Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Psychopathology and adaptive functioning among extremely low birthweight children at eight years of age

  • Peter Szatmari (a1), Saroj Saigal (a2), Peter Rosenbaum (a2) and Dugal Campbell (a1)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to explore the relationship among extremely low birthweight (ELBW), psychopathology, and impairments in adaptive functioning in a regional cohort of 7–8-year-old children with a birthweight of 501–1,000 g compared to a sample of full-term controls. One-hundred twenty-nine of 143 (90%) ELBW survivors and 145 controls, born between 1977 and 1981, agreed to participate in the study. The children were assessed at a mean, unadjusted age of 7.8 years. Results showed that parents of ELBW children were more likely than parents of controls to report specifically problems of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There were few differences between the groups in terms of impairments in adaptive functioning. Further analyses showed that the relationship between ELBW and ADHD could not be explained by confounding psychosocial risk factors, nor were ELBW children from disadvantaged environments more likely to have ADHD problems than ELBW children from nondisadvantaged environments. The relationships between ELBW and ADHD problems appeared to be associated with the lower IQ of the ELBW subjects.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence to: Peter Szatmari, M.D., Department of Psychiatry, Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals, Chedoke Division, Patterson Building, Box 2000, Station A, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5.

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Boyle, M. H., Offord, D. R., Hofmann, H. G., Catlin, G. P., Byles, J. A., Cadman, D. T., Crawford, J. W., Links, P. S., Rae-Grant, N. I., & Szatmari, P. (1987). Ontario Child Health Study: Methodology. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 826831.
Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine.
Breslau, N., Klein, N., & Allen, L. (1988). Very low birthweight: Behavioral sequelae at nine years of age. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 605612.
Brunshaw, J. P., & Szatmari, P. (1988). The agreement between behavior checklists and structured psychiatric interviews for children. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 474481.
Byles, J. A., Byrne, C., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1988). Ontario Child Health Study: Reliability and validity of the general functioning scale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family Process, 27, 97104.
Escalona, S. K. (1982). Babies at double hazard: Early development of infants at biologic and social risk. Pediatrics, 70, 670676.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1969). Two-factor index of social position (mimeograph). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kitchen, W., Ford, G., Orgill, A. et al. (1987). Out-come in infants of birth weight 500 to 999 gm: A continuing regional study of five-year-old survivors. Journal of Pediatrics, 111, 761766.
Lefebvre, F., Bard, H., Veilleux, A., & Martel, C. (1988). Outcome at school age of children with birthweights of 1000 grams or less. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 30, 170180.
Links, P. S., Boyle, M. H., Offord, D. R. (1989). Prevalence of emotional disorder in children. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 8591.
McCormick, M. C., Gortmacker, S. L., & Sobol, A. (1990). Very low birthweight children: Behavior problems and school difficulty in a national sample. Journal of Pediatrics, 117, 687693.
Nickel, R. E., Bennett, F. C., & Lamson, F. N. (1982). School performance of children with birth weights of 1,000 g or less. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 136, 105110.
Offord, D. R. (1985). Child psychiatric disorders: Prevalence and perspectives. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 8, 637652.
Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Szatmari, P., Rae-Grant, N. I., Links, P. S., Cadman, D. T., Byles, J. A., Crawford, J. W., Munroe Blum, H., Byrne, C., Thomas, H., & Woodward, C. A. (1987). Ontario Child Health Study. II: Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 832836.
Orvaschel, H., & Walsh, G. (1984). The assessment of adaptive functioning in children: A review of existing measures suitable for epidemiological and clinical services research (DHHS Publication No. ADM 84–1343). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Piers, E. V. (1969). Manual for the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Nashville, TN: Counselor Recordings and Tests.
Portnoy, S., Callias, M., Wolke, D., & Gamsu, H. (1988). Five-year follow-up study of extremely low-birthweight infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 30, 590598.
Rickards, A. L., Ford, G. W., Kitchen, W. H., Doyle, L. W., Lissenden, J. V., & Keith, C. G. (1987). Extremely-low-birthweight infants: Neurological, psychological, growth and health status beyond five years of age. Medical Journal of Australia, 147, 476481.
Ross, G., Lipper, E. G., & Auld, P. A. M. (1990). Social competence and behavior problems in premature children at school age. Pediatrics, 86, 391397.
Saigal, S., Szatmari, P., Rosenbaum, P., Campbell, D., & King, S. (1990). Intellectual and functional status at school entry of children who weighed 1000 gm or less at birth: A regional perspective of births in the 1980's. Journal of Pediatrics, 116, 409416.
Saigal, S., Rosenbaum, P., Szatmari, P., & Campbell, D. (1991). Learning disabilities and school problems in a regional cohort of extremely low birthweight (<1000 g) children: A comparison with matched term controls. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 12, 294300.
Saigal, S., Szatmari, P., Rosenbaum, P., Campbell, D., & King, S. (1991). Cognitive abilities and school performance of extremely low birthweight children and matched term control children at age 8 years: A regional study. Journal of Pediatrics, 118, 751760.
Sameroff, A. J. (1981). Longitudinal studies of preterm infants. In Friedman, S. L., & Sigman, M. (Eds.), Preterm birth and psychological development. New York: Academic Press.
Sanford, M. N., Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Peace, A., & Racine, Y. A. (1992). Ontario Child Health Study: Social and school impairments in children aged 6 to 16 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 6067.
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (Interview ed., Survey Form). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Szatmari, P. (1992). The epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics in North America, 1, 361371.
Szatmari, P., Boyle, M. H., Offord, D. R. (1989a). ADDH and conduct disorder: Degree of diagnostic overlap and differences among correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 865872.
Szatmari, P., Offord, D. R., & Boyle, M. H. (1989b). Correlates, associated impairments and patterns of service utilization of children with attention deficit disorder: Findings from the Ontario Child Health Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 207217.
Szatmari, P., Offord, D., and Boyle, M. H. (1989c). Ontario Child Health Study: Prevalence of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 219230.
Szatmari, P., Saigal, S., & Rosenbaum, P. (1991). The persistence of attention deficit disorders among extremely low birthweight children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Pediatric Society,Quebec City, PQ.
Szatmari, P., Saigal, S., Rosenbaum, P., Campbell, D., & King, S. (1990). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders at five years of age among children born under 1000 g birthweight: A regional perspective. Developmental Medicine of Child Neurology, 32, 954962.
Wechsler, D. (1974). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed