Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 71
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bovenschen, Ina Lang, Katrin Zimmermann, Janin Förthner, Judith Nowacki, Katja Roland, Inga and Spangler, Gottfried 2016. Foster children's attachment behavior and representation: Influence of children's pre-placement experiences and foster caregiver's sensitivity. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 51, p. 323.

    Goemans, Anouk van Geel, Mitch and Vedder, Paul 2016. Psychosocial functioning in Dutch foster children: The relationship with child, family, and placement characteristics. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 56, p. 30.

    Julien-Chinn, Francie J. and Lietz, Cynthia A. 2016. Permanency-Focused Supervision and Workers' Self-Efficacy: Exploring the Link. Social Work, Vol. 61, Issue. 1, p. 37.

    Kim, Soyoun and Chun, JongSerl 2016. Aggressive behaviors among Korean children in out-of-home care: The role of placement characteristics. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 66, p. 56.

    Puetz, Vanessa B. Zweerings, Jana Dahmen, Brigitte Ruf, Caroline Scharke, Wolfgang Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate and Konrad, Kerstin 2016. Multidimensional assessment of neuroendocrine and psychopathological profiles in maltreated youth. Journal of Neural Transmission,

    Undheim, Anne Mari Lydersen, Stian and Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen 2016. Do school teachers and primary contacts in residential youth care institutions recognize mental health problems in adolescents?. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,

    Balluerka, Nekane Muela, Alexander Amiano, Nora and Caldentey, Miguel A. 2015. Promoting psychosocial adaptation of youths in residential care through animal-assisted psychotherapy. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 50, p. 193.

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine Bernier, Annie Tarabulsy, George M. Cyr, Chantal St-Laurent, Diane Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie St-Onge, Janie Moss, Ellen and Béliveau, Marie-Julie 2015. Behavior problems of children in foster care: Associations with foster mothers’ representations, commitment, and the quality of mother–child interaction. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 48, p. 119.

    Farruggia, Susan P. and Germo, Gary R. 2015. Problem behavior among older youth in foster care: Examining gender. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 48, p. 20.

    Fisher, Philip A. 2015. Review: Adoption, fostering, and the needs of looked-after and adopted children. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 5.

    Goemans, Anouk van Geel, Mitch and Vedder, Paul 2015. Over three decades of longitudinal research on the development of foster children: A meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 42, p. 121.

    Harden, Brenda Jones Duncan, Aimée Drouin Morrison, Colleen I. Panlilio, Carlomagno and Clyman, Robert B. 2015. Compliance and Internalization in Preschool Foster Children. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 55, p. 103.

    Ireland, Timothy O. Smith, Carolyn A. and Walter, Jamie E. 2015. The Handbook of Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice.

    Jacobsen, Heidi 2015. Bindung und sozio-emotionale Fähigkeiten von jungen Pflegekindern - eine norwegische prospektive Längsschnittstudie/ Young Foster Children’s Attachment and Socio-emotional Functioning – A Norwegian Prospective and Longitudinal Study. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, Vol. 64, Issue. 10, p. 752.

    Johnson, Angela J. and Tottenham, Nim 2015. Regulatory skill as a resilience factor for adults with a history of foster care: A pilot study. Developmental Psychobiology, Vol. 57, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Russell, Jesse 2015. Child Welfare Finance and Foster Care Outcomes. Journal of Public Child Welfare, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 134.

    Bernedo, Isabel M. Salas, María D. Fuentes, María J. and García-Martín, Miguel Ángel 2014. Foster children's behavior problems and impulsivity in the family and school context. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 42, p. 43.

    Cushing, Gretta Samuels, Gina Miranda and Kerman, Ben 2014. Profiles of relational permanence at 22: Variability in parental supports and outcomes among young adults with foster care histories. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 39, p. 73.

    Fiorvanti, Christina M. Brassard, Marla R. and Schulte, Ann 2014. Advancing Child Protection Through Respecting Children's Rights: A Shifting Emphasis for School Psychology. School Psychology Review, Vol. 43, Issue. 4, p. 349.

    Havnen, Karen Skaale Breivik, Kyrre and Jakobsen, Reidar 2014. Stability and change - a 7- to 8-year follow-up study of mental health problems in Norwegian children in long-term out-of-home care. Child & Family Social Work, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 292.


The impact of foster care on development

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2006

Foster care is a protective intervention designed to provide out of home placement to children living in at-risk home environments. This study employs prospective longitudinal data (N = 189) to investigate the effects of foster care on the development of child behavior and psychological functioning taking into account baseline adaptation prior to placement and socioeconomic status at the time of placement. Comparisons were made among three groups: children who experienced foster care, those who were maltreated but remained in the home, and children who had not experienced foster care or maltreatment despite their similarly at-risk demographic characteristics. In the current sample, children placed in out of home care exhibited significant behavior problems in comparison to children who received adequate care, and using the same pre- and postplacement measure of adaptation, foster care children showed elevated levels of behavior problems following release from care. Similarly, children placed into unfamiliar foster care showed higher levels of internalizing problems compared with children reared by maltreating caregivers, children in familiar care, and children who received adequate caregiving. Findings suggest that outcomes related to foster care may vary with type of care and beyond the effects associated with maltreatment history, baseline adaptation, and socioeconomic status.Preparation of the work and the research described herein were supported by a National Institute of Mental Health grant (MN 40864) to Byron Egeland.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Byron Egeland, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455; E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *