Critical discussions are presented concerning two species complexes within Galium L. (Rubiaceae). the G. acutum Edgew. and G. asperifolium Wall, groups, with special reference to the E Himalayas. In the G. acutum group, two new species, G. megacyttarion R.R. Mill sp. nov. and G. rebae R.R. Mill sp. nov., are described and G. himalavense Klotzsch & Garcke is reduced to a variety of G. acutum, necessitating a new combination. Within the G. asperifolium group, G. craticulatum R.R. Mill sp. nov. is described, and G. asperifolium and G. sikkimense Gand. regarded as distinct species. The typification of several epithets (G. blinii Lev., G. bodinieri Lév., G. cavaleriei Lév., G. comari Lév. & Vaniot, and G. esquirolii Lév.), which all antedate G. sikkimense, is discussed. Only G. cavaleriei poses a potential threat but it is here maintained separate from G. sikkimense. Brief notes on G. asperifolium sensu stricto and supposedly allied plants of south India (G. asperifolium var. pilosissimum Cufod.) are given.