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European Energy Union? Caught between securitisation and ‘riskification’

  • Andrew Judge (a1) and Tomas Maltby (a2)
Abstract

Fears about the security of supplies have been central to debates about the development of an integrated EU energy policy over the past decade, leading to claims that energy has been ‘securitised’. Previous analyses have found, however, that although shared security concerns are frequently used as justification for further integration, they can also serve as a rationale for Member States to resist sharing sovereignty. Transcending this apparent paradox would require not just agreement about whether energy supplies are security concerns, but also agreement about what kind of security concern they are. In this article, we examine whether such an agreement could emerge through a comparative analysis of constructions of gas security in the UK and Poland. Utilising a framework that draws from both the philosophical and sociological wings of Securitisation Studies, we demonstrate that although gas has been elevated on the security agendas of both states, the specific logic of insecurity – securitisation or riskification – underpinning these constructions differs substantially, and is conditioned by distinct modes of governance in each Member State. This, we contend, limits the potential for further integration of EU energy policies in the context of the European Commission’s proposals for an ‘Energy Union’.

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Corresponding author
* Correspondence to: Dr Andrew Judge, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Adam Smith Building, Bute Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RT, United Kingdom. Author’s email: andrew.judge@glasgow.ac.uk
References
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1 Hereafter referred to as the Commission.

2 See, for example, Birchfield, Vicki L. and Duffield, John S. (eds), Toward a Common European Union Energy Policy: Problems, Progress and Prospects (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011); Szulecki, Kacper, Fischer, Severin, Gullberg, Anne T., and Sartor, Oliver, ‘Shaping the “Energy Union”: Between national positions and governance innovation in EU energy and climate policy’, Climate Policy, 16:5 (2016), pp. 548567 .

3 Lavenex, Sandra, ‘EU external governance in “wider Europe”’, Journal of European Public Policy, 11:4 (2004), pp. 692693 ; Radoman, Jelena, ‘Securitization of energy as a prelude to energy security dilemma’, Western Balkans Security Observer, 4 (2007), pp. 3644 ; Youngs, Richard, Energy Security: Europe’s New Foreign Policy Challenge (London: Routledge 2009), p. 41 ; Butler, Eamonn, ‘The geopolitics of merger and acquisition in the Central European energy market’, Geopolitics, 16:3 (2011), pp. 626654 .

4 A core claim of securitisation theory, which we follow in this article, is that ‘security’ has no fixed or objective meaning. Instead it is socially constructed.

5 Natorski, Michal and Herranz-Surrallés, Anna, ‘Securitizing moves to nowhere? The framing of the European Union energy policy’, Journal of Contemporary Research, 4:2 (2008), pp. 7189 ; McGowan, Francis, ‘Putting energy insecurity into historical context: European responses to the energy crises of the 1970s and 2000s’, Geopolitics, 16:3 (2011), pp. 486511 .

6 Emil Kirchner and Can Berk anticipate greater cooperation, integration, and a common EU energy policy, driven by such energy security concerns. See European energy security co-operation: Between amity and enmity’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 48:4 (2010), pp. 859880 .

7 Pami Aalto and Dicle Korkmaz Temel are sceptical about the potential for substantial integration because of ‘a lack of shared beliefs and patterns of calculation’. It is these beliefs that we interrogate. See European energy security: Natural gas and the integration process’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 52:4 (2014), pp. 758774 (p. 771). Tomas Maltby also highlights how security concerns are contested within member states, leading to inconsistent preferences on energy policy integration. See Between amity, enmity and Europeanisation: EU energy security policy and the example of Bulgaria’s Russian energy dependence’, Europe-Asia Studies, 67:5 (2015), pp. 809830 .

8 Corry, Olaf, ‘Securitisation and “riskification”: Second-order security and the politics of climate change’, Millennium: Journal of International Relations, 40:2 (2012), pp. 235258 .

9 Buzan, Barry, Wæver, Ole, and De Wilde, Jaap, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998), p. 25 .

10 Ibid., p. 24.

11 For a recent summary, see Balzacq, Thierry, Léonard, Sarah, and Ruzicka, Jan, ‘“Securitization’ revisited: Theory and cases’, International Relations (Early Online) (2015).

12 Natorski, and Herranz-Surrallés, , ‘Securitizing moves to nowhere?; McGowan, , ‘Putting energy insecurity into historical context.

13 Nyman, Jonna, ‘Red storm ahead: Securitisation of energy in US-China relations’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 43:1 (2014), pp. 4365 .

14 Phillips, Andrew, ‘A dangerous synergy: Energy securitization, great power rivalry and strategic stability in the Asian century’, The Pacific Review, 26:1 (2013), pp. 1738 .

15 Kruyt, Bert, van Vuuren, Detlef P., de Vries, Han J. M., and Groenenberg, Heleen, ‘Indicators for energy security’, Energy Policy, 37:6 (2009), pp. 21662181 ; Sovacool, Benjamin K. and Mukherjee, Ishani, ‘Conceptualizing and measuring energy security: a synthesized approach’, Energy, 36:8 (2011), pp. 53435355 .

16 Chester, Lynne, ‘Conceptualising energy security and making explicit its polysemic nature’, Energy Policy, 38:2 (2010), pp. 887895 ; Winzer, Christian, ‘Conceptualizing energy security’, Energy Policy, 46 (2012), pp. 3648 .

17 Browning, Christopher S. and MacDonald, Matt, ‘The future of critical security studies: Ethics and the politics of security’, European Journal of International Relations, 19:2 (2013), pp. 235255 ; Bridges, Gavin, ‘Energy (in)security: World-making in an age of scarcity’, The Geographical Journal, 181:4 (2015), pp. 328339 .

18 Felix Ciută also identifies a third logic of ‘total’ or ‘banal’ security in which energy security potentially means the security of ‘everything’, ‘everywhere’, and ‘against everything’ that is an important debate that is beyond the scope of this article. See Conceptual notes on energy security: Total or banal security?’, Security Dialogue, 41:2 (2010), pp. 123144 (p. 135).

19 Ibid., p. 132.

20 Bigo, Didier, ‘Security and immigration: Toward a critique of the governmentality of unease’, Alternatives: Global, Local Political, 27 (supplement) (2002), pp. 6392 ; Van Munster, Rens, Securitizing Immigration: The Politics of Risk in the EU (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

21 For an explanation of the philosophical-sociological distinction that has come to typify securitisation studies, see Balzacq, Thierry, ‘A theory of securitisation: Origins, core assumptions, and variants’, in Thierry Balzacq (ed.), Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve (London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 1828 .

22 Corry, , ‘Securitisation and “riskification”’, p. 248 .

23 See also Stoddard, Edward, ‘A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU’, Journal of Contemporary European Research, 8:3 (2012), pp. 340366 .

24 Petersen, Karen Lund, ‘Risk analysis – a field within security studies?’, European Journal of International Relations, 18:4 (2012), pp. 693717 .

25 Williams, Michael C., ‘The continuing evolution of securitization theory’, in Thierry Balzacq (ed.), Securitization Theory, pp. 216218 ; van Munster, Rens, ‘Logics of security: the Copenhagen School, risk management and the war on terror’, Syddansk Universitet Political Science Publications, 10 (2005).

26 von Lucke, Franziskus, Welmann, Zehra, and Diez, Thomas, ‘What’s at stake in securitising climate change? Towards a differentiated approach’, Geopolitics, 19:4 (2014), pp. 857884 .

27 Balzacq, , ‘A theory of securitisation’; Matt McDonald, ‘Securitization and the construction of security’, European Journal of International Relations, 14:4 (2008), pp. 563587 .

28 Balzacq, , ‘A theory of securitisation’, pp. 1115 ; Balzacq, ThierryEnquiries into methods: a new framework for securitization analysis’, in Balzacq (ed.), Securitization Theory, pp. 3637 . Context in this sense is external to the process of securitisation, in contrast to the thick contextualist approach set out by Felix Ciută, which focuses on contextualised meanings of security. See Security and the problem of context: a hermeneutical critique of securitisation theory’, Review of International Studies, 35:2 (2009), pp. 301326 .

29 Scarse, Ivan and MacKerron, Gordon, ‘Lock-in’, in Ivan Scarse and Gordon MacKerron (eds), Energy for the Future: A New Agenda (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

30 Major changes are not impossible: the energy systems of the UK and Poland have undergone important changes in recent decades, and several advanced economies are currently attempting a transition to lower-carbon energy systems, most notably Germany. The core point is that such changes are difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. For more on energy transitions, see Smil, Vaclav, Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects (Santa Barbara, CA: Prager, 2010).

31 Kuzemko, Caroline, Keating, Michael F., and Goldthau, Andreas, The Global Energy Challenge: Environment, Development and Security (London: Palgrave, 2016), p. 58 . See also Belyi, Andrei V. and Talus, Kim (eds), States and Markets in Hydrocarbon Sectors (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).

32 Bremmer, Ian and Johnston, Robert, ‘The rise and fall of resource nationalism’, Survival, 51:2 (2009), pp. 149158 ; McGowan, Francis, ‘Can the European Union’s market liberalism ensure energy security in a time of “economic nationalism”?’, Journal of Contemporary European Research, 4:2 (2008), pp. 90106 .

33 Ostrowski, Wojciech, ‘State capitalism and the politics of resources’, in Belyi and Talus (eds), States and Markets in Hydrocarbon Sectors, pp. 83102 .

34 Correljé, Aad F. and van der Linde, Coby, ‘Energy supply security and geopolitics: a European perspective’, Energy Policy, 34:5 (2006), pp. 532543 . Many have pointed to the role that states have come to play in national and global energy governance. See Dubash, Navorz K. and Florini, Ann, ‘Mapping global energy governance’, Global Policy, 2:s1 (2011), pp. 618 .

35 To be clear, these modes of energy governance are ideal types. They nonetheless represent two extremes on the full spectrum of political-economic conditions in the various EU Member States, even if certain systems may be marked by characteristics of both a market-led and state-led system.

36 Governments may maintain part ownership of particular market participants under this system, but will usually not be the majority shareholder and will not direct the actions of the company in question.

37 The Copenhagen School themselves make fundamentally the same point: ‘Whereas economic nationalists have no problem invoking economic security in state terms, liberals are (or should be) constrained from doing so by their commitment to efficiency and thus to openness and competition. In principle, this commitment should exclude from securitization a great range of things that might count as serious economic or political issues’ (Buzan et al., Security, p. 105).

38 MacDonald, Matt, ‘Securitization and the construction of security’, European Journal of International Relations, 14:4 (2008), pp. 563587 .

39 Polish documents are official government translations into English. All national security strategies, energy policies, and relevant regulator documents from 2000–16 were analysed, and the Factiva database was used to trace the discourse of key energy actors during this time period.

40 Commission, ‘First Guidelines for a Community Energy Policy’, COM(68)1050 (18 December 1968), p. 7 ; Commission, ‘Energy Union Package’, COM(2015)80 (25 February 2015), p. 1 .

41 Maltby, Tomas, ‘European Union energy policy integration: a case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism’, Energy Policy, 55 (2013), pp. 435444 .

42 Commission, ‘Green Paper: Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply’, COM(2000)769 (29 November 2000), pp. 2 , 46.

43 Ibid., pp. 75–7.

44 Commission, ‘The Internal Market in Energy: Coordinated Measures on the Security of Energy Supply’, COM(2002)488 (11 September 2002), p. 51 .

45 Commission, ‘An Energy Policy for Europe’, COM(2007)1 (10 January 2007), p. 4 .

46 Commission, ‘Second Strategic Energy Review: An EU Energy Security and Solidarity Action Plan’, COM(2008)781 (13 November 2008), p. 3 .

47 Such deals usually involved state-owned or private importers negotiating deals with suppliers, supported by intergovernmental agreements between supplier and consumer states. See Estrada, Javier et al., Natural Gas in Europe: Markets, Organization and Politics (London: Pinter Publishers, 1988).

48 Aalto, Pami, ‘States and markets in energy policy’, in Belyi and Talus (eds), States and Markets in Hydrocarbon Sectors, pp. 4060 .

49 Proedrou, Filippos, EU Energy Security in the Gas Sector: Evolving Dynamics, Policy Dilemmas and Prospects (Ashgate: Farnham, 2012), p. 61 .

50 Directive 98/30/EC; Directive 2003/55/EC.

51 Directive 2009/73/EC.

52 Regulation 994/2010.

53 €2.3 billion between 2007–13. See European Court of Auditors, ‘Improving the Security of Energy Supply by Developing the Internal Energy Market: More Efforts Needed’, SR16/2015 (2015), p. 15 .

54 Commission, ‘Proposal for … Establishing an Information Exchange Mechanism with Regard to Intergovernmental Agreements and Non-Binding Instruments Between Member States and Third Countries in the Field of Energy’, Brussels (16 February 2016), COM(2016) 53 final.

55 Goldthau, Andreas and Sitter, NickA liberal actor in a realist world? The Commission and the external dimension of the single market for energy’, Journal of European Public Policy, 21:10 (2014), pp. 14521472 .

56 European Court of Auditors, ‘Improving the Security of Energy Supply’; Schubert, Samuel R., Pollak, Johannes, and Kreutler, Maren, Energy Policy of the European Union (London: Palgrave, 2016), pp. 157165 .

57 Kern, Florian, Kuzemko, Caroline, and Mitchell, Catherine, ‘Measuring and explaining policy paradigm change: the case of UK energy policy’, Policy & Politics, 42:4 (2014), pp. 513530 .

58 Rutledge, Ian, ‘UK energy policy and market fundamentalism: a historical overview’, in Ian Rutledge and Philip Wright (eds), UK Energy Policy and the End of Market Fundamentalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).

59 See Rutledge, ‘UK energy policy and market fundamentalism’; McGowan, Francis, ‘The UK and EU energy policy: From awkward partner to active protagonist?’, in Birchfield and Duffield (eds), Toward a Common European Union Energy Policy, pp. 187213 .

60 Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), ‘Our Energy Future – Creating a Low Carbon Economy’, Cm 5761 (February 2003), pp. 9 , 76–94.

61 Ibid., p. 76.

62 Ibid., p. 78.

63 See, for instance, the reports of the Joint Energy Security of Supply (JESS) working group from this period.

64 DTI, ‘Our Energy Future’, p. 88 .

65 Ibid., pp. 6, 44–62.

66 DTI, ‘The Energy Challenge: Energy Review Report 2006’, Cm 6887 (July 2006), pp. 1011 .

67 Echoed by the prime minister – ‘in the future energy security will be almost as important as defence in the overall security of a country’s interests’. Tony Blair cited in Milner, Mark, ‘Energy: New pipeline: Gas essential to British security, says Blair’, The Guardian (17 October 2006).

68 DTI, ‘The Energy Challenge’, pp. 8687 .

69 DTI, ‘Meeting the Energy Challenge: A White Paper on Energy’, Cm 7124 (May 2007), p. 107 .

70 DTI, ‘The Energy Challenge’, p. 77 .

71 Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC), ‘The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan: National Strategy for Climate and Energy’ (15 July 2009), p. 106 .

72 Wicks, Malcolm, ‘Energy Security: A National Challenge in a Changing World’, Department of Energy and Climate Change (August 2009), p. 8 .

73 Ibid., p. 44.

74 Ibid., p. 8.

75 Party, Conservative, ‘Rebuilding security: Conservative energy policy for an uncertain world’, Policy Green Paper, 15:4 (2010). This view was not shared by their eventual coalition partners in their manifesto and public statements (Liberal Democrats, ‘Liberal Democrat Manifesto 2010’). The coalition agreement between the two parties upon forming the new government in 2010 made no mention of energy security threats (UK Government, ‘The Coalition: Our Programme for Government’, Cabinet Office (May 2010)).

76 DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC675 (31 October 2013), p. 8 . Similar statements are found in DECC, ‘Annual Energy Statement’, Cm 8456 (November 2012); DECC, ‘Annual Energy Statement 2014’, Cm8945 (October 2014), p. 41 ; and DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report 2015’, HC482 (25 October 2015), p. 11 .

77 DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC542 (November 2010), p. 41 . Evident in all joint DECC and Ofgem reports on the security of gas supplies during the lifetime of the coalition government. See: DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC1604 (8 November 2011); DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC688 (29 November 2012); DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC675 (31 October 2013); DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC686 (28 October 2014).

78 DECC, ‘Annual Energy Statement 2013’, Cm8732 (October 2013).

79 DECC, ‘Annual Energy Statement 2014’, p. 58 .

80 DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC686, pp. 4849 .

81 Kuzemko, Caroline, ‘Politicising UK energy: What “speaking energy security” can do’, Policy & Politics, 42:2 (2014), pp. 259274 .

82 DECC Energy Security Strategy, Cm8466 (November 2012); DECC, ‘Gas Generation Strategy’, Cm8407 (December 2012).

83 These included the Interconnector, which opened in 1998 and BBL, which opened in 2006.

84 DECC, ‘Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics 2015’ (30 July 2015).

85 DTI, ‘Our Energy Future’, p. 78 ; DTI, ‘The Energy Challenge’, pp. 8182 ; DTI, ‘Meeting the Energy Challenge’, p. 36 ; DECC, ‘Annual Energy Statement’, Cm 8456, p. 21 .

86 DTI, ‘The Energy Challenge’, pp. 8990 ; DECC, ‘Gas Security Policy Framework’, p. 4 ; DECC and Ofgem, ‘Statutory Security of Supply Report’, HC675, pp. 4446 .

87 Rudd, Amber, ‘New Direction for UK Energy Policy’, UK Government (18 November 2015), available at: {https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/amber-rudds-speech-on-a-new-direction-for-uk-energy-policy} accessed 2 May 2016.

88 Stacey, Kiran and Clark, Pilita, ‘Questions over Rudd push to generate more power from gas’, Financial Times (18 November 2015).

89 Wicks, ‘Energy Security’, p. 1 .

90 Kern, et al., ‘Measuring and explaining policy paradigm change.

91 Miliband, Ed, ‘The Rise and Fall and Rise Again of a Department of Energy’, Speech given at Imperial College, London, 9 December 2008 .

92 Davey, Edward, ‘Office of Unconventional Oil and Gas Introductory Event’, Chatham House, London (11 March 2013).

93 Rutledge, , ‘UK energy policy and market fundamentalism; Kern, et al., ‘Measuring and explaining policy paradigm change; Kuzemko, Caroline, The Energy Security-Climate Nexus: Institutional Change in the UK and Beyond (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

94 DECC, ‘Gas Security Policy Framework’ (4 September 2013), p. 4 .

95 While it is beyond the scope of this article, the current government has become more interventionist outside of the gas sector, such as in its support for new nuclear power capacity.

96 Radzka, Beata, ‘Liberalisation, privatisation and regulation in the Polish electricity sector’, Privatisation of Public Services and the Impact on Quality, Employment and Productivity (PIQUE) 2006, available at: {http://www.pique.at/reports/pubs/PIQUE_CountryReports_Electricity_Poland_November2006.pdf} accessed 2 May 2016, p. 1 .

97 Bradshaw, Mike, Global Energy Dilemmas (Cambridge: Polity Press 2014), pp. 8689 .

98 Poland Energy Act, The Office of Sejm (10 April 1997).

99 Kulczycka, Joanna and Lipinska, Aleksandra, ‘Barriers to liberalisation of the Polish energy-sector’, Applied Energy, 76 (2003), pp. 229238 (p. 229).

100 Polish Government, ‘Assumptions of Energy Policy to 2020’, Ministry of Economy (2000).

101 Nowak, Bartlomiej, ‘Challenges of liberalization: the case of Polish electricity and gas sector’, Yearbook of Antitrust and Regulatory Studies, 2:2 (2009), pp. 141168 (p. 143); Commission, ‘Polish Energy Market 2011’ (2012), available at: {http://ec.europa.eu/energy/gas_electricity/doc/pl_energy_market_2011_en.pdf} accessed 3 March 2016, pp. 2–3.

102 RSMI, ‘Renewable Energy in Poland’ (October 2012), available at: {http://www.rsmi.com/attachments/approved/renewable-energy-in-poland2/en/RenewableEnergyinPoland_Oct12.pdf} accessed 2 May 2016, p. 3; Nilsson, Lars J., Pisarek, Marcin, Buriak, Jerzy, Oniszk-Popawska, Anna, Bucko, Pawel, Ericsson, Karin, Jaworski, Lukasz, ‘Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland’, Energy Policy, 34 (2006), pp. 22632278 (p. 2270). Most sales on the retail market made by incumbent suppliers that used to be part of the distribution companies before market opening (Commission, ‘Polish Energy Market 2011’ (2012), available at: {http://ec.europa.eu/energy/gas_electricity/doc/pl_energy_market_2011_en.pdf} accessed 3 March 2016, p. 3).

103 Polish Government, ‘Assumptions of Energy Policy to 2020’, p. 6 .

104 Polish Government, ‘Poland’s Climate Policy until 2020’, Ministry of the Environment (October 2003).

105 Cimoszewicz, Włodzimierz, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2002, Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs’, 14 March 2002 ; Cimoszewicz, Włodzimierz, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2003’, Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 22 January 2003 ; Cimoszewicz, Włodzimierz, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2004’, Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 21 January 2004 .

106 Rotfield, Adam, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2005’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 21 January 2005 , p. online.

107 Polish Government, ‘Energy Policy to 2025’ (4 January 2005), p. 7 .

108 Cited in Cienski, Jan and Wagstyl, Stefan, ‘Transcript of the FT’s interview with President Lech Kaczynski’, Financial Times (6 November 2006), p. online.

109 Marcinkiewicz, Kazimierz, ‘The European Energy Security Treaty: Let us respond together to energy threats’, Financial Times (10 February 2006).

110 Marcinkiewicz, , ‘The European Energy Security Treaty.

111 Polish Government, ‘National Security Strategy 2007’ (29 November 2007), p. 8 , emphasis added.

112 Polish Government, ‘Polish Stand on the Construction of the North Stream Gas Pipeline’, Ministry of Economy (14 May 2007).

113 Fotyga, Anna, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2007’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poland, 11 May 2007 ; Sikorski, Radosław, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2008’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2008 .

114 Bouzarovski, Stefan and Konieczny, Marcin, ‘Landscapes of paradox: Public discourses and state policies in Poland’s relationship with the Nord Stream pipeline’, Geopolitics, 15:1 (2010), pp. 121 (p. 10).

115 Commission, ‘Proposal for Regulation … Concerning Measures to Safeguard Security of Gas Supply and Repealing Directive 2004/67/EC’, COM(2009)363 (16 July 2009).

116 Sikorski, Radosław, ‘Annual Address 2009’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Poland, 17 February 2009 ; Sikorski, Radosław, ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2010’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2010 .

117 Sikorski, , ‘Minister of Foreign Affairs Annual Address 2010’, p. online.

118 Donald Tusk cited in Polish PM: EU should form energy union to secure supplies’, Reuters (29 March 2014); Sikorski, Radosław, ‘Foreign Ministers of V4 Nordic and Baltic Countries Meet in Narva’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (7 March 2014).

119 Lederman, Josh, ‘4 nations urge US gas exports amid Ukraine Crisis’, Washington Post (8 March 2014).

120 Polish Government, ‘Minister Grzegorz Schetyna on Polish Foreign Policy Priorities’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (6 November 2014).

121 Polish Government, ‘Information On The Letter Of The Group Of Countries Opposing The Construction Of The Nord Stream 2 [Informacja W Sprawie Listu Grupy Państw Przeciwnych Budowie Gazociągu Nord Stream 2]’, Ministry of Energy (30 November 2015).

122 Commission, ‘Polish Energy Market 2011’, p. 2 .

123 Energy Regulatory Office (ERO), National Report: The President of the Energy Regulatory Office in Poland 2015 (July 2015), p. 9 .

124 Nilsson, et al., ‘Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland’, p. 2269 .

125 Polish Government, ‘Polish Position for the Energy Council of 28 February 2008 on the Third Energy Package’ (28 February 2008).

126 Directive 2009/73/EC, p. para 21.

127 Goldriova, Renata, ‘EU weakens ‘Gazprom clause’ on foreign energy investors’, EU Observer (13 October 2008).

128 Polish Government, ‘The Priorities of the Polish Presidency of the EU Council’ (2011), available at: {https://www.premier.gov.pl/en/news/news/the-priorities-of-the-polish-presidency-of-the-eu-council.html} accessed 11 April 2017.

129 Commission, ‘Polish Energy Market 2011’, pp. 12 .

130 Nowak, , ‘Challenges of liberalization’, p. 167 .

131 Gawlikowska-Fyk, Aleksandra, ‘How the European Union is shaping the gas market in Poland’, PISM, 8:56 (2013), available at: {http://www.pism.pl/files/?id_plik=13336} accessed 4 March 2016, p. 5.

132 Krišjānis Kariņš cited in Large countries oppose EU Gazprom deals scrutiny’, Euractiv (12 September 2012).

133 Sikorski, Radosław, ‘Annual Address 2012’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Poland (29 March 2012).

134 European Parliament, ‘Better Coordinated EU External Energy Policy’, Press Release – Energy (13 September 2012).

135 Cameron, David, ‘Letter to José Manuel Barroso’ (4 December 2013), available at: {http://www.greenpeace.org/eu-unit/Global/eu-unit/reports-briefings/2013/Letter%20Cameron%20to%20Barroso%2004122013.pdf} accessed 11 April 2017; Mock, Vanessa, ‘EU shies away from shale gas legislation’, Wall Street Journal (22 January 2014).

136 Polish Government, ‘Energy Policy of Poland until 2030’, Ministry of Economy (2009), p. 6 .

137 Polish Government, ‘National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland: 2014’ (5 November 2014), p. 55 .

138 Council of the European Union, ‘Proposal for a European Energy Security Treaty – Presentation by the Polish Delegation’, 7160/06, Brussels (2006), p. 3 .

139 Tusk, Donald, ‘Donald Tusk on the Polish Project of the European Energy Union’ (29 March 2014).

140 Commission, ‘Energy Union Package’, COM(2015)80, p. 6 .

141 OECD, ‘Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland 2011’ (2 March 2011), available at: {http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/energy/energy-policies-of-iea-countries-poland-2011_9789264098190-en} accessed 3 March 2016, p. 19.

142 PPWB, ‘Information Bulletin Lignite Producers Agreement [Biuletyn Informacyjny Porozumienia Producentów Węgla Brunatnego]’, 4(89) 2014 , Porozumienie Producentów Węgla Brunatnego (2014).

143 Foy, Henry, ‘Poland drops mine closures in the face of union threats’, Financial Times (20 January 2015).

144 Ibid.

145 Cienski, Jan, ‘Poland fights for coal, but Russia may benefit’, Politico (13 May 2015), available at: {http://www.politico.eu/article/poland-fights-for-coal-but-russia-may-benefit/} accessed 30 March 2016.

146 Eurostat, ‘Energy Dependence’, Table tsdcc310 (28 September 2015), available at: {http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tsdcc310&language=en} accessed 1 May 2016.

147 Coal imports from Russia have more than tripled in ten years, in part because of lower prices (Cienski, ‘Poland fights for coal, but Russia may benefit’).

148 Eurostat, ‘Energy Dependence.

149 ERO, National Report, p. 13 .

150 Polish Government, ‘Energy Statistics 2004, 2005’, Central Statistical Office (October 2006), p. 173 .

151 Polish Government, ‘Energy 2016’, Central Statistical Office (16 June 2016), p. 8 .

152 Polish Government, ‘Energy Policy of Poland until 2030’, Ministry of Economy (2009).

153 ERO, ‘National Report’, pp. 1011 .

154 Ibid., p. 57.

155 Adam Grzeszak cited in Wisniewski, Jaroslaw , ‘Towards a Common Understanding of Energy Security? An Analysis of Elite Discourses in the UK, Poland and Germany’ (PhD Thesis, King’s College London, 2014), p. 137.

156 Directive 2009/73/EC.

157 Further research is required to examine this claim in other Member States, and in particular to examine how the dynamics of securitisation and riskification may play out in systems that do not align so clearly with the state-led/market-led distinction we have utilised in this article. This could also explore aspects of the process of constructing energy security that we have not been able to examine in this article, such as the role of practices in contributing to the process of securitisation/riskification.

158 Commission, European Energy Security Strategy, COM(2014)330, Brussels: European Commission (28 May 2014), available at: {http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0330&qid=1407855611566} accessed 11 April 2017.

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