, E., Mitra, J., Calderoni, S., Pannek, K., Shen, K. K., Pagnozzi, A., … Guzzetta, A. (2017). Network over-connectivity differentiates autism spectrum disorder from other developmental disorders in toddlers: A diffusion MRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 38, 23332344. doi:10.1002/hbm.23520
Czepielewski, L. S., Wang, L., Gama, C. S., & Barch, D. M. (2017). The relationship of intellectual functioning and cognitive performance to brain structure in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43, 355364. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbw090
Dahnke, R., Yotter, R. A., & Gaser, C. (2013). Cortical thickness and central surface estimation. NeuroImage, 65, 336348. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.050
Davis, E. P., Sandman, C. A., Buss, C., Wing, D. A., & Head, K. (2013). Fetal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with preadolescent brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 647655. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.009
Davis, J., Eyre, H., Jacka, F. N., Dodd, S., Dean, O., McEwen, S., … Berk, M. (2016). A review of vulnerability and risks for schizophrenia: Beyond the two hit hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 65, 185194. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.017
Dawson, G., Frey, K., Panagiotides, H., Osterling, J., & Hessl, D. (1997). Infants of depressed mothers exhibit atypical frontal brain activity: A replication and extension of previous findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 179186. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01852.x
Dennis, E. L., & Thompson, P. M. (2013). Typical and atypical brain development: A review of neuroimaging studies. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15, 359382.
Deoni, S. C. L., Dean, D. C. III, Piryatinsky, I., O'Muircheartaigh, J., Waskiewicz, N., Lehman, K., … Dirks, H. (2013). Breastfeeding and early white matter development: A cross-sectional study. NeuroImage, 82, 7786. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.090
Deoni, S. C. L., Zinkstok, J. R., Daly, E., Ecker, C., Williams, S. C. R., & Murphy, D. G. M. (2014). White-matter relaxation time and myelin water fraction differences in young adults with autism. Psychological Medicine, 45, 795805. doi:10.1017/S0033291714001858
Di Martino, A., Fair, D. A., Kelly, C., Satterthwaite, T. D., Castellanos, F. X., Thomason, M. E., … Milham, M. P. (2014). Unraveling the miswired connectome: A developmental perspective. Neuron, 83, 13351353. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.050
Donovan, A. P. A., & Basson, M. A. (2017). The neuroanatomy of autism—A developmental perspective. Journal of Anatomy, 230, 415. doi:10.1111/joa.12542
Doria, V., Beckmann, C. F., Arichi, T., Merchant, N., Groppo, M., Turkheimer, F. E., … Edwards, A. D. (2010). Emergence of resting state networks in the preterm human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 2001520020. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007921107
Dubois, J., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., Kulikova, S., Poupon, C., Hüppi, P. S., & Hertz-Pannier, L. (2014). The early development of brain white matter: A review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants. Neuroscience, 276, 4871. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.12.044
El Marroun, H., Tiemeier, H., Muetzel, R. L., Thijssen, S., van der Knaap, N. J. F., Jaddoe, V. W. V., … White, T. J. H. (2016). Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and brain morphology: A population-based prosepctive neuroimaging study in young children. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 658666. doi:10.1002/da.22524
Erk, S., Mohnke, S., Ripke, S., Lett, T. A., Veer, I. M., Wackerhagen, C., … Walter, H. (2017). Functional neuroimaging effects of recently discovered genetic risk loci for schizophrenia and polygenic risk profile in five RDoC subdomains. Translational Psychiatry, 7, e997. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.272
Evans, A. C., & Brain Development Cooperative Group. (2006). The NIH MRI study of normal brain development. NeuroImage, 30, 184202. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.09.068
Falk, A., Heine, V. M., Harwood, A. J., Sullivan, P. F., Peitz, M., Brustle, O., … Djurovic, S. (2016). Modeling psychiatric disorders: From genomic findings to cellular phenotypes. Molecular Psychiatry, 21, 11671179. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.89
Favaro, A., Tenconi, E., Degortes, D., Manara, R., & Santonastaso, P. (2015). Neural correlates of prenatal stress in young women. Psychological Medicine, 45, 25332543. doi:10.1017/S003329171500046X
Field, T., & Diego, M. (2008). Maternal depression effects on infant frontal EEG asymmetry. International Journal of Neuroscience, 118, 10811108. doi:10.1080/00207450701769067
Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Figueiredo, B., Deeds, O., Ascencio, A., … Kuhn, C. (2010). Comorbid depression and anxiety effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 2329. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.004
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Diego, M. (2006). Intrusive and withdrawn depressed mothers and their infants. Developmental Review, 26, 1530. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2005.04.001
Fischl, B. R. (2012). FreeSurfer. NeuroImage, 62, 774781. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.021
Francx, W., Llera, A., Mennes, M., Zwiers, M. P., Faraone, S. V., Oosterlaan, J., … Beckmann, C. F. (2016). Integrated analysis of gray and white matter alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical, 11, 357367. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2016.03.005
Franke, K., Luders, E., May, A., Wilke, M., & Gaser, C. (2012). Brain maturation: Predicting individual BrainAGE in children and adolescents using structural MRI. NeuroImage, 63, 13051312. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.08.001
Franke, K., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., de Rooij, S. R., Nathanielsz, P. W., Witte, O. W., Roseboom, T. J., & Schwab, M. (2017). Effects of prenatal stress on structural brain development and aging in humans. bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/148916
Franke, K., Ziegler, G., Klöppel, S., & Gaser, C. (2010). Estimating the age of healthy subjects from T1-weighted MRI scans using kernel methods: Exploring the influence of various parameters. NeuroImage, 50, 883892. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.005
Fransson, P., & Marrelec, G. (2008). The precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex plays a pivotal role in the default mode network: Evidence from a partial correlation network analysis. NeuroImage, 42, 11781184. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.05.059
Fransson, P., Skiold, B., Horsch, S., Nordell, A., Blennow, M., Lagercrantz, H., & Aden, U. (2007). Resting-state networks in the infant brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 1553115536. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704380104
Gaser, C., Nenadic, I., Buchsbaum, B. R., Hazlett, E. A., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (2001). Deformation-based morphometry and its relation to conventional volumetry of brain lateral ventricles in MRI. NeuroImage, 13(6, Pt. 1), 11401145. doi:10.1006/nimg.2001.0771
Gaser, C., & Schlaug, G. (2003). Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 92409245.
Geschwind, D. H., & Flint, J. (2015). Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science, 349, 14891494. doi:10.1126/science.aaa8954
Ghiani, C. A., & Faundez, V. (2017). Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95, 10931096. doi:10.1002/jnr.24041
Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., Cooper, C., & Thornburg, K. L. (2008). Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 6173. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0708473
Gupta, K. K., Gupta, V. K., & Shirasaka, T. (2016). An update on fetal alcohol syndrome—Pathogenesis, risks, and treatment. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 40, 15941602. doi:10.1111/acer.13135
Habas, P. A., Kim, K., Rousseau, F., Glenn, O. A., Barkovich, A. J., & Studholme, C. (2010). Atlas-based segmentation of developing tissues in the human brain with quantitative validation in young fetuses. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 13481358. doi:10.1002/hbm.20935
Habes, M., Erus, G., Toledo, J. B., Zhang, T., Bryan, N., Launer, L. J., … Davatzikos, C. (2016). White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population. Brain, 139(Pt. 4), 11641179. doi:10.1093/brain/aww008
Hagmann, P. (2005). From diffusion MRI to brain connectomics (PhD dissertation, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne).
Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Meuli, R., Honey, C. J., Wedeen, V. J., & Sporns, O. (2008). Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex. PLOS Biology, 6, e159. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060159
Hagmann, P., Grant, P., & Fair, D. (2012). MR connectomics: A conceptual framework for studying the developing brain. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 6. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2012.00043
Han, K., Chapman, S. B., & Krawczyk, D. C. (2016). Disrupted intrinsic connectivity among default, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control networks in individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 263279. doi:10.1017/S1355617715001393
Hanson, M., & Gluckman, P. (2011). Developmental origins of noncommunicable disease: Population and public health implications. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(Suppl.), 1754S1758S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.001206
Haroutunian, V., Katsel, P., Roussos, P., Davis, K. L., Altshuler, L. L., & Bartzokis, G. (2014). Myelination, oligodendrocytes, and serious mental illness. Glia, 62, 18561877. doi:10.1002/glia.22716
Harvison, K. W., Molfese, D. L., Woodruff-Borden, J., & Weigel, R. A. (2009). Neonatal auditory evoked responses are related to perinatal maternal anxiety. Brain and Cognition, 71, 369374. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.06.004
Hong, S.-B., Zalesky, A., Fornito, A., Park, S., Yang, Y.-H., Park, M.-H., … Kim, J.-W. (2014). Connectomic disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A whole-brain tractography analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 76, 656663. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.12.013
Howard, L. M., Molyneaux, E., Dennis, C.-L., Rochat, T., Stein, A., & Milgrom, J. (2014). Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period. Lancet, 384, 17751788. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61276-9
Howard, L. M., Piot, P., & Stein, A. (2014). No health without perinatal mental health. Lancet, 384, 17231724. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62040-7
Huang, A. C., Hu, L., Kauffman, S. A., Zhang, W., & Shmulevich, I. (2009). Using cell fate attractors to uncover transcriptional regulation of HL60 neutrophil differentiation. BMC Systems Biology, 3, 20. doi:10.1186/1752-0509-3-20
Hunter, S. K., Mendoza, J. H., D'Anna, K., Zerbe, G. O., McCarthy, L., Hoffman, C., … Ross, R. G. (2012). Antidepressants may mitigate the effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant auditory sensory gating. American Journal Psychiatry, 169, 616624.
Hyde, L. W. (2015). Developmental psychopathology in an era of molecular genetics and neuroimaging: A developmental neurogenetics approach. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 587613. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000188
Irimia, M., Weatheritt, R. J., Ellis, J., Parikshak, N. N., Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, T., Babor, M., … Blencowe, B. J. (2014). A highly conserved program of neuronal microexons is misregulated in autistic brains. Cell, 159, 15111523. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.035
Jakab, A., Kasprian, G., Schwartz, E., Gruber, G. M., Mitter, C., Prayer, D., … Langs, G. (2015). Disrupted developmental organization of the structural connectome in fetuses with corpus callosum agenesis. NeuroImage, 111, 277288. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.038
Jakab, A., Schwartz, E., Kasprian, G., Gruber, G. M., Prayer, D., Schöpf, V., & Langs, G. (2014). Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00852
Jelescu, I. O., Veraart, J., Adisetiyo, V., Milla, S. S., Novikov, D. S., & Fieremans, E. (2015). One diffusion acquisition and different white matter models: How does microstructure change in human early development based on WMTI and NODDI? NeuroImage, 107, 242256. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.009
Jiang, X., & Nardelli, J. (2016). Cellular and molecular introduction to brain development. Neurobiology of Disease, 92 (Pt. A), 317. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2015.07.007
Johnson, M. H., Jones, E. J. H., & Gliga, T. (2015). Brain adaptation and alternative developmental trajectories. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 425442. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000073
Jones, I., Chandra, P. S., Dazzan, P., & Howard, L. M. (2014). Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Lancet, 384, 17891799. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61278-2
Kang, H. J., Kawasawa, Y. I., Cheng, F., Zhu, Y., Xu, X., Li, M., … Sestan, N. (2011). Spatio-temporal transcriptome of the human brain. Nature, 478, 483489.
Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 43024311.
Karst, A. T., & Hutsler, J. J. (2016). Two-dimensional analysis of the supragranular layers in autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 32, 96105. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2016.09.004
Khan, S., Gramfort, A., Shetty, N. R., Kitzbichler, M. G., Ganesan, S., Moran, J. M., … Kenet, T. (2013). Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 31073112. doi:10.1073/pnas.1214533110
Kipping, J. A., Tuan, T. A., Foiiter, M. V., & Qiu, A. (2016). Asynchronous development of cerebellar, cerebello-cortical, and cortico-cortical functional networks in infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 115.
Klein, A., & Tourville, J. (2012). 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6. doi:10.3389/fnins.2012.00171
Kofink, D., Boks, M. P. M., Timmers, H. T. M., & Kas, M. J. (2013). Epigenetic dynamics in psychiatric disorders: Environmental programming of neurodevelopmental processes. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 831845. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.03.020
Kostović, I., Jovanov-Milošević, N., Radoš, M., Sedmak, G., Benjak, V., Kostović-Srzentić, M., … Judaš, M. (2014). Perinatal and early postnatal reorganization of the subplate and related cellular compartments in the human cerebral wall as revealed by histological and MRI approaches. Brain Structure and Function, 219, 231253. doi:10.1007/s00429-012-0496-0
Kostović, I., Judaš, M., & Sedmak, G. (2011). Developmental history of the subplate zone, subplate neurons and interstitial white matter neurons: Relevance for schizophrenia. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 29, 193205. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2010.09.005
Kostović, I., Sedmak, G., Vukšić, M., & Judaš, M. (2015). The relevance of human fetal subplate zone for developmental neuropathology of neuronal migration disorders and cortical dysplasia. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 21, 7482. doi:10.1111/cns.12333
Koyama, M. S., Di Martino, A., Castellanos, F. X., Ho, E. J., Marcelle, E., Leventhal, B., & Milham, M. P. (2016). Imaging the “at-risk” brain: Future directions. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 164179. doi:10.1017/S1355617715001356
Kunz, N., Zhang, H., Vasung, L., O'Brien, K. R., Assaf, Y., Lazeyras, F., … Hüppi, P. S. (2014). Assessing white matter microstructure of the newborn with multi-shell diffusion MRI and biophysical compartment models. NeuroImage, 96, 288299. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.057
Kushnerenko, E. V., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., & Winkler, I. (2013). Separating acoustic deviance from novelty during the first year of life: A review of event-related potential evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 595. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00595
Lebel, C., Gee, M., Camicioli, R., Wieler, M., Martin, W., & Beaulieu, C. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tract evolution over the lifespan. NeuroImage, 60, 340352. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.094
Lebel, C., Walton, M., Letourneau, N., Giesbrecht, G. F., Kaplan, B. J., & Dewey, D. (2016). Prepartum and postpartum maternal depressive symptoms are related to children's brain structure in preschool. Biological Psychiatry, 80, 859868. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.12.004
Lewis, A. J., Galbally, M., Gannon, T., & Symeonides, C. (2014). Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders. BMC Medicine, 12. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-33
Lewitus, E., Kelava, I., & Huttner, W. B. (2013). Conical expansion of the outer subventricular zone and the role of neocortical folding in evolution and development. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00424
Li, G., Nie, J., Wang, L., Shi, F., Lyall, A. E., Lin, W., … Shen, D. (2014). Mapping longitudinal hemispheric structural asymmetries of the human cerebral cortex from birth to 2 years of age. Cerebral Cortex, 24, 12891300. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs413
Li, G., Wang, L., Shi, F., Lyall, A. E., Lin, W., Gilmore, J. H., & Shen, D. (2014). Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 42284238. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3976-13.2014
Loomans, E. M., van Dijk, A. E., Vrijkotte, T. G. M., van Eijsden, M., Stronks, K., Gemke, R. J. B. J., & Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2013). Psychosocial stress during pregnancy is related to adverse birth outcomes: Results from a large multi-ethnic community-based birth cohort. European Journal of Public Health, 23, 485491.
Lupien, S. J., Parent, S., Evans, A. C., Tremblay, R. E., Zelazo, P. D., Corbo, V., … Séguin, J. R. (2011). Larger amygdala but no change in hippocampal volume in 10-year-old children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 1432414329. doi:10.1073/pnas.1105371108
Lusby, C. M., Goodman, S. H., Bell, M. A., & Newport, D. J. (2014). Electroencephalogram patterns in infants of depressed mothers. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 459473. doi:10.1002/dev.21112
Lusby, C. M., Goodman, S. H., Yeung, E. W., Bell, M. A., & Stowe, Z. N. (2016). Infant EEG and temperament negative affectivity: Coherence of vulnerabilities to mothers' perinatal depression. Development and Psychopathology, 28(4, Pt. 1), 895911. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000614
Lussier, S. J., & Stevens, H. E. (2016). Delays in GABAergic interneuron development and behavioral inhibition after prenatal stress. Developmental Neurobiology, 76, 10781091. doi:10.1002/dneu.22376
Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 43984403. doi:10.1073/pnas.070039597
Marami, B., Mohseni Salehi, S. S., Afacan, O., Scherrer, B., Rollins, C. K., Yang, E., … Gholipour, A. (2017). Temporal slice registration and robust diffusion-tensor reconstruction for improved fetal brain structural connectivity analysis. NeuroImage, 156(Suppl. C), 475488. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.04.033
Margulies, D. S., Böttger, J., Long, X., Lv, Y., Kelly, C., Schäfer, A., … Villringer, A. (2010). Resting developments: A review of fMRI post-processing methodologies for spontaneous brain activity. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 23, 289307. doi:10.1007/s10334-010-0228-5
Margulies, D. S., Vincent, J. L., Kelly, C., Lohmann, G., Uddin, L. Q., Biswal, B. B., … Petrides, M. (2009). Precuneus shares intrinsic functional architecture in humans and monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 2006920074. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905314106
Mascheretti, S., De Luca, A., Trezzi, V., Peruzzo, D., Nordio, A., Marino, C., & Arrigoni, F. (2017). Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: From genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms. Translational Psychiatry, 7, e987. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.240
Mennes, M., Stiers, P., Lagae, L., & Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2006). Long-term cognitive sequelae of antenatal maternal anxiety: Involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 10781086. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.04.003
Mennes, M., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Lagae, L., & Stiers, P. (2009). Developmental brain alterations in 17 year old boys are related to antenatal maternal anxiety. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120, 11161122. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2009.04.003
Mennes, M., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Sunaert, S. S., Lagae, L., & Stiers, P. (2016). Antenatal maternal anxiety modulates the BOLD response in 20-year old adolescents during an endogenous cognitive control task. bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/087817
Menon, V. (2013). Developmental pathways to functional brain networks: Emerging principles. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 627640. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2013.09.015
Meredith, R. M. (2015). Sensitive and critical periods during neurotypical and aberrant neurodevelopment: A framework for neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 50, 180188. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.12.001
Milgrom, J., Holt, C., Holt, C. J., Ross, J., Ericksen, J., & Gemmill, A. W. (2015). Feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of an antenatal depression treatment with infant follow-up. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 18, 717730. doi:10.1007/s00737-015-0512-5
Miller, K. L., Stagg, C. J., Douaud, G., Jbabdi, S., Smith, S. M., Behrens, T. E. J., … McNab, J. A. (2011). Diffusion imaging of whole, post-mortem human brains on a clinical MRI scanner. NeuroImage, 57, 167181. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.03.070
Mills, K. L., & Tamnes, C. K. (2014). Methods and considerations for longitudinal structural brain imaging analysis across development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 172190. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.04.004
Molfese, D. L. (2000). Predicting dyslexia at 8 years of age using neonatal brain responses. Brain Language, 72, 238245.
Mori, S., Kaufmann, W. E., Davatzikos, C., Stieltjes, B., Amodei, L., Fredericksen, K., … van Zijl, P. C. M. (2002). Imaging cortical association tracts in the human brain using diffusion-tensor-based axonal tracking. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 47, 215223.
Mulkey, S. B., Yap, V. L., Bai, S., Ramakrishnaiah, R. H., Glasier, C. M., Bornemeier, R. A., … Bhutta, A. T. (2015). Amplitude-integrated EEG in newborns with critical congenital heart disease predicts preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. Pediatric Neurology, 52, 599605. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.02.026
Müller, B. C. N., Kühn-Popp, N., Meinhardt, J., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2015). Long-term stability in children's frontal EEG alpha asymmetry between 14-months and 83-months. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 41, 110114. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.01.002
O'Connor, T. G., Monk, C., & Fitelson, E. M. (2014). Practitioner Review: Maternal mood in pregnancy and child development—Implications for child psychology and psychiatry. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 99111. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12153
Ogawa, S., Tank, D. W., Menon, R., Ellermann, J. M., Kim, S. G., Merkle, H., & Ugurbil, K. (1992). Intrinsic signal changes accompanying sensory stimulation: Functional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89, 59515955.
Otte, R. A., Donkers, F. C. L., Braeken, M. A. K. A., & Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2015). Multimodal processing of emotional information in 9-month-old infants: II. Prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety. Brain and Cognition, 95, 107117. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2014.12.001
Oubel, E., Koob, M., Studholme, C., Dietemann, J.-L., & Rousseau, F. (2010). Reconstruction of scattered data in fetal diffusion MRI. In Jiang, T., Navab, N., Pluim, J. P. W., & Viergever, M. A. (Eds.), Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention—MICCAI 2010: 13th International Conference, Beijing, China, September 20–24, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 574–581). Berlin: Springer.
Parikshak, N. N., Gandal, M. J., & Geschwind, D. H. (2015). Systems biology and gene networks in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Nature Reviews Genetics, 16, 441458. doi:10.1038/nrg3934
Peltola, M. J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Alink, L. R. A., Huffmeijer, R., Biro, S., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2014). Resting frontal EEG asymmetry in children: Meta-analyses of the effects of psychosocial risk factors and associations with internalizing and externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 13771389. doi:10.1002/dev.21223
Pletikos, M., Sousa, A. M. M., Sedmak, G., Meyer, K. A., Zhu, Y., Cheng, F., … Šestan, N. (2014). Temporal specification and bilaterality of human neocortical topographic gene expression. Neuron, 81, 321332. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.11.018
Poldrack, R. A. (2012). The future of fMRI in cognitive neuroscience. NeuroImage, 62, 12161220. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.08.007
Posner, J., Cha, J., Roy, A. K., Peterson, B. S., Bansal, R., Gustafsson, H. C., … Monk, C. (2016). Alterations in amygdala–prefrontal circuits in infants exposed to prenatal maternal depression. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e935. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.146
Power, J. D., Fair, D. A., Schlaggar, B. L., & Petersen, S. E. (2010). The development of human functional brain networks. Neuron, 67, 735748. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.017
Qin, S., Duan, X., Supekar, K., Chen, H., Chen, T., & Menon, V. (2016). Large-scale intrinsic functional network organization along the long axis of the human medial temporal lobe. Brain Structure and Function, 221, 32373258. doi:10.1007/s00429-015-1098-4
Qiu, A., Anh, T. T., Li, Y., Chen, H., Rifkin-Graboi, A., Broekman, B. F. P., … Meaney, M. J. (2015). Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e508. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.3
Qiu, A., Rifkin-Graboi, A., Chen, H., Chong, Y. S., Kwek, K., Gluckman, P. D., … Meaney, M. J. (2013). Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: Timing matters. Translational Psychiatry, 3, e306. doi:10.1038/tp.2013.79
Qiu, A., Tuan, T. A., Ong, M. L., Li, Y., Chen, H., Rifkin-Graboi, A., … Gluckman, P. D. (2015). COMT haplotypes modulate associations of antenatal maternal anxiety and neonatal cortical morphology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 163172. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14030313
Rakers, F., Rupprecht, S., Dreiling, M., Bergmeier, C., Witte, O. W., & Schwab, M. (2017). Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.02.019
Reid, L. B., Sale, M. V., Cunnington, R., Mattingley, J. B., & Rose, S. E. (2017). Brain changes following four weeks of unimanual motor training: Evidence from fMRI-guided diffusion MRI tractography. Human Brain Mapping, 9, 43024312 doi:10.1002/hbm.23514
Reuter, M., Tisdall, M. D., Qureshi, A., Buckner, R. L., van der Kouwe, A. J. W., & Fischl, B. R. (2015). Head motion during MRI acquisition reduces gray matter volume and thickness estimates. NeuroImage, 107, 107115. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.006
Richmond, S., Johnson, K. A., Seal, M. L., Allen, N. B., & Whittle, S. (2016). Development of brain networks and relevance of environmental and genetic factors: A systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 215239. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.024
Rifkin, L., Lewis, S., Jones, P., Toone, B., & Murray, R. (1994). Low birth weight and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 357362. doi:10.1192/bjp.165.3.357
Rifkin-Graboi, A., Bai, J., Chen, H., Hameed, W. B. R., Sim, L. W., Tint, M. T., … Qiu, A. (2013). Prenatal maternal depression associates with microstructure of right amygdala in neonates at birth. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 837844. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.06.019
Rifkin-Graboi, A., Meaney, M. J., Chen, H., Bai, J., Hameed, W. B. R., Tint, M. T., … Qiu, A. (2015). Antenatal maternal anxiety predicts variations in neural structures implicated in anxiety disorders in newborns. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 313321. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.01.013
Roalf, D. R., Quarmley, M., Elliott, M. A., Satterthwaite, T. D., Vandekar, S. N., Ruparel, K., … Gur, R. E. (2016). The impact of quality assurance assessment on diffusion tensor imaging outcomes in a large-scale population-based cohort. NeuroImage, 125, 903919. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.068
Robinson, E. C., Jbabdi, S., Glasser, M. F., Andersson, J., Burgess, G. C., Harms, M. P., … Jenkinson, M. (2014). MSM: A new flexible framework for Multimodal Surface Matching. NeuroImage, 100, 414426. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.069
Rubinov, M., & Sporns, O. (2010). Complex network measures of brain connectivity: Uses and interpretations. NeuroImage, 52, 10591069. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.10.003
Rutkowski, T. P., Schroeder, J. P., Gafford, G. M., Warren, S. T., Weinshenker, D., Caspary, T., & Mulle, J. G. (2017). Unraveling the genetic architecture of copy number variants associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95, 11441160. doi:10.1002/jnr.23970
Sandman, C. A., Buss, C., Head, K., & Davis, E. P. (2015). Fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms is associated with cortical thickness in late childhood. Biological Psychiatry, 77, 324334. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.06.025
Sarkar, S., Craig, M. C., Dell'Acqua, F., O'Connor, T. G., Catani, M., Deeley, Q., … Murphy, D. G. M. (2014). Prenatal stress and limbic-prefrontal white matter microstructure in children aged 6–9 years: A preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 15, 346352. doi:10.3109/15622975.2014.903336
Schaer, M., Cuadra, M. B., Tamarit, L., Lazeyras, F., Eliez, S., & Thiran, J.-P. (2008). A surface-based approach to quantify local cortical gyrification. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 27, 161170. doi:10.1109/TMI.2007.903576
Scheinost, D., Kwon, S. H., Lacadie, C., Sze, G., Sinha, R., Constable, R. T., & Ment, L. R. (2016). Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates. NeuroImage: Clinical, 12, 381388. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2016.08.010
Scheinost, D., Sinha, R., Cross, S. N., Kwon, S. H., Sze, G., Constable, R. T., & Ment, L. R. (2016). Does prenatal stress alter the developing connectome? Pediatric Research. Advance online publication. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.197
Schmidt, P., Gaser, C., Arsic, M., Buck, D., Förschler, A., Berthele, A., … Mühlau, M. (2012). An automated tool for detection of FLAIR-hyperintense white-matter lesions in Multiple Sclerosis. NeuroImage, 59, 37743783. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.032
Schöpf, V., Kasprian, G., Brugger, P. C., & Prayer, D. (2012). Watching the fetal brain at “rest.” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 30, 1117. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.10.006
Seckl, J. R. (2007). Glucocorticoids, developmental “programming” and the risk of affective dysfunction. In De Kloet, E. R., Oitzl, M. S., & Vermetten, E. (Eds.), Progress in brain research (Vol. 167, pp. 1734). New York: Elsevier.
Seiradake, E., Jones, E. Y. J., & Klein, R. (2016). Structural perspectives on axon guidance. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 32, 577608. doi:10.1146/annurev-cellbio-111315-125008
Silbereis, J. C., Pochareddy, S., Zhu, Y., Li, M., & Sestan, N. (2016). The cellular and molecular landscapes of the developing human central nervous system. Neuron, 89, 248268. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.008
Smith, S. M., Fox, P. T., Miller, K. L., Glahn, D. C., Fox, P. M., Mackay, C. E., … Beckmann, C. F. (2009). Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 1304013045. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905267106
Smyser, C. D., Inder, T. E., Shimony, J. S., Hill, J. E., Degnan, A. J., Snyder, A. Z., & Neil, J. J. (2010). Longitudinal analysis of neural network development in preterm infants. Cerebral Cortex, 20, 28522862. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhq035
Soe, N. N., Wen, D. J., Poh, J. S., Li, Y., Broekman, B. F. P., Chen, H., … Qiu, A. (2016). Pre- and post-natal maternal depressive symptoms in relation with infant frontal function, connectivity, and behaviors. PLOS ONE, 11, e0152991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152991
Sporns, O., Chialvo, D. R., Kaiser, M., & Hilgetag, C. C. (2004). Organization, development and function of complex brain networks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 418425. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.07.008
Sporns, O., Tononi, G., & Kötter, R. (2005). The human connectome: A structural description of the human brain. PLOS Computational Biology, 1, e42. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010042
Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1719.
Stam, C. J., Tewarie, P., van Dellen, E., van Straaten, E. C. W., Hillebrand, A., & van Mieghem, P. (2014). The trees and the forest: Characterization of complex brain networks with minimum spanning trees. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 92, 129138. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.04.001
Stam, C. J., & van Straaten, E. C. W. (2012). The organization of physiological brain networks. Clinical Neurophysiology, 123, 10671087. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2012.01.011
Stein, A., Pearson, R. M., Goodman, S. H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., … Pariante, C. M. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet, 384, 18001819. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61277-0
Striedter, G. F., Srinivasan, S., & Monuki, E. S. (2015). Cortical folding: When, where, how, and why? Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38, 291307. doi:10.1146/annurev-neuro-071714-034128
Suárez-Solá, M. L., González-Delgado, F. J., Pueyo-Morlans, M., Medina-Bolívar, O. C., Hernández-Acosta, N. C., González-Gómez, M., & Meyer, G. (2009). Neurons in the white matter of the adult human neocortex. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 3, 7. doi:10.3389/neuro.05.007.2009
Swanson, L. W., & Lichtman, J. W. (2016). From Cajal to connectome and beyond. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 39. doi:10.1146/annurev-neuro-071714-033954
Tallinen, T., & Biggins, J. S. (2015). Mechanics of invagination and folding: Hybridized instabilities when one soft tissue grows on another. Physical Review E, 92, 022720. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022720
Tallinen, T., Chung, J. Y., Rousseau, F., Girard, N., Lefèvre, J., & Mahadevan, L. (2016). On the growth and form of cortical convolutions. Nature Physics. Advance online publication. doi:10.1038/nphys3632
Tardif, C. L., Schäfer, A., Waehnert, M., Dinse, J., Turner, R., & Bazin, P.-L. (2015). Multi-contrast multi-scale surface registration for improved alignment of cortical areas. NeuroImage, 111, 107122. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.005
Teipel, S. J., Bokde, A. L. W., Meindl, T., Amaro, E., Soldner, J., Reiser, M. F., … Hampel, H. (2010). White matter microstructure underlying default mode network connectivity in the human brain. NeuroImage, 49, 20212032. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.10.067
Thapar, A., Cooper, M., & Rutter, M. (2017). Neurodevelopmental disorders. Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 339346. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30376-5
Thayer, J. F., Åhs, F., Fredrikson, M., Sollers, J. J., & Wager, T. D. (2012). A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: Implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 747756. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.11.009
Thomason, M. E., Brown, J. A., Dassanayake, M. T., Shastri, R., Marusak, H. A., Hernandez-Andrade, E., … Romero, R. (2014). Intrinsic functional brain architecture derived from graph theoretical analysis in the human fetus. PLOS ONE, 9, e94423. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094423
Thomason, M. E., Dassanayake, M. T., Shen, S., Katkuri, Y., Alexis, M., Anderson, A. L., … Romero, R. (2013). Cross-hemispheric functional connectivity in the human fetal brain. Science Translational Medicine, 5, 173ra124173ra124. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3004978
Thomason, M. E., Grove, L. E., Lozon, T. A. Jr., Vila, A. M., Ye, Y., Nye, M. J., … Romero, R. (2015). Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 11, 96104. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.09.001
Thomason, M. E., Scheinost, D., Manning, J. H., Grove, L. E., Hect, J., Marshall, N., … Romero, R. (2017). Weak functional connectivity in the human fetal brain prior to preterm birth. Scientific Reports, 7, 39286. doi:10.1038/srep39286
Thompson, C., Syddall, H., Rodin, I., Omond, C., & Barker, D. J. P. (2001). Birth weight and the risk of depressive disorder in late life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 450455. doi:10.1192/bjp.179.5.450
Toro, R. (2012). On the possible shapes of the brain. Evolutionary Biology, 39, 600612. doi:10.1007/s11692-012-9201-8
Tóth, B., Urbán, G., Háden, G. P., Márk, M., Török, M., Stam, C. J., & Winkler, I. (2017). Large-scale network organization of EEG functional connectivity in newborn infants. Human Brain Mapping, 38, 40194033. doi:10.1002/hbm.23645
Tourbier, S., Velasco-Annis, C., Taimouri, V., Hagmann, P., Meuli, R., Warfield, S. K., … Gholipour, A. (2017). Automated template-based brain localization and extraction for fetal brain MRI reconstruction. NeuroImage, 155(Suppl. C), 460472. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.04.004
Turner, B. M., Forstmann, B. U., Love, B. C., Palmeri, T. J., & van Maanen, L. (2017). Approaches to analysis in model-based cognitive neuroscience. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 76(Pt. B), 6579. doi:10.1016/
Turner, B. M., Rodriguez, C. A., Norcia, T. M., McClure, S. M., & Steyvers, M. (2016). Why more is better: Simultaneous modeling of EEG, fMRI, and behavioral data. NeuroImage, 128, 96115. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.030
Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2011). Developmental programming of early brain and behaviour development and mental health: A conceptual framework. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 53, 1923. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04057.x
Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2016). Maternal anxiety, mindfulness, and heart rate variability during pregnancy influence fetal and infant development. In Reissland, N. & Kisilevsky, B. S. (Eds.), Fetal development: Research on brain and behavior, environmental influences, and emerging technologies (pp. 267292). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., & Marcoen, A. (2004). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Development, 75, 10851097. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00727.x
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Mennes, M., Oosterlaan, J., Stevens, V., Stiers, P., Marcoen, A., & Lagae, L. (2005). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to impulsivity during performance on cognitive tasks in 14- and 15-year-olds. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 259269. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.10.010
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Mennes, M., Stevens, V., van der Meere, J., Borger, N., Stiers, P., … Lagae, L. (2006). ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety. Pediatric Reserch, 59, 7882.
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., Poelmann-Weesjes, G., Bekedam, D. J., & Prechtl, H. F. R. (1989). The effect of (induced) maternal emotions on fetal behaviour: A controlled study. Early Human Development, 19, 919. doi:10.1016/0378-3782(89)90100-X
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., van den Heuvel, M. I., Lahti, M., Braeken, M., de Rooij, S. R., Entringer, S., … Schwab, M. (2017). Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.07.003
van den Heuvel, M. I., Donkers, F. C., Winkler, I., Otte, R. A., & Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2015). Maternal mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy affect infants' neural responses to sounds. Social Cognitive Affective Neurosciience, 10, 453460. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu075
van den Heuvel, M. I., Henrichs, J., Donkers, F. C., & Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (in press). Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures. Developmental Science. doi:10.1111/desc.12612
van den Heuvel, M. I., Mandl, R., & Hulshoff Pol, H. (2008). Normalized cut group clustering of resting-state fMRI data. PLOS ONE, 3, e2001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002001
van den Heuvel, M. I., & Thomason, M. E. (2016). Functional connectivity of the human brain in utero. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2016.10.001
van Essen, D. C., & Barch, D. M. (2015). The human connectome in health and psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 14, 154157. doi:10.1002/wps.20228
van Essen, D. C., & Maunsell, J. H. R. (1980). Two-dimensional maps of the cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 191, 255281. doi:10.1002/cne.901910208
Vértes, P. E., & Bullmore, E. T. (2015). Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics—The organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 299320. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12365
von Leupoldt, A., Mangelschots, E., Niederstrasser, N. G., Braeken, M., Billiet, T., & Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2017). Prenatal stress exposure is associated with increased dyspnea perception in adulthood. European Respiratory Journal. Advance online publication.
Walhovd, K. B., Fjell, A. M., Giedd, J., Dale, A. M., & Brown, T. T. (2016). Through thick and thin: A need to reconcile contradictory results on trajectories in human cortical development. Cerebral Cortex. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv301
Watts, D. J., & Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of “small-world” networks. Nature, 393, 440442. doi:10.1038/30918
Wegiel, J., Kuchna, I., Nowicki, K., Imaki, H., Wegiel, J., Marchi, E., … Wisniewski, T. (2010). The neuropathology of autism: Defects of neurogenesis and neuronal migration, and dysplastic changes. Acta Neuropathologica, 119, 755770. doi:10.1007/s00401-010-0655-4
Weiskopf, N., Suckling, J., Williams, G. B., Correia, M. M., Inkster, B., Tait, R., … Lutti, A. (2013). Quantitative multi-parameter mapping of R1, PD, MT, and R2 at 3T: A multi-center validation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, 95. doi:10.3389/fnins.2013.00095
Wen, D. J., Poh, J. S., Ni, S. N., Chong, Y. S., Chen, H., Kwek, K., … Qiu, A. (2017). Influences of prenatal and postnatal maternal depression on amygdala volume and microstructure in young children. Translational Psychiatry, 7, e1103. doi:10.1038/tp.2017.74
Wen, Z. (2017). Modeling neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases with human iPSCs. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95, 10971109. doi:10.1002/jnr.24031
Williams, V. J., Juranek, J., Cirino, P., & Fletcher, J. M. (2017). Cortical thickness and local gyrification in children with developmental dyslexia. Cerebral Cortex. Advance online publication.
Winkler, A. M., Kochunov, P. V., Blangero, J., Almasy, L., Zilles, K., Fox, P. T., … Glahn, D. C. (2010). Cortical thickness or grey matter volume? The importance of selecting the phenotype for imaging genetics studies. NeuroImage, 53, 11351146. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.028
Winston, G. P., Micallef, C., Symms, M. R., Alexander, D. C., Duncan, J. S., & Zhang, H. (2014). Advanced diffusion imaging sequences could aid assessing patients with focal cortical dysplasia and epilepsy. Epilepsy Research, 108, 336339. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.11.004
Wright, R., Kyriakopoulou, V., Ledig, C., Rutherford, M. A., Hajnal, J. V., Rueckert, D., & Aljabar, P. (2014). Automatic quantification of normal cortical folding patterns from fetal brain MRI. NeuroImage, 91(Suppl. C), 2132. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.034
Wright, R., Makropoulos, A., Kyriakopoulou, V., Patkee, P. A., Koch, L. M., Rutherford, M. A., … Aljabar, P. (2015). Construction of a fetal spatio-temporal cortical surface atlas from in utero MRI: Application of spectral surface matching. NeuroImage, 120(Suppl. C), 467480. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.087
Yu, Q., Ouyang, A., Chalak, L., Jeon, T., Chia, J., Mishra, V., … Huang, H. (2015). Structural development of human fetal and preterm brain cortical plate based on population-averaged templates. Cerebral Cortex. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv201
Zhan, J., Dinov, I. D., Li, J., Zhang, Z., Hobel, S., Shi, Y., … Liu, S. (2013). Spatial–temporal atlas of human fetal brain development during the early second trimester. NeuroImage, 82, 115126. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.063
Ziats, M. N., Grosvenor, L. P., & Rennert, O. M. (2015). Functional genomics of human brain development and implications for autism spectrum disorders. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e665. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.153
Ziegler, G., Ridgway, G. R., Dahnke, R., Gaser, C., & Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. (2014). Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects. NeuroImage, 97(Suppl. C), 333348. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.04.01


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

A correction has been issued for this article: