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The Mental Hygiene Movement, The Development of Personality and the School: The Medicalization of American Education

  • Sol Cohen

“The goal of medicine is peculiarly the goal of making itself unnecessary, of influencing life so that what is medicine today will become mere common sense tomorrow or at least within the next generation.”

Adolph Meyer, 1928

From the study of history, wrote Newton Edwards in 1949 in the first issue of History of Education Journal, “one may gain insight into the problems of one's own time and become more intelligent with respect to the shaping of future policy.” But, he continued, “if history is to achieve this purpose most effectively, it must … be regarded as a seamless web.” We can wholeheartedly agree with Edwards' affirmation of the usefulness of history of education. But if history is a “seamless web,” it is so only in theory. In practice, each of us must unravel the seamless web in our own way, based on our convictions, interests, and temperament, and hope that even this partial unraveling may still provide some insight into the educational problems of our time and some usefulness for the formulation of future policy.

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1. Meyer, Adolph, “The ‘Complaint’ as The Center of Genetic Dynamic and Nosological Teaching in Psychiatry,” New England Journal of Medicine, 199 (1928): 360.

2. Edwards, Newton, “Social Forces In American Education,” History of Education Journal, 1 (1949): 70.

3. Allport, Gordon W. and Vernon, Philip E. review the literature inThe Field of Personality,” The Psychological Bulletin, 27 (1930): 677730.

4. Sapir, Edward, “Personality,” Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1934), Vol. 12 pp.8587. And see in general, Burnham, John Chynweth, “Historical Background For the Study of Personality,” in Borgetta, Edgar F. and Lambert, William W. (eds.), Handbook of Personality Theory and Research (Chicago, Illinois, 1968).

5. What I am trying to say too succinctly is greatly elaborated in Williams, Raymond, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture And Society (London, 1976), pp. 925.

6. Dain, Norman, Clifford W. Beers: Advocate for the Insane (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1980); Sicherman, Barbara, The Quest for Mental Health In America, 1880–1917 (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1967); and Matthews, Fred, “In Defense of Common Sense: Mental Hygiene As Idealogy And Mentality in Twentieth-Century America,” Prospects, 2 (Winter, 1979): 459–516.

7. Cohen, Sol, “The Mental Hygiene Movement and the Development of Personality: Changing Conceptions of the American College and University, 1920–1940,” History of Higher Education Annual, 2(1982): 65101; “The School and Personality Development: Intellectual History,” in Best, John H. (ed.), Historical Inquiry In Education: A Research Agenda, (Wash. D.C., 1983), pp. 109–137; and “The Mental Hygiene Movement, The Commonwealth Fund, and Public Education, 1921–1933,” in Benjamin, Gerald (ed.), Private Philanthrophy and Public Elementary and Secondary Education; Proceedings of the Rockefeller Archive Center Conference Held on June 8, 1979, pp. 33–46.

8. In the preparation of this paper I have found some recent work in intellectual history very helpful, especially Conkin, Paul H., “Intellectual History,” in Cartwright, William H. and Watson, Richard L. Jr., eds., The Reinterpretation of American History and Culture, Wash., D.C., 1973), and Darnton, Robert, “Intellectual and Cultural History,” in Kammen, Michael (ed.), The Past Before Us: Contemporary Historical Writing In the United States (Ithaca, N.Y., 1980). I have also profited from many of the essays in Higham, John and Conkin, Paul, eds., New Directions In American Intellectual History (Baltimore, 1979).

9. Rieff, Philip, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud (New York, 1968), ch. 8; Rieff, Philip, Freud: The Mind of The Moralist, (New York, 1959), Ch. 10; Lasch, Christopher, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life In An Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York, 1979), passim; Cochran, Thomas C., “The Inner Revolution,” in his Social Change in Industrial Society (London, 1972), ch. 2. Especially relevant is Susman, Warren I., “Personality And the Making of Twentieth Century Culture,” in New Directions In American Intellectual History, pp. 212–226.

10. For the beginnings and early years of the movement, see Dain, , Clifford W. Beers, Chaps. 9–13, and Sicherman, , The Quest for Mental Health in America, 1880–1917, Chaps. 5–6.

11. In 1913 the NCMH claimed that the mentally ill in asylums and hospitals numbered at least one quarter of a million, and their number was increasing annually at the rate of three or four per every thousand increase in the nation's population. In addition, mental illness represented an economic burden to the nation amounting to almost $100,000,000 per annum. Barker, Lewellys F., “Some Phases of the Mental Hygiene Movement And the Scope of the Work of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene,” in Beers, Clifford W., A Mind That Found Itself (New York, 1913), pp. 328333.

12. From an NCMH pamphlet quoted in Dain, , Clifford W. Beers, pp. 185–86.

13. Macfie Campbell, C., A Present-Day Conception of Mental Disorders (Cambridge, Mass., 1924), p. 38. See also White's, William Alanson Medical Psychology: The Mental Factor in Disease, (New York, 1931) as well as White's Twentieth Century Psychiatry (New York, 1936). See also Meyer, Adolf, “Modern Conceptions of Mental Disease,” in Jennings, Herbert S. et al., Suggestions of Modern Science Concerning Education (New York, 1917).

14. Three quasi-official summaries of mental hygiene doctrine are: Pratt, George K., Your Mind and You: Mental Health (New York, 1924); Burnham, William H., The Normal Mind (New York, 1924); and Groves, Ernest R. and Blanchard, Phyllis, Introduction to Mental Hygiene (New York, 1930).

15. Childhood: The Golden Period for Mental Hygiene,” Mental Hygiene, 4 (April 1920): 266267; White, William Alanson, The Mental Hygiene of Childhood (Boston, 1919).

16. For example Meyer, Adolf, “What Do Histories of Cases of Insanity Teach Us Concerning Preventive Mental Hygiene During the Years of School Life?Psychological Clinic, 2 (June 15, 1908): 89101; Macfie Campbell, C., “The Sub-Normal Child,” Mental Hygiene, (1917): 96–147; MacCurdy, John T., “Psychiatric Clinics In the Schools,” American Journal of Public Health, (1916): 1262–1267; Healy, William, “An Outline For The Institutional Education And Treatment of Young Offenders,” Journal of Educational Psychology, 6(1915): 301–316.

17. Macfie Campbell, C., “A City School and Its Subnormal Children,” Mental Hygiene, 2(1918): 244.

18. Quoted in Sicherman, , The Quest For Mental Health, p. 180.

19. Salmon, Thomas W., “War Neuroses and Their Lesson,” New York Medical Journal, 109 (1919): 933–96; “Notes and Comments,” Mental Hygiene, 2(1918): 480–81; Groves, and Blanchard, , Introduction to Mental Hygiene, pp. 40–43; May, Henry N., Mental Diseases: A Public Health Problem (Boston, 1922), pp. 192–193.

20. “The Place of Mental Hygiene In Social Work,” unpublished, in The Thomas W. Salmon Papers, Archives of Psychiatry, New York Hospital.

21. This conception of the role of ideas is explored in Dunn, John, “The Identity of the History of Ideas,” Philosophy, 43(1968): 185199.

22. Davies, Stanley P., Social Control of the Feebleminded (New York, 1923), Chaps. 4 and 5.

23. For the mental hygiene movement and eugenics and the closely related intelligence test movement, see Cravens, Hamilton, American Scientists and Heredity-Environment Controversy, 1900–1941, (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1978), pp. 68, 85–86, 343–44; Haller, Mark H., Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes In American Thought (New Brunswick, N.J., 1963), and Sicherman, , The Quest For Mental Health, pp. 343–351.

24. Cohen, , “The Mental Hygiene Movement, The Commonwealth Fund, and Public Education, 1921–1933.” Although the Program remained in effect the NCMH-CF enterprise envisioned by Salmon, it was decided ultimately that responsibility for the Program be distributed among three agencies. The visiting teacher demonstration was assigned to the Public Education Association of New York City. Responsibility for the training of clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers and child psychiatrists was assigned the New York School of Social Work. The nation-wide organization and demonstration of child guidance clinics, the largest phase of the Program, went to the NCMH. The Program was directed by Barry C. Smith of the Commonwealth Fund.

25. Williams, Frankwood E., “Finding a Way in Mental Hygiene,” Mental Hygiene, 14 (1930): 246247; Williams, Frankwood E., “Everychild: How He Keeps His Mental Health,” the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 121 (1925): 181 ff. See also Waters, Miriam Van, Parents on Probation (New York, 1928), passim.

26. Truitt, Ralph P., “Mental Hygiene and the Public School,” Mental Hygiene, 11 (1927): 270.

27. “Practically all children are for a shorter or longer period in our schools. The public schools, coming into close contact with the lives of over twenty million young boys, girls, and adolescents, is or should be our greatest social welfare agency.” Salmon, Thomas S., quoted in Commonwealth Fund, Annual Report, 1922, p. 21. This is a typical hygienist conception of the school. Truitt, writes, “The public school represents the most powerful agency in the field of child welfare. It touches practically every child and has jurisdiction over him during the important formative years.” Truitt, , “Mental Hygiene And the Public School:” 261.

28. Burnham, William H., “Success and Failure As Conditions of Mental Health,” Mental Hygiene, 3 (1919): 387397; Dearborn, Walter F., “Facts of Mental Hygiene for Teachers,” Ibid: 111–115; Macfie Campbell, C., “Nervous Children and Their Training,” Ibid: 16–23.

29. Stevenson, George S. and Smith, Geddes, Child Guidance Clinics: A Quarter-Century of Development (New York, 1934), pp. 1112.

30. See for example the following by Williams, Frankwood E. Dr.: “The Mechanisms of Human Behavior,” in Williams, Frankwood E. (ed.), The Social Aspects of Mental Hygiene (New Haven, 1925), pp. 1617; “The Significance of Mental Hygiene For the Teacher And The Normal Child,” Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work (1921), pp. 359–363.

31. Cornell, Ethel, “Mental Hygiene: Its Place In the Classroom,” Southern California Society For Mental Hygiene, Mental Hygiene Bulletin, 3 (1927): 5.

32. White, , “Childhood: The Golden Period for Mental Hygiene:” 262263; Burnham, , The Normal Mind, pp. 18–19; Richards, Esther Loring, “What Has Mental Hygiene to Offer Childhood at the End of 1926,” Mental Hygiene, 11 (1927): 8.

33. Winslow, C.E. A., “The Mental Hygiene Movement and Its Founder,” in Beers, , A Mind That Found Itself, p. 310.

34. Groves, and Blanchard, , Introduction to Mental Hygiene, pp. 8384; Wile, Ira S., “Laziness In School Children,” Mental Hygiene, 6(1922): 68–82.

35. Wickmans, Edwin K., Children's Behavior and Teacher's Attitudes (New York, 1928), is a hygienist classic. See also Haggerty, M.E., “The Incidence of Undesirable Behavior in Public School Children,” Journal of Educational Research, 12 (1925): 102–122; and Groves, and Blanchard, , Introduction to Mental Hygiene, pp. 98–99, 187–193.

36. Glueck, Bernard, “Some Extra-Curricular Problems of the Classroom” School and Society, 19 (February 9, 1924): 143149; Truitt, Ralph P., “Barriers to Mental Hygiene—Teachers,” Proceedings of The National Conference of Social Work (1925), pp. 426–430.

37. No single document captures so well the dominant mood and ideological thrust of the mental hygiene movement in education as Bassetts', Clara The School and Mental Health (New York, 1931). This is a series of short articles written by a social worker on the staff of the NCMH, then published in booklet form by the Commonwealth Fund.

38. Salmon, Thomas W., “Program For the Prevention of Delinquency,” unpublished, in Thomas W. Salmon Papers, Archives of Psychiatry, New York Hospital. The term “attitude” is invoked frequently by hygienists when they discuss the sort of change they were after and obviously had a special meaning for them. Rokeach's definition of “attitude” would appear to be what they had in mind: “a relatively enduring organization of an individual's beliefs … that predisposes his actions.” Rokeach, Milton, Beliefs, Attitudes And Values: A Theory of Organization And Change (San Francisco, 19), Ch. 5, “The Nature of Attitudes.”

39. Matthews, , “In Defense of Common Sense:” 471.

40. Pratt, George K., “Twenty Years of the NCMH,” Mental Hygiene, 14 (1930): 402409; Dain, , Clifford W. Beers p. 168.

41. Commonwealth Fund, Annual Report, 1922, p. 18.

42. Croly, Herbert, The Promise of American Life (N.Y., 1909), pp. 401402.

43. Burnham, John Chynoweth, “Medical Specialists And Movements Toward Social Control in The Progressive Era: Three Examples,” in Israel, Jerry, ed., Building the Organizational Society (New York, 1972), pp. 2730.

44. Commonwealth Fund, Annual Report, 1926, pp. 3840.

45. Commonwealth Fund, Annual Report, 1928, pp. 8081.

46. For a discussion see Reinitz, Richard, “A Note On the Impact of Quantification On the Methodology of Non-Quantitative History,” Pennsylvania History, 39 (1972): 362366.

47. The education diffusion tradition is one of the longest in the number of studies. But this tradition with only a few exceptions, writes a long-time student of the subject, is of little significance in terms of its contributions to our understanding of the diffusion of ideas. Rogers, Everett M., Diffusion of Innovations (New York, 1962), p. 39; and Rogers, Everett M., Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. (New York, 1971), pp. 57–66.

48. Pocock, J.G.A., Politics, Language, and Time: Essays In Political Thought and History (New York, 1971), pp. 2329, 284ff; Pocock, J.G.A., “Working On Ideas In Time” in Curtis, L. P. (ed.), The Historian's Workshop (New York, 1970) pp. 153–165.

49. The essays by Murphy, Hollinger, and Bender in Higham, and Conkin, (eds.), New Directions In American Intellectual History, are relevant here.

50. Holzner, Burkardt, Reality Construction In Society (Cambridge, Mass., 1968, pp. 6971. I have found this volume to be more helpful than the better-known Berger, Peter and Luckman, Thomas, The Social Construction of Reality (New York, 1961).

51. White, Hayden. Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism (Baltimore, 1978), p. 129.

52. Language, Logic and Culture,” in Horowitz, I. L. (ed.), Power, Politics and People: The Collected Essays of C. Wright Mills (New York, 1963), pp. 433–34. See also from the same volume, “Situated Actions and Vocabularies of Motive.”

53. For example, Gesell, Arnold, “Mental Hygiene and The School,” Mental Hygiene, 3 (1919): 5964; Terman, Lewis M., The Hygiene of the School Child (Boston, 1914), Chapters 16–18; Wallace Wallin, J. E., The Mental Hygiene of the School Child (Boston, 1914); Averill, Lawrence A., The Hygiene of Instruction (Boston, 1928).

54. See for example, Taft, Jessie, “Mental Hygiene and Social Work,” in Williams, Frankwood E., ed., Social Aspects of Mental Hygiene (New Haven, 1925). See also Culbert, Jane, “The Public School as a Factor in the Training of the Socially Handicapped Child,” Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work (1923), p. 98; and Edith Campbell, M., “The Strategic Position of the School in Programs of Social Work,” Ibid., pp. 362ff; and Pratt, Anna Black, “The Relation of the Teacher And The Social Worker,” Annals, 98 (1921): 90–96. And in general for the convergence of mental hygiene and social work see Lubove, Roy, The Professional Altruist: The Emergence of Social Work As A Career (Cambridge, Mass., 1965).

55. This discussion is based on Miles, Mathew, “On Temporary Systems,” in Miles, Mathew (ed.), Innovation in Education (New York, 1964), pp. 446ff; Holzner, , Reality Construction in Society, pp. 152–155; and Rogers, , Communication of Innovations, pp. 279–83.

56. School And Society, 32(1931): 724–25; Cubberley, Elwood P., Public Education In the United States (Boston, 1934), p. 620.

57. White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Report of the Committee on the Socially Handicapped—Delinquency, The Delinquent Child (New York, 1932), pp. 3841, and 99–133. And White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Report of the Committee On the School Child, The School Health Program (New York, 1932), pp. 61–82.

58. According to the president of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, the whole thrust of parent education was to give parents “the fundamentals of child psychology and mental hygiene.Parent Education, 2(1931), vi. For evidence of how deeply mental hygiene had penetrated the parent education movement, see National Society for the Study of Education, 28th Yearbook, Preschool and Parental Education (Bloomington, Ind., 1929), and White House Conference on Child Health and Protection, Report of the Subcommittee on Parent Education, Parent Education: Types, Content, Method (New York, 1932), passim. See also Frank, Lawrence K., “Children and Youth” in Presidents' Research Committee on Social Trends, Recent Social Trends In America, (New York, 1933), 2 vols., vol. 2, pp. 793–94.

59. Symonds, Percival M., “Mental Hygiene In the Classroom: Historical Perspective,” Journal of Social Issues, 15 (1959): 16. Symonds chaired the section on “Mental Hygiene In Schools,” and was also able to elicit a testimonial for mental hygiene from William Heard Kilpatrick, his more famous colleague at Teachers College. See Kilpatrick, William Heard, “A Philosophy of Education,” The School Health Program, pp. 31–33; Kilpatrick, William Heard, “The New Point of View in Education,” Journal of The National Education Association, 20(1931): 131–135.

60. They amounted only to formation in 1924 of a joint NFA - National Conference of Social Work—NCMH Joint Committee to study ways of preventing juvenile delinquency through the school. School and Society, 19(1924): 454–55; Commonwealth Fund, Annual Report, 1924, pp. 37–38.

61. See, for example, Williams, Frankwood E., “The Field of Mental Hygiene,” Progressive Education, 3 (1926): 1113; and Richards, Esther Loring, “Has Mental Hygiene a Place in the Elementary School,” Progressive Education, ibid.: 31–38. Dr. Liss was chairman of the PEA's Committee on Mental Hygiene in Education in the 1930s. For PEAs various committees and the Commissions see Graham, Patricia A., From Arcady to Academe: A History of The Progressive Education Association (N.Y., 1967), pp. 133–139, 168–171.

62. PEA president Burton Fowler (1931–1933) testifies: “It might astonish Clifford Beers to know that the Progressive Education Movement [sic] owes more to mental hygiene than to any other source, with the possible exception of the philosophy of John Dewey. Mr. Beers and his associates have taught us … to realize that all of our educational experiences are conditioned by the fundamental necessity of well-adjusted personality.” In Cross, Wilbur H., ed., Twenty-Five Years After: Sidelights on the Mental Hygiene Movement and its Founder (New York, 1934), pp. 146147. In conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the founding of the NCMH, in 1934 Progressive Education devoted an entire issue to “Mental Health In the School.”

63. Frank becomes a very important figure in the mental hygiene movement in the 1930s. For some idea of the range and extent of Frank's contacts, see Senn, Milton J.E., Insights On The Child Development Movement In The United States: Monographs of the Society For Research In Child Development, vol. 40, nos. 3 and 4, 1975, pp. 924, and passim.

64. In the early 20's, the NCMH launched a drive to gain a foothold for mental hygiene in the colleges and universities. By the late 20s it had achieved some striking successes. Cohen, , “The Mental Hygiene Movement and Changing Conceptions of the American College and University, 1920–1940.”

65. The general point is elaborated in Wayland, Sloan R., “Structural Features of American Education As Basic Factors In Innovation,” in Miles, , Innovation In Education, p. 598.

66. Thayer, V. T., Zachry, Caroline B., and Kotinsky, Ruth, Re-organizing Secondary Education (New York, 1939) pp. 364365. See also Meek, Lois Hayden, The Personal-Social Development of Boys and Girls (New York, 1940); and Zachry, Caroline B., Emotion and Conduct in Adolescence (New York, 1940).

67. Carson Ryan, W., “The Preparation of Teachers For Dealing With the Behavior Problems of Children,” Social And Society, 38 (August 18, 1928): 208215.

68. Averill, Lawrence A., The Hygiene of Instruction: A Study of the Mental Hygiene of The School Child (Boston, 1928): Burnham, William H., The Normal Mind: An Introduction to Mental Hygiene and The Hygiene of School Instruction (New York, 1924).

69. Historians have neglected the role of textbooks in the diffusion of educational ideology. The following are suggestive: American Textbook Publishers Institute, Textbooks In Education (New York, 1949); Cronbach, Lee J., ed., Textbook Materials In Modern Education (Urbana, Ill., 1955); and Wright Mills, C., “The Professional Ideology of Social Pathologists,” in Horowitz, , ed., Power, Politics and People.

70. Fenton, Norman, Mental Hygiene In School Practice (Stanford, Calif., 1943), p. 133.

71. Prescott, Daniel A., Emotion And The Educative Process (Wash., D.C., 1938), p. 137. This query seemed important enough to be repeated by Witty and Skinner, along with their affirmation of the priority of the mental hygiene approach. Mental Hygiene In Modern Education, p. 9.

72. National Education Association, Department of Elementary School Principals, Fifteenth Yearbook Personality Adjustment of the Elementary School Child (Wash. D.C., 1936); National Education Association, Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction, Mental Hygiene in the Classroom, Thirteenth Yearbook, Wash., D.C., 1940); Educational Policies Commission, Education For All American Youth (Wash., D.C., 1944). p. 330. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Fostering Mental Hygiene in Our Schools, 1950 Yearbook, (Wash., D.C., 1950) A document interesting for its sponsorship as well as its content is “Mental Hygiene In the Classroom, Report of the Joint Committee on Health Problems in Education of the National Education Association and the American Medical Association, with the cooperation of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene and the American Ortho-psychiatric Association (n.p. 1939).

73. E.g., The University of the State of New York, The Activity Program: A Curriculum Experiment (Albany, New York State, 1941), passim. See also Foster, Charles R., Mental Hygiene In New Jersey Schools (New Brunswick, N.J., 1939).

74. Wayne Wrightstone, J., Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices (New York, 1938); and Paul Leonard, J. and Eurich, Alvin C., eds., An Evaluation of Modern Education: A Report Sponsored By The Society For Curriculum Study (New York, 1942).

75. Mathews, Fred, “In Defense of Common Sense:” 494–498. And see also two volumes by Joseph Veroff and his associates, The Inner American: A Self Portrait From 1957–1976 (New York, 1981), and Mental Health In America: Patterns of Help-Seeking From 1957–1976 (N.Y., 1981), and Janowitz, Morris, The Last Half-Century: Social Change And Politics In America (Chicago, 1978), pp. 406ff.

76. Ridenour, Nina, Mental Hygiene In the United States: A Fifty Year History (Cambridge, Mass., 1961), pp. 127130. See also Woodward, Luther E., “The Mental Hygiene Movement—More Recent Developments” in Beers, , A Mind That Found Itself, pp. 344–349.

77. There is a pertinent discussion of the life cycle of social movements in Toch, Hans, The Social Psychology of Social Movements (New York, 1965), p. 228.

78. Richards, Edward A., ed., Proceedings of the Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth (Raleigh, N.C., 1950), p. 175, 176. See also Witmer, Helen Leland and Kotinsky, Ruth, eds., Personality in the Making: The Fact-Finding Report of the Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth (New York, 1952), esp. Chs. 1, 4, and 11.

79. The Conference spurred another outpouring of textbooks on mental hygiene for teachers. E.g., Rogers, Dorothy, Mental Hygiene In Elementary Education (Boston, 1957); Lindgren, Henry C., Mental Health In Education (New York, 1954), N.B. Henry, ed., Mental Health in Modern Education, (Chicago, 1955); Kaplan, Louis, Education and Mental Health (New York, 1959); Redl, Fritz and Wattenberg, William W., Mental Hygiene in Teaching (New York, 1959); Bonney, Merl E., Mental Health In Education (Boston, 1960); and Bernard, Harold W., Mental Hygiene for Classroom Teachers (New York, 1952). There is also a whole genre of general textbooks for teachers which appeared in the fifties with titles like Introduction to Education or Methods of Education or Principles of Education all with their hygienist content. An interesting example is Lee, Gordon C., An Introduction to Education In Modern America (New York, 1953), Ch. 16, “Personality and Teaching.”

80. In Life's 1950 public opinion survey, 87% of those polled upheld vocational education, social skills, and character-building and personality development as the proper objects of the schools' concern. In Clifford, Geraldine Joncich, The Shape of American Education (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1975), p. 144; See also Freeman Butts, R. and Cremin, Lawrence A., A History of Education in American Culture, (New York, 1953), pp. 541, 589; Mort, Paul R. and Vincent, William S., Introduction to American Education (New York, 1954), pp. 137–39. And see, in general, Allinsmith, Wesley and Goethals, George W., The Role of the Schools in Mental Health (New York, 1962).

81. Toch, , The Social Psychology of Social Movements, pp. 57.

82. Mental Hygiene,” in Rosenau, M. J. (ed.), Preventive Medicine And Hygiene, 3rd ed., (New York, 1917), p. 351.

83. Forty Years of Psychiatry (N.Y. 1933), p. 92. Some psychiatrists were even more dogmatic. “Every child is a problem child.” Rosanoff, Aaron J., “The Problem Child,” Southern California Society for Mental Hygiene, Mental Hygiene Bulletin, 1(1924): 1.

84. When the psychiatrist looks at school children, declared Williams, Frankwood Dr., “he sees a young army from which will be recruited in the future the victims of mental disease, the vocational misfits, the individuals who swell the divorce statistics … the inmates of reformatories and prisons, the partially adjusted …, and in the minority—a small number of children who will be healthy well-adjusted adults,” in “Community Responsibility In Mental Hygiene,” Mental Hygiene, 7(1923); 497.

85. Mental Hygiene, writes psychiatrist Dr. Smiley Blanton, in an analogy much favored by hygienists, is concerned with forestalling mental breakdowns in normal persons “just as we vaccinate healthy people to prevent smallpox.”Mental Hygiene For College Students,” Huddleston, E. (ed.), Problems of College Education (N.Y. 1928), p. 303.

86. Stevenson, George S., “Mental Hygiene And Adjustment: Historical Developments and Modern Trends,” Review of Educational Research (1936): 462–63; Stevenson, George S., “Prevention of Personality Disorders,” in J. McVickers Hunt (ed.), Personality And Behavior Disorders, 2 vols. (New York, 1944), vol. 2, pp. 1165.

87. For a relevant discussion see Rosenberg, Charles E., No Other Gods: On A Science and American Social Thought (Baltimore, Md., 1976), pp. 121.

88. Toward a Sociological Understanding of Psychoanalysis,” Social Research, 32(1965): 32.

89. The distinction is explored in Morris Janowitz' history of the idea of social control, The Last Half-Century: Social Change And Politics In America (Chicago, 1978), p. 29.

90. The ideal of mental health, declared White, William Alanson Dr., “is the all-around, through and through personality, and that personality is the social personality,” in “Mental Hygiene,” Proceedings of the National Conference on Social Work, 1922, p. 48. William H. Burnham voices the same idea in more euphemistic hygienist nomenclature: “The school's essential task … is the integration of personality that makes right adjustment possible,” in The Normal Mind, pp. 18–19.

91. Rosen, George C., Madness In Society: Chapters In The Historical Sociology of Mental Illness (London, 1968), p. 164.

92. Davies, Stanley, “Mental Hygiene And Social Progress,” Mental Hygiene, 13 (1929): 249–50.

93. Truitt, Ralph P., “Community Aspects of Child Guidance,” Mental Hygiene, 10(1926): 296.

94. Groves, and Blanchard, , Introduction to Mental Hygiene, pp. 436–37.

95. Quoted in Robinson, Virginia P., Jessie Taft; Therapist And Social Worker (Philadelphia, Pa., 1962), p. 63. In a similar vein, another hygienist, a psychiatrist, declares that when all medical schools and every college and university offers courses in mental hygiene, when every home and school has learned to apply mental hygiene, when every community has facilities for mental hygiene, and when all agencies are administered in conformity with the laws of mental hygiene “then we shall have reached the millennium.” Stanley Abbott, E., “What Is Mental Hygiene?” American Journal of Psychiatry, 10(1924): 284.

96. “Unhappily” says a hygienist in 1953, “it is not yet possible to announce definite progress in the understanding of the basic causes of mental disease … prediction, control, and prevention are still out of grasp.” But she hoped that soon “progress toward prevention … can be acclaimed with certainty.” Ridenour, Nina, “The Mental Hygiene Movement, 1948 through 1952,” in Beers, , A Mind That Found Itself, p. 388.

97. As early as 1919, Dr. E. E. Southard warned that the mental hygiene movement was being launched as “a matter of propaganda rather than largely a matter of research. “ Quoted in Gay, Frederick, The Open Mind: Elmer Ernest Southard, 1876–1920 (n.p., 1938), p. 150. And in 1930 on the occasion of the First International Congress on Mental Hygiene Dr. William H. Welch observed, “that big mental hygiene congress … was rather terrible, and an example of arousing the public before the foundation of sound knowledge and doctrine had been laid with good psychiatric and neurological institutes something might be done in mental hygiene, but it would have to be … so elementary as to lack altogether the spectacular appeal now made for the subject.” Quoted in Dain, , Clifford W. Beers, p. 248.

98. Teachers could give, Meyer, continued, “only inadequate and biased data such as constituted psychiatric records of the beginning of the century, largely the complaints of the attendants as to the annoyances they were put to by the presence of patients,” in American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2(1932): 229.

99. This general point is discussed in Haskell, Thomas L., “Deterministic Implications of Intellectual History,” in Higham, and Conkin, (eds.), New Directions In American Intellectual History, pp. 140141.

100. Innovation In Education, pp. 635, 639–649, 657–643.

101. Keniston, Kenneth, et. al., All Our Children: The American Family Under Pressure (New York, 1977), p. 205).

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