Skip to main content

NATO and the Ukraine crisis: Collective securitisation

  • James Sperling (a1) and Mark Webber (a2)

In securitisation theory (ST) little attention has been paid to how actors undertake securitisation collectively. The empirical focus of that theory has also, paradoxically, neglected the military-strategic sector and with it regional security organisations like NATO. Such an oversight is worth correcting for three reasons. First, NATO is constantly engaged in securitisation across a range of issues, a process that reflects an underappreciated recursive interaction between the Alliance and its member states. Second, the Ukraine crisis has resulted in Russia being explicitly identified as a source of threat and so has triggered a successful collective (re)securitisation by the Alliance. Third, a framework that demonstrates NATO’s standing as a securitising actor has potential relevance to other regional security organisations. This article discusses and amends ST in service of an approach that permits securitisation by actors other than the state, in this case NATO. A model of collective securitisation is presented and then applied empirically to the post-Cold War desecuritisation of Russia and its subsequent resecuritisation following the annexation of Crimea. The implications of resecuritisation for the emergence of a self-reinforcing security dilemma in NATO-Russia relations are also considered.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      NATO and the Ukraine crisis: Collective securitisation
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      NATO and the Ukraine crisis: Collective securitisation
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      NATO and the Ukraine crisis: Collective securitisation
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Correspondence to: Professor Mark Webber, School of Government and Society, Muirhead Tower, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom. Author’s email:
Hide All

1 ‘Wales Summit Declaration’ (5 September 2014), paras 1, 6, and 14, available at: {}.

2 Applebaum, Anne, ‘Obama and Europe: Missed signals, renewed commitments’, Foreign Affairs, 94:5 (2015), pp. 4041 .

3 Buzan, Barry, Wæver, Ole, and de Wilde, Jaap, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Boulder, CO; London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998), p. 36 .

4 Buzan, Wæver, and de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis, pp. 42, 45.

5 Albert, Mathias and Buzan, Barry, ‘Securitization, sectors, and functional differentiations’, Security Dialogue, 42:4–5 (2011), pp. 413425 .

6 Mearsheimer, John J., ‘Why the Ukraine crisis is the West’s fault’, Foreign Affairs, 93:5 (2014).

7 Mearsheimer, John J., The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company, 2001), pp. 139 , 379.

8 Here, we paraphrase Glenn H. Snyder’s reading of Mearsheimer. See his ‘Mearsheimer’s world – offensive realism and the struggle for security: a review essay’, International Security, 27: 1 (2002), p. 158.

9 See ibid., which views Mearsheimer’s ‘offensive realism’ and Kenneth Waltz’s ‘defensive realism’ as having this shared preoccupation.

10 Walt, Stephen M., The Origins of Alliances (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987).

11 Mead, Walter Russell, ‘The return of geopolitics: the revenge of the revisionist powers’, Foreign Affairs, 93:3 (2014), p. 69 .

12 Kroenig, Mathew, ‘Facing reality: Getting NATO ready for a new Cold War’, Survival, 57:1 (2015).

13 Walt, The Origins of Alliances, pp. 21–6.

14 Trenin, Dmitri, ‘The revival of the Russian military: How Moscow reloaded’, Foreign Affairs, 95:3 (2016), pp. 2326 .

15 Walt, Stephen M., ‘NATO owes Putin a big thank-you’, Foreign Policy blog (4 September 2014), available at: {}.

16 Keohane, Robert O., ‘Alliances, threats and the uses of neorealism’, International Security, 13:1 (1988), p. 172 .

17 Schimmelfennig, Frank, ‘NATO and institutional theories of International Relations’, in Mark Webber and Adrian Hyde-Price (eds), Theorising NATO: New Perspectives on the Atlantic Alliance (London and New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. 2240 .

18 Wallander, Celeste, ‘Institutional assets and adaptability: NATO after the Cold War’, International Organization, 54:4 (2000).

19 McCalla, Robert B., ‘NATO’s persistence after the Cold War’, International Organization, 50:3 (1996), p. 470 .

20 Gheciu, Alexandra, ‘Security institutions as agents of socialization? NATO and the “New Europe”’, International Organization, 59:4 (2005), p. 975 .

21 Klein, Bradley, ‘How the West was one: Representational politics of NATO’, International Studies Quarterly, 34:3 (1990).

22 Adler, Emanuel, ‘The spread of security communities: Communities of practice, self-restraint, and NATO’s post-Cold War transformation’, European Journal of International Relations, 14:2 (2008).

23 Williams, Michael John, NATO, Security and Risk Management: From Kosovo to Kandahar (London and New York: Routledge, 2009), p. 35 .

24 Kitchen, Victoria, ‘Argument and identity change in the Atlantic security community’, Security Dialogue, 40:1 (2009), p. 106 .

25 Koschut, Simon, ‘Emotional (security) communities: the significance of emotion norms in inter-allied conflict management’, Review of International Studies, 40:3 (2014).

26 Pouliot, Vincent, International Security in Practice: The Politics of NATO-Russia Diplomacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 235 .

27 Balzacq, Thierry, Léonard, Sarah, and Ruzicka, Jan, ‘“Securitization” revisited: Theory and cases’, International Relations (first view, 2015), p. 24 .

28 Kreidenweis, Alex, ‘Welcome to Copenhagen: A Tour Guide to Securitization Theory’, available at: {}.

29 Balzacq, Léonard and Ruzicka, ‘“Securitization” revisited’, p. 11.

30 Buzan, Barry and Wæver, Ole, Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 491 .

31 Williams, Michael C., ‘Words, images, enemies: Securitization and international politics’, International Studies Quarterly, 47:4 (2003), p. 523 .

32 Wilkinson, Claire, ‘The Copenhagen School on tour in Kyrgyzstan: Is securitization theory useable outside Europe?’, Security Dialogue, 38:1 (2007), pp. 525 .

33 Buzan and Wæver, Regions and Powers, p. 71.

34 Caballero-Anthony, Mely, ‘Non-traditional security and infectious diseases in ASEAN: Going beyond the rhetoric of securitization to deeper institutionalization’, Pacific Review, 21:4 (2008), pp. 507525 ; Huysmans, Jef, ‘The European Union and the securitization of migration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 38:5 (2000), pp. 751777 ; Hanrieder, Tine and Kreuder-Sonnen, Christian, ‘WHO decides on the exception? Securitization and emergency governance in global health’, Security Dialogue, 45:4 (2014), pp. 331348 ; Vaughan, Jocelyn, ‘The unlikely securitizer: Humanitarian organizations and the securitization of indistinctiveness’, Security Dialogue, 40:3 (2009), pp. 263285 .

35 Schlag, Gabi, ‘Securitization theory and the evolution of NATO’, in Webber and Hyde-Price (eds), Theorising NATO, pp. 161182 .

36 For instance, Behnke, Andreas, NATO’s Security Discourse after the Cold War Representing the West (London and New York: Routledge, 2013).

37 Buzan, Wæver, and de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis, pp. 179–89.

38 Wæver, Ole, desecuritization’, ‘Securitization and, in Ronnie D. Lipschutz (ed.), On Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), p. 55 .

39 McInnes, Colin and Rushton, Simon, ‘HIV/AIDS and securitization theory’, Security Dialogue, 19:1 (2011), p. 118 .

40 Wæver, Ole, ‘Politics, security, theory’, Security Dialogue, 42:4–5 (2011), pp. 468 , 472.

41 Although published well before the notion of securitisation was conceived, our thinking here is influenced by Hanrieder, Wolfram, ‘Actor objectives and international systems’, Journal of Politics, 27:1 (1966), pp. 109132 .

42 Buzan, Wæver, and de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis, p. 25.

43 McDonald, Matt, ‘Securitization and the construction of security’, European Journal of International Relations, 14:4 (2008), p. 572 .

44 Wæver cited in Roe, Paul, ‘Is securitization a “negative” concept? Revisiting the normative debate over normal versus extraordinary politics’, Security Dialogue, 43:3 (2012), p. 255 .

45 Léonard, Sarah and Kaunert, Christian, ‘Reconceptualizing the audience in securitization theory’, in Thierry Balzacq (ed.), Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve (London and New York: Routledge, 2010), pp. 5776 .

46 Haacke, Jürgen and Williams, Paul D., ‘Regional arrangements, securitization, and transnational security challenges: the African Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations compared’, Security Studies, 17:4 (2008), pp. 775809 .

47 Buzan, Barry and Wæver, Ole, ‘Macrosecuritization and security constellations: Reconsidering scale in securitization theory’, Review of International Studies, 35:2 (2009), pp. 253276 .

48 Sperling, James and Webber, Mark, ‘Security governance in Europe: a return to system’, European Security, 23:2 (2014).

49 Williams, Michael C., Culture and Security: Symbolic Power and the Politics of International Security (London and New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 68 .

50 Ibid., p. 65.

51 Sperling and Webber, ‘Security governance in Europe’.

52 Floyd, Rita, ‘Extraordinary or ordinary emergency measures: What, and who, defines the “success” of securitization’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs (online early, 2015), p. 8 .

53 Vuori, Juha, ‘A timely prophet? The Doomsday Clock as a visualization of securitization moves with a global referent object’, Security Dialogue, 41:3 (2010), p. 259 .

54 Haacke and Williams, ‘Regional arrangements, securitization, and transnational security challenges’, p. 785.

55 That interaction can be demonstrated empirically. According to Jamie Shea, Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges (in an email communication with authors, 18 May 2015) the lead in drafting policy statements (Ministerial communiqués, statements by the North Atlantic Council) is taken by the International Staff (IS) overseen by the Secretary General’s office. These drafts are subsequently circulated to, and negotiated by, Allies in meetings chaired by staff from the IS.

56 McDonald, ‘Securitization and the construction of security’, p. 576.

57 Clarke, Kevin A. and Primo, David M., ‘Modernizing political science: a model-based approach’, Perspectives on Politics, 5:4 (2007), pp. 743744 .

58 Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus, The Conduct of Enquiry in International Relations: Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for the Study of World Politics (London and New York: Routledge, 2011), p. 154 .

59 Alexandrova, Anna, ‘When analytical narratives explain’, Journal of the Philosophy of History, 3:1 (2009), pp. 910 .

60 Webber, Mark, Sperling, James, and Martin S. Smith, NATO’s Post-Cold War Trajectory: Decline or Regeneration? (Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 2426 .

61 Ringsmose, Jens and Rynning, Sten, ‘Introduction: Taking stock of NATO’s new strategic concept’, in Jens Ringsmose and Sten Rynning (eds), NATO’s New Strategic Concept: A Comprehensive Assessment (Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Studies, 2011), p. 9 .

62 ‘Report of the Committee of Three on Non-Military Cooperation in NATO’ (13 December 1956), available at: { 17481.htm}.

63 ‘Declaration on Atlantic Relations Issued by the North Atlantic Council’ (19 June 1974), available at: {}.

64 ‘Washington Statement on East-West Relations issued by Foreign Ministers at the North Atlantic Council’ (31 May 1984), available at: {}.

65 Klein, ‘How the West was one’, p. 319.

66 ‘The Alliance’s New Strategic Concept’ (7 November 1991), paras 5 and 13, available at: {}.

67 ‘The Alliance’s Strategic Concept’ (24 April 1999), para. 36, available at: {}; ‘Active Engagement, Modern Defence: Strategic Concept 2010’ (19 November 2010), para. 34, available at: {}.

68 ‘Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation’ (27 May 1997), available at: { _texts_25468.htm}; ‘NATO-Russia Relations: A New Quality’ (28 May 2002), available at: { _texts_19572.htm}.

69 ‘Statement: Meeting of the North Atlantic Council at the Level of Foreign Ministers’ (19 August 2008), available at: { 29950.htm}.

70 Yost, David, NATO’s Balancing Act (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2014), pp. 223225 .

71 ‘Chicago Summit Declaration’ (20 May 2012), paras 36–7, available at: {}.

72 Forsberg, Tuomas and Herd, Graeme, ‘Russia and NATO: From windows of opportunities to closed doors’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 23:1 (2015).

73 Yost, David, ‘NATO’s evolving purposes and the next Strategic Concept’, International Affairs, 86:2 (2010), pp. 507519 .

74 ‘Founding Act’ (27 May 1997), Section IV.

75 The significance of the NRF lay in its potential as a ‘driving engine of NATO’s military transformation’. Formed in 2002, it was not until 2009 that discussion began on reorienting it toward tasks of collective defence. See Yost, NATO’s Balancing Act, pp. 82–4.

76 ‘Comprehensive Political Guidance’ (29 November 2006), paras 10–11, available at: {}.

77 ‘Deterrence and Defence Posture Review’ (20 May 2012), available at: {}.

78 Mention of Russia was thus omitted from certain key documents. See ‘Summit Declaration on Defence Capabilities: Toward NATO Forces 2020’ (20 May 2012), available at: { =pressrelease}.

79 A good introduction is Menon, Rajan and Rumer, Eugene, Conflict in Ukraine: the Unwinding of the Post-Cold War Order (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015).

80 Grant, Thomas D., Aggression against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), pp. viiviii .

81 Allison, Roy, ‘Russian “deniable” intervention in Ukraine: How and why Russia broke the rules’, International Affairs, 90:6 (2014), pp. 12601266 .

82 The relevant resolutions are: 1990 (2014), 2034 (2015), and 2063 (2015).

83 Allison, ‘Russian “deniable” intervention in Ukraine’, pp. 1266–7.

84 Mearsheimer, ‘Why the Ukraine crisis is the West’s fault’; Sakwa, Richard, Frontline Ukraine: Crisis in the Borderlands (London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2015), pp. 37 .

85 International Crisis Group, ‘Eastern Ukraine: a Dangerous Winter’, Europe Report, 235 (2014); International Crisis Group, ‘The Ukraine Crisis: Risks of Renewed Military Conflict After Minsk II’, Crisis Group Europe Briefing, 73 (2015).

86 Ian Kearns, Lukasz Kulesa, and Thomas Frear, ‘Russia – West dangerous brinkmanship continues’, European Leadership Network (12 March 2015), available at: {}.

87 Durkalec, Jacek, ‘Nuclear-Backed “Little Green Men”: Nuclear Messaging in the Ukraine Crisis’, Polish Institute of International Affairs, Report (July 2015), p. 7 .

88 Speech to the Russian Federal Assembly, BBC News (19 March 2014), available at: {}.

89 (10 September 2014), available at: {}.

90 ‘Meeting with Students at the Mining University’ (26 January 2015), available at: {}.

91 ‘Statement by NATO Defence Ministers on Ukraine’ (26 February 2014), available at: {}.

92 ‘Statement by NATO Foreign Ministers’ (1 April 2014), available at: {}.

93 Cited in Erlanger, Stephen, ‘Doubt that Europe will beef up forces’, International New York Times (27 March 2014).

94 Speech in Krakow, Poland (4 April 2014), available at: {}.

95 ‘Joint Statement of the NATO-Ukraine Commission’ (4 September 2014), available at: {}.

96 ‘Wales Summit Declaration’ (5 September 2014), para. 21.

97 The Secretary General’s Annual Report 2014, p. 3, available at: {}.

98 ‘Statement by NATO Defence Ministers’ (25 June 2015), para. 2, available at:{}.

99 Speech in Berlin (17 November 2015), available at: {}.

100 ‘Wales Summit Declaration’, para. 30.

101 Rasmussen cited in Kramer, Andrew E. and Gordon, Michael R., ‘New front opens in Ukraine conflict’, International New York Times (28 August 2014).

102 ‘White Paper – Next Steps in NATO’s Transformation: to the Warsaw Summit and Beyond’, HQ NATO Supreme Allied Commander Transformation in Partnership with the Atlantic Council, NATO Transformation Seminar, Washington DC (24–6 March 2015), p. 9.

103 Speech to the Royal United Services Institute, London (February 2015), available at: {}.

104 Vandiver, John, ‘SACEUR – NATO must prepare for Russia “hybrid war”’, Stars and Stripes (4 September 2014), available at: {}.

105 Speech at Stanford University (9 November 2015), available at: {}.

106 NATO, ‘Supreme Allied Commander Transformation and Supreme Allied Commander Europe’, Framework for Future Alliance Operations (August 2015), pp. 57–8, available at: {}.

107 Vershbow interview with Defence Matters (5 November 2015), available at: {}.

108 Mälskoo, Maria and Šešelgyte, Margarita, ‘Reinventing “new” Europe: Baltic perspectives on transatlantic security reconfigurations’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46:3 (2013), pp. 397406 ; Longhurst, Kerry, ‘Where from, where to? New and old configurations in Poland’s foreign and security policies’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46:3 (2013), pp. 363372 .

109 Stent, Angela, ‘US-Russian relations in the second Obama administration’, Survival, 54:5 (2012–13), pp. 123139 .

110 ‘Remarks by President Obama and President Putin of Russia after Bilateral Meeting’ (17 June 2013), available at: {}.

111 Robert Bell, defence advisor to the US NATO delegation, cited in E. MacAskill, ‘US urges NATO states to raise defence spending to counter Russia’, The Guardian (24 June 2014).

113 The National Military Strategy of the United States of America (June 2015), p. 2, available at: {}.

114 Obama speech at the Palais des Beaux Arts, Brussels (26 March 2014), available at: {}; Obama speech at the Nordea Concert Hall, Tallinn (3 September 2014), available at: { 09/03/remarks-president-obama-people-estonia}; ‘Statement by the President on Ukraine’ (18 July 2014), available at: { 07/18/statement-president-ukraine}.

115 House of Commons, ‘Oral Answers to Questions’ (10 March 2014), Column 27, available at: { cm140310/debtext/140310-0001.htm}.

117 Osborn, Andrew, ‘Putin a threat to Baltic states, Western officials say’, Reuters (19 February 2015), available at: {}.

118 HM Government, ‘National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015’, Command Paper 9161 (November 2015), p. 18.

119 Merkel cited in Traynor, Ian, ‘European leaders fear growth of Russian influence’, The Guardian (18 November 2014).

120 Cited in Walker, Shaun, ‘Medvedev in Crimea as army begins pull-back’, The Guardian (1 April 2014).

121 Brown, Stephen, ‘German Foreign Minister worries Russia may open “Pandora’s Box”’, Reuters (23 March 2014), available at: { us-ukraine-crisis-germany-idUSBREA2M0FG20140323}.

122 ‘Remarks at the Munich Policy Conference Discussion Panel’ (8 February 2015), available at: {}.

123 Cited in France 24 (8 March 2014), available at: {}.

124 ‘Statement by NATO Foreign Ministers’ (1 April 2014), available at: {}.

125 NATO Fact Sheet, ‘NATO’s Readiness Action Plan’ (October 2015), available at: {}.

126 Rasmussen, ‘Doorstop Statement’ (16 April 2014), available at: {}.

127 Xavier Pintat (rapporteur), ‘The Readiness Action Plan: Assurance and Deterrence for the Post-2014 Security Environment’, NATO Parliamentary Assembly, Defence and Security Committee, Report 052 DCCFC 15 E (16 April 2015), p. 2.

128 NATO, Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, Jean-Paul Paloméros, press conference (21 May 2015), available at: {}.

129 Louise Brooke-Holland, ‘NATO’s Military Response to Russia’, House of Commons Library, Briefing Paper, No. 07276 (February 2016), available at: {http://researchbriefings.}.

130 Stoltenberg cited in ‘NATO Boosts its Defence and Deterrence Posture’ (10 February 2016), available at: {}.

131 ‘Warsaw Summit Communiqué’ (8–9 July 2016), para. 40.

132 Jospeh A. Day (general rapporteur), ‘New Defence Imperatives: the Implementation of Wales Pledges and Prospects for Warsaw’, NATO Parliamentary Assembly, Defence and Security Committee (25 April 2016), pp. 5–6.

133 ‘Statement by NATO Defence Ministers’ (25 June 2015), para. 8, available at:{}.

134 Cited in Cooper, Helen and Kanter, James, ‘NATO adds to defences with an eye on Moscow’, International New York Times (9 October 2015).

135 Cited in Beale, Jonathan, ‘NATO war games keep Syria and Russia in mind’, BBC News (23 October 2015), available at: {}.

136 Press conference (2 December 2015), available at: {}.

137 ‘Statement of General Philip Breedlove, Commander US Forces Europe’, Senate Committee on Armed Services (1 March 2016), available at: { media/doc/Breedlove_03-01-16.pdf}, pp. 4, 10, 23; Stenographic Transcript before the Senate Committee on Armed Services (1 March 2016), available at: {}, p. 11.

138 Larsen, Jeffrey A., ‘Time to Face Reality: Priorities for NATO’s 2016 Warsaw Summit’, Research Paper (NATO Defence College, Rome), No. 125 (January 2016), p. 4 .

139 Speech in Prague (6 June 2016), available at: { opinions_131609.htm?selectedLocale=en}.

140 Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, speech to the Munich Security Conference (13 February 2016), available at: {}.

141 Cited in Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (4 May 2016), available at: { articleprintview/27715802.html}.

142 Buzan, Wæver, and de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis, pp. 203–27.

143 Wendt, Alexander, ‘On constitution and causation in International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 24:5 (1998), pp. 101118 .

144 Balzacq, Thierry, ‘Constructivism and securitization studies’, in Myrian Dunn Cavelty and Victor Mauer (eds), The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies (London and New York: 2010), p. 65 .

145 Guzzini, Stefano, ‘Securitization as a causal mechanism’, Security Dialogue, 42:4–5 (2011), pp. 334337 .

146 Krastev, Ivan, ‘What Central Europe thinks of Russia’, International New York Times (28 April 2015).

147 Steinhauer, Jennifer and Herszenhorn, David M., Obama, ‘Defying, many in congress press to arm Ukraine’, International New York Times (13–14 June 2015).

148 Buzan, Barry and Hansen, Lene, The Evolution of International Security Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 216217 .

149 Floyd, Rita, ‘Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards just securitization theory’, Security Dialogue, 42:4–5 (2011), pp. 427439 .

150 Allison, Graham and Simes, Dmitri K., ‘Russia and America: Stumbling to war’, The National Interest (May–June 2015).

151 Ivo Daalder cited in Dyer, Greg, ‘New NATO stance raises stakes on Eastern frontier’, Financial Times (27 June 2015).

152 Hyde-Price, Adrian, ‘The “sleep-walking giant” awakes: Resetting German foreign and security policy’, European Security, 24:4 (2015), pp. 607611 .

153 Stoltenberg, speech to the Munich Security Conference (13 February 2016).

154 Baker, Peter, ‘Obama increases Ukraine aid, without weapons’, International New York Times (12 March 2015).

155 Simon, Luis, ‘Understanding US retrenchment in Europe’, Survival, 57:2 (2015), p. 167 .

156 Marrone, Allesandro, De France, Olivier, and Daniele Fattibene (eds), Defence Budgets and Cooperation in Europe Developments, Trends and Drivers (Istituto Affari Internazionali, 2016), p. 3 .

157 Ibid., p. 3.

158 Deni, John, ‘The Flawed US Approach to European Reassurance’, Carnegie Europe (27 May 2016), available at: {}.

159 Booth, Ken and Wheeler, Nicholas J., The Security Dilemma: Fear, Cooperation and Trust in World Politics (Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 165170 .

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Journal of International Security
  • ISSN: 2057-5637
  • EISSN: 2057-5645
  • URL: /core/journals/european-journal-of-international-security
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed