Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 48
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Daley, Allison C. and Drage, Harriet B. 2016. The fossil record of ecdysis, and trends in the moulting behaviour of trilobites. Arthropod Structure & Development, Vol. 45, Issue. 2, p. 71.

    Dunlop, Jason A. and Lamsdell, James C. 2016. Segmentation and tagmosis in Chelicerata. Arthropod Structure & Development,

    Poschmann, Markus Schoenemann, Brigitte McCoy, Victoria E. and Zhang, Xi-Guang 2016. Telltale eyes: the lateral visual systems of Rhenish Lower Devonian eurypterids (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) and their palaeobiological implications. Palaeontology, Vol. 59, Issue. 2, p. 295.

    Lamsdell, James C. Briggs, Derek E. G. Liu, Huaibao P. Witzke, Brian J. and McKay, Robert M. 2015. The oldest described eurypterid: a giant Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) megalograptid from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa. BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Perrier, Vincent Williams, Mark and Siveter, David J. 2015. The fossil record and palaeoenvironmental significance of marine arthropod zooplankton. Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 146, p. 146.

    Selden, Paul A. Lamsdell, James C. and Qi, Liu 2015. An unusual euchelicerate linking horseshoe crabs and eurypterids, from the Lower Devonian (Lochkovian) of Yunnan, China. Zoologica Scripta, Vol. 44, Issue. 6, p. 645.

    Slater, Ben J. McLoughlin, Stephen and Hilton, Jason 2015. A high-latitude Gondwanan lagerstätte: The Permian permineralised peat biota of the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Gondwana Research, Vol. 27, Issue. 4, p. 1446.

    Anderson, R. P. McCoy, V. E. McNamara, M. E. and Briggs, D. E. G. 2014. What big eyes you have: the ecological role of giant pterygotid eurypterids. Biology Letters, Vol. 10, Issue. 7, p. 20140412.

    Garwood, Russell J. and Dunlop, Jason 2014. Three-dimensional reconstruction and the phylogeny of extinct chelicerate orders. PeerJ, Vol. 2, p. e641.

    Lamsdell, James C. 2013. Revised systematics of Palaeozoic ‘horseshoe crabs’ and the myth of monophyletic Xiphosura. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 167, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Lamsdell, James C and Selden, Paul A 2013. Babes in the wood – a unique window into sea scorpion ontogeny. BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 98.

    Lamsdell, James C. Hoşgör, İzzet and Selden, Paul A. 2013. A new Ordovician eurypterid (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) from southeast Turkey: Evidence for a cryptic Ordovician record of Eurypterida. Gondwana Research, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 354.

    Lamsdell, James C. 2012. Redescription of Drepanopterus pentlandicus Laurie, 1892, the earliest known mycteropoid (Chelicerata: Eurypterida) from the early Silurian (Llandovery) of the Pentland Hills, Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 103, Issue. 01, p. 77.

    Kamenz, Carsten Staude, Andreas and Dunlop, Jason A. 2011. Sperm carriers in Silurian sea scorpions. Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 98, Issue. 10, p. 889.

    Edgecombe, Gregory D. 2010. Palaeomorphology: fossils and the inference of cladistic relationships. Acta Zoologica, Vol. 91, Issue. 1, p. 72.

    Jin, Jisuo Lamsdell, James C. Braddy, Simon J. Loeffler, Elizabeth J. and Dineley, David L. 2010. Early Devonian stylonurine eurypterids from Arctic Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 47, Issue. 11, p. 1405.

    Poschmann, Markus and Braddy, Simon J. 2010. Eurypterid trackways from Early Devonian tidal facies of Alken an der Mosel (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, Vol. 90, Issue. 2, p. 111.

    LAMSDELL, JAMES C. BRADDY, SIMON J. and TETLIE, O. E. 2009. Redescription ofDrepanopterus abonensis(Chelicerata: Eurypterida: Stylonurina) from the late Devonian of Portishead, UK. Palaeontology, Vol. 52, Issue. 5, p. 1113.


    Tetlie, O. Erik Brandt, Danita S. and Briggs, Derek E.G. 2008. Ecdysis in sea scorpions (Chelicerata: Eurypterida). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 265, Issue. 3-4, p. 182.

  • Currently known as: Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh Title history
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, Volume 72, Issue 1
  • January 1981, pp. 9-48

Functional morphology of the prosoma of Baltoeurypterus tetragonophthalmus (Fischer) (Chelicerata: Eurypterida)

  • Paul A. Selden (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 November 2011

The prosomal morphology of Baltoeurypterus tetragonophthalmus (Fischer) from the Baltic Silurian is redescribed and reconstructed. The first eurypterid labrum and new secondary sexual characters of Baltoeurypterus are described. The radially-arranged coxae of Baltoeurypterus were capable of adduction and abduction for food mastication, but not promotor-remotor movements for locomotion. Joint diagrams are presented for the first time for an extinct arthropod. Promotion and remotion of the limbs occurred about subvertical trochanteral pivots, as in all other chelicerates except xiphosurans. Baltoeurypterus probably walked in a “slow” gait; a method of choosing possible gaits for extinct arthropods is outlined. Swimming in Baltoeurypterus was effected by means of a rowing action of the posterior limb pair, which is provided with complex joints for collapsing the paddle during the recovery stroke. The limb arrangement and joint mechanisms of Baltoeurypterus are intermediate between those of the xiphosurans and the arachnids. It is possible that a sister relationship exists between the eurypterids and some arachnid groups, which would render Merostomata and Arachnida unnatural assemblages.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S. B. Barber 1956. Chemoreception and proprioception in Limulus. J EXP ZOOL 131, 5174.

D. Barr & B. P. Smith 1979. The contribution of setal blades to effective swimming in the aquatic mite Limnochares americana (Acari: Prostigmata: Limnocharidae). ZOOL J LINN SOC 65, 5569.

B. D. Clark & W. Bemis 1979. Kinematics of swimming of penguins at the Detroit Zoo. J ZOOL LONDON 188, 411–28.

H. W. C. Couzijn 1976. Functional anatomy of the walking-legs of Scorpionida with remarks on terminology and homologization of leg segments. NETH J ZOOL 26, 453501.

J. E. Dalingwater 1973. The cuticle of a eurypterid. LETHAIA 6, 179–86.

R. K. Edel & H. E. Winn 1978. Observations on underwater locomotion and flipper movement of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. MAR BIOL BERLIN 48, 279–87.

A. W. English 1976. Limb movements and locomotor function in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). J ZOOL LONDON 178, 341–64.

M. E. G. Evans 1977. Locomotion in the Coleoptera Adephaga, especially Carabidae. J ZOOL LONDON 181, 189226.

D. C. Fisher 1979. Evidence for subaerial activity of Euproops danae (Merostomata, Xiphosurida). In M. H. Nitecki (ed.) Mazon Creek Fossils, 379447. New York: Academic Press.

R. A. Fortey & E. N. K. Clarkson 1976. The function of the glabellar ‘tubercle’ in Nileus and other trilobites. LETHAIA 9, 101–6.

W. Gnatzy & J. Tautz 1977. Sensitivity of an insect mechanoreceptor during moulting. PHYSIOL ENTOMOL 2, 279–88.

R. G. Hartnoll 1971. The occurrence and significance of swimming in the Brachyura. ANIM BEHAV 19, 3450.

i. Haupt & Y. Coineau 1978. Moulting and morphogenesis of sensilla in a prostigmatic mite (Acari, Actinotrichida, Actinedida: Caeculidae). 1. Mechanoreceptive bristles. CELL TISSUE RES 186, 6379.

G. Holm 1899. Palaeontologiska notiser: 13. Om den yttre anatomien hos Eurypterus fischeri. GEOL FOEREN STOCKHOLM FOERH 21, 83128.

G. Hoyle 1976. Arthropod walking. In R. M. Herman , S. Grillner , P. S. G. Stein & D. G. Stuart (eds) Neural Control of Locomotion. ADV BEHAV BIOL 18, 137–79, New York: Plenum Press.

T. S. Kennedy 1945. Observations on the mass migration of desert locust hoppers. TRANS R ENTOMOL SOC LONDON 95, 247–62.

H. Kiihl 1933. Die Fortbewegung der Schwimmkrabben mit Bezug auf die Plastizitat des Nervensystems. Z VGL PHYSIOL 19, 489521.

E. R. Lankester , W. B. S. Benham & E. J. Beck 1885. On the muscular and endoskeletal systems of Limulus and Scorpio; with some notes on the anatomy and generic characters of scorpions. TRANS ZOOL SOC LONDON 11, 311–84.

D. R. Lauck 1959. Locomotion of Lethocerus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae). ANN ENTOMOL SOC AM 52, 93–9.

S. M. Manton 1952. The evolution of arthropodan locomotory mechanisms. Part 2. General introduction to the locomotory mechanisms of the Arthropoda. J LINN SOC (ZOOL) 42, 93117.

S. M. Manton 1958. Hydrostatic pressure and leg extension in arthropods, with special reference to arachnids. ANN MAG NAT HIST 1, 161–82.

S. M. Manton 1964. Mandibular mechanisms and the evolution of arthropods. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON B 247, 1183.

S. M. Manton 1965. The evolution of arthropodan locomotory mechanisms. Part 8. Functional requirements and body design in Chilopoda, together with a comparative account of their skeleto-muscular systems and an appendix on a comparison between burrowing forces of annelids and chilopods and its bearing upon the evolution of the arthropodan haemocoel. J LINN SOC (ZOOL) 45, 251484.

S. M. Manton 1972. The evolution of arthropodan locomotory mechanisms. Part 10. Locomotory habits, morphology and evolution of the hexapod classes. ZOOL J LINN SOC 51, 203400.

S. M. Manton 1973a. Arthropod phylogeny – a modern synthesis. J ZOOL LONDON 171, 111–30.

H. Mutvei 1977. SEM studies of arthropod exoskeletons. 2. Horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus (L.) in comparison with extinct eurypterids and recent scorpions. ZOOL SCR 6, 203–13.

W. Nachtigall 1962. Funktionelle Morphologie, Kinematik und Hydromechanik des Ruderapparates von Gyrinus. Z VGL PHYSIOL 45, 193226.

O. Rosenheim 1905. Chitin in the carapace of Pterygotus osiliensis, from the Silurian rocks of Oesel. PROC R SOC LONDON B 76, 398400.

G. Schenke 1965a. Die Ruderbewegungen von Corixa punctata Illig. (Cryptocerata). INT REV GESTAMTEN HYDROBIOL 50, 7384.

G. Schenke 1965d. Schwimmhaarsystem und Rudern von Notonecta glauca. Z MORPHOL OEKOL TIERE 55, 631–40.

R. G. J. Shelton & M. S. Laverack 1968. Observations on a redescribed crustacean cuticular sense organ. COMP BIOCHEM PHYSIOL 25, 1049–59.

B. P. Smith & D. Barr 1977. Swimming by the water mite Limnochares americana Lundblad (Acari, Parasitengona, Limnocharidae). CAN J ZOOL 55, 2050–9.

C. P. Spirito 1972. An analysis of the swimming behavior of the portunid crab Callinectes sapidus. MAR BEHAV PHYSIOL 1, 261–76.

W. L. Stockton & R. Cowen 1976. Stereoscopic vision in one eye: paleophysiology of the schizochroal eye of trilobites. PALEOBIOLOGY 2, 304–15.

F. J. Tarasoff , A. Bisaillon , J. Pierard & A. P. Whitt 1972. Locomotory patterns and external morphology of the river otter, sea otter and harp seal. CAN J ZOOL 50, 915–31.

H. Tobien 1937. Uber Sinneshaare bei Pterygotus (Erettopterus) osiliensis Schmidt aus dem Obersilur von Oesel. PALAEONTOL Z 19, 254–66.

W. F. Walker 1971. Swimming in sea turtles of the family Cheloniidae. COPEIA 1971, 229–33.

D. V. Ward 1969. Leg extension in Limulus. BIOL BULL MAR BIOL LAB WOODS HOLE 136, 288300.

G. A. Wyse & N. K. Dwyer 1973. The neuromuscular basis of coxal feeding and locomotory movements in Limulus. BIOL BULL MAR BIOL LAB WOODS HOLE 144, 567–79.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh
  • ISSN: 1755-6910
  • EISSN: 1755-6929
  • URL: /core/journals/earth-and-environmental-science-transactions-of-royal-society-of-edinburgh
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *