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GENEALOGICAL STELES IN NORTH CHINA DURING THE JIN AND YUAN DYNASTIES

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 July 2016

Tomoyasu Iiyama*
Affiliation:
Waseda Institute for Advanced Study E-mail tyama618@gmail.com

Abstract

Using both long forgotten and newly available steles from North China, this article looks at these ancient monuments to explore the rise and evolution of an epigraphic practice under Jurchen and Mongol rules (1127–1368). In particular it looks at steles erected to record genealogical information (called xianyingbei in general) in north China during the twelfth to fourteenth centuries, which was a new usage for the stele in the area. The article's main aim is to demonstrate how cultural integration among different social strata was triggered by the invasions of the Jurchen and Mongol conquerors, which in turn led to the formation of a new and legitimate way to compile family genealogies in north China.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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References

REFERENCES

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Su TianjueTianjue, Su 蘇天爵. Zixiwengao 滋溪文稿, transcribed and punctuated by Gaohua, Chen 陳高華 and Fanqing, Meng 孟繁清: Beijng: Zhonghua Shuju, 1997.Google Scholar
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Wang Chang comp. 2003 Chang, Wang 王昶, ed. Jinshi xubian 金石續編, in Songdai shike wenxian quanbian, ed. Jinshizu, Beijing Tushuguan Shanben. Beijing: Beijing Tushuguan Chubanshe, 2003.Google Scholar
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Zhong'anjiMinzhong, Liu 劉敏中. Zhong'anji 中庵集, SKQS version.Google Scholar
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Cohen 2005 Cohen, Myron L., ed. Kinship, Contract, Community, and State, Anthropological Perspectives on China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Deng, Zhao, and Li 2009 Qingping, Deng 邓庆平, Shiyu, Zhao 赵世瑜, and Xinwei, Li 李新威, eds. Weixian beiming jilu 蔚县碑铭辑录. Guilin: Guangxishifandaxue Chubanshe, 2009.Google Scholar
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Ebrey 1984 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Conceptions of the Family in the Sung Dynasty.” Journal of Asian Studies 43:2 (1984), pp. 219–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrey 1980 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Later Han Stone Inscriptions.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 40:2 (1980), pp. 325–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrey 1978 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The Aristocratic Families of Early Imperial China: A Case Study of the Po-ling Ts'ui Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrey 1974 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Estate and Family Management in the Later Han as Seen in the Monthly Instructions for the Four Classes of People.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 17 (1974), pp. 173205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faure 2007 Faure, David. Emperor and Ancestor: State and Lineage in South China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gan 1991 Huaizhen, Gan 甘懷真. Tangdai jiamiao lizhi yanjiu 唐代家廟禮制研究. Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1991.Google Scholar
Hebeisheng Wenwu Yanjiusuo and Linchengxian Wenwu Baoguansuo 2009 Hebei, 河北省文物研究所; Baoguansuo, Linchengxian Wenwu 临城县文物保管所, eds., authored by Fei, Xie 谢飞; Zhizhong, Zhang 张志忠; Chao, Yang 杨超, Bei Song Lincheng Wangshi jiazu muzhi 北宋临城王氏家族墓志. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe, 2009.Google Scholar
Iiyama 2014 Iiyama, Tomoyasu. “A Career between Two Cultures: Guo Yu, A Chinese Literatus in the Yuan Bureaucracy.” Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 44 (2014), pp. 479509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iiyama 2013 Tomoyasu, Iiyama 飯山 知保. “‘Sonkōryō hikokugun’ no kenkyū: 12 kara 14 seiki kahoku ni okeru seneihi no shutsugen to keihu denshō no hensen ‘孫公亮墓’ 碑刻群の研究――12–14 世紀華北における‘先塋碑’ の出現と系譜伝承の変遷―.” Ajiaahurika gengo bunka kenkyū アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究 85 (2013), pp. 61170.Google Scholar
Iiyama 2008 Tomoyasu, Iiyama 飯山 知保. “Mongoru jidai kahoku ni okeru keihu denshō to hikoku shiryō モンゴル時代華北における系譜伝承と碑刻史料.” Shiteki 史滴 30 (2008), pp. 164–80.Google Scholar
Inaba 1966 Shōju, Inaba 稲葉 正就. “Gen no teishi ni kansuru kenkyū: keitō to kenji wo chūshin toshite 元の帝師に関する研究――系統と年次を中心として.” Ōtani daigaku kenkyū nenpō 大谷大学研究年報 17 (1966), pp. 79156.Google Scholar
Liu 1999 Zhiwei, Liu 刘志伟. “Chuanshuo, fuhui yu lishi zhenshi: Zhujiang sanjiaozhou zupu zhong zongzulishi de xushijiegou ji qi yiyi 传说、附会与历史真实――珠江三角洲族谱中宗族历史的叙事及其意义.” Heming, Wang 王鹤鸣, et al. , eds., Zhongguo pudie yanjiu 中国谱牒研究. Shanghai: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe, 1999.Google Scholar
Ma 2012 Jinhua, Ma 马金花 et al. , eds. Shanxi beijie xubian 山西碑碣续编. Taiyuan: Sanjin Chubanshe 三晋出版社, 2012.Google Scholar
McDermott 2013 McDermott, Joseph, P.The Making of a New Rural Order in South China: I. Village, Land, and Lineage in Huizhou, 900–1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morita 2004 Kenji, Morita 森田 憲司. Gendai chishikijin to chi'iki shakai 元代知識人と地域社会. Tokyo: Kyūko Sho'in, 2004.Google Scholar
Morita 1979 Kenji, Morita 森田 憲司. “Sōgen jidai ni okeru shūfu 宋元時代における修譜.” Tōyōshi kenkyū 東洋史研究 37:4 (1979), pp. 509–35.Google Scholar
Mote 2000 Mote, F. W.Imperial China, 900–1800. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Szonyi 2002 Szonyi, Michael. Practicing Kinship: Lineage and Descent in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Tackett 2014 Tackett, Nicolas. The Destruction of the Medieval Chinese Aristocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang 2012 Run, Wang 汪润. “Ming Qing shiqi huabei zongzu zuzhi xingtai xintan: yi Beijing fangshan de xianyingbei weili 明清时期华北宗族组织形态新探――以北京房山的先茔碑为例.” In “Quyu kuaquyu yu wenhua zhenghe” shehuishi guojixueshuyantaohui lunwenji “区域、跨区域与文化整合” 社会史国际学术研讨会论文集, eds. Yun, Wang 王云 and Liangkuan, Ma 马亮宽, pp. 332–40. Tianjin: Tianjin Renmin Chubanshe, 2012.Google Scholar
Wang 2009 Ting, Wang 王頲. “Fenguan yiyin: yuan dasitu chenping de jiashi yu shiji 汾關遺胤-元大司徒陳萍的家世餘事蹟.” Xiyu nanhai shidi yanjiu 西域南海史地研究 4 (2009), pp. 301–12.Google Scholar
Wei 2014 Feng, Wei 魏峰. “Xianyingbeiji yu yuandai jiazu zuzhi 先塋碑記与元代家族組織.” Paper presented to the conference “Chuancheng yu biange: 10–14 shiji zhongguo de duobian zhengzhi yu duoyuan wenhua guoji xueshu huiyi 传承与変革—10–14 世纪中国的多边政治与多元文化国际学术会议,” Fudan University, Shanghai, August 28, 2014.Google Scholar
Wu, Ge, and Cao 1997 Songdi, Wu 吴松弟, Jianxiong, Ge 葛剑雄, Shuji, Cao 曹树基. Zhongguo yimin shi 中国移民史 vol. 4. Fuzhou: Fujian Renmin Chubanshe, 1997.Google Scholar
Wu 2001 Jingshan, Wu 吴景山, Xibei minzu beiwen 西北民族碑文. Lanzhou: Gansu Renmin Chubanshe, 2001.Google Scholar
Hu Pinzhi comp. 2003 Pinzhi, Hu 胡聘之 comp. Shanyou shike congbian 山右石刻叢編, in Liao Jin Yuan shike wenxian quanbian 遼金元石刻文獻全編, ed. Jinshizu, Beijing Tushuguan Shanben. Beijing: Beijing Tushuguan Chubanshe, 2003.Google Scholar
Lu Zengxiang comp. 2003 Zengxiang, Lu 陸增祥, ed. Baqiongshi jinshi buzheng 八琼室金石補正, in Songdai shike wenxian quanbian 宋代石刻文獻全編, ed. Jinshizu, Beijing Tushuguan Shanben. Beijing: Beijing Tushuguan Chubanshe, 2003.Google Scholar
Pan AngxiaoAngxiao, Pan 潘昂霄. Jinshili 金石例, in Bianjibu, Xinwenfeng Chubangongsi, ed., Shike shiliao xinbian, ser. 3, vol. 39. Taipei: Xinwenfeng Chubanshe, 1986.Google Scholar
QYWYanjiusuo, Beijing Shifan Daxue Guji 北京师范大学古籍研究所 comp., Quan Yuan wen 全元文. Nanjing: Jiangsu Guji Chubanshe, 2000.Google Scholar
Su TianjueTianjue, Su 蘇天爵. Zixiwengao 滋溪文稿, transcribed and punctuated by Gaohua, Chen 陳高華 and Fanqing, Meng 孟繁清: Beijng: Zhonghua Shuju, 1997.Google Scholar
Su XunXun, Su 蘇洵. Jiayouji 嘉祐集, Song edition, reprinted in Zhonghua zaizao shanben 中華再造善本. Beijing: Chinese National Library, 2005.Google Scholar
Wang Chang comp. 2003 Chang, Wang 王昶, ed. Jinshi xubian 金石續編, in Songdai shike wenxian quanbian, ed. Jinshizu, Beijing Tushuguan Shanben. Beijing: Beijing Tushuguan Chubanshe, 2003.Google Scholar
YDZ (Anonymous.) Dayuan shengzheng guochao dianzhang 大元聖政國朝典章, Yuan edition, reprinted by Bowuyuan, Gugong 故宮博物院, 1976.Google Scholar
YuanshiToγto_γa, 脫脫, et al. , eds. Yuanshi 元史, Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1975.Google Scholar
Zhong'anjiMinzhong, Liu 劉敏中. Zhong'anji 中庵集, SKQS version.Google Scholar
Atwood 2013 Atwood, Christopher. “Mongols, Arabs, Kurds, and Franks: Rashīd al-Dīn's Comparative Ethnography of Tribal Society.” In Rashīd al-Dīn. Agent and Mediator of Cultural Exchanges in Ilkhanid Iran, eds. Akasoy, Anna, Burnett, Charles and Yoeli-Tlalim, Ronit, pp. 223–50. London and Turis: The Warburg Institute, 2013.Google Scholar
Atwood 2014 Atwood, Christopher. “Historiography and Transformation of Ethnic Identity in the Mongol Empire: the Öng’üt Case.” Asian Ethnicity 15:4 (2014), pp. 514–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beijingshi Wenwu Yanjiusuo 2009 Yanjiusuo, Beijingshi Wenwu 北京市文物研究所, ed., Lugu jindai lüshi jiazu muzang fajue baogao 鲁谷金代吕氏家族墓葬发掘报告. Beijing: Kexue Chubanshe, 2009.Google Scholar
Beijingshi Wenwu Yanjiusuo 2010 Yanjiusuo, Beijingshi Wenwu, ed., Daxing beichengzhuang mudi: beiwei tang liao jin qingdai muzang fajue baogao 大兴北程庄墓地—北魏、唐、辽、金、清代墓葬发掘报告. Beijing: Kexue Chubanshe, 2010.Google Scholar
Beijingtushuguan Jinshizu 1990 Jinshizu, Beijingtushuguan 北京图书馆金石组, ed., Beijingtushuguan zang zhongguo lidai shike tapian huibian 北京图书馆藏中国历代石刻拓片汇编, 50 vols. Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou Guji Chubanshe, 1990.Google Scholar
Chang 1992a Jianhua, Chang 常建华, “Yuandai zupu yanjiu 元代族谱研究.” In Pudiexue yanjiu 谱牒学研究 3, pp. 514–34. Beijing: Shumu Wenxian Chubanshe, 1992.Google Scholar
Chang 1992b Jianhua, Chang, “Yuandai muci jici wenti chutan 元代墓祠祭祀问题初探.” In Shehui wenti de lishi kaocha 社会问题的历史考察, eds. Qing, Zhang 赵清 et al. , pp. 514–34. Chengdu: Chengdu Chubanshe, 1992.Google Scholar
Cleaves 1950 Cleaves, Francis W.. “The Sino-Mongolian Inscription of 1335 in Memory of Chang Ying-Jui.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 13 (1950), pp. 1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen 2005 Cohen, Myron L., ed. Kinship, Contract, Community, and State, Anthropological Perspectives on China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Deng, Zhao, and Li 2009 Qingping, Deng 邓庆平, Shiyu, Zhao 赵世瑜, and Xinwei, Li 李新威, eds. Weixian beiming jilu 蔚县碑铭辑录. Guilin: Guangxishifandaxue Chubanshe, 2009.Google Scholar
Ebrey 1986 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley.The Early Stages in the Development of Descent Group Organization.” In Kinship Organization in Late Imperial China, 1000–1940, eds. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley and Watson, James L., pp. 1661. Berkeley: California University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Ebrey 1984 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Conceptions of the Family in the Sung Dynasty.” Journal of Asian Studies 43:2 (1984), pp. 219–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrey 1980 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Later Han Stone Inscriptions.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 40:2 (1980), pp. 325–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrey 1978 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The Aristocratic Families of Early Imperial China: A Case Study of the Po-ling Ts'ui Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebrey 1974 Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. “Estate and Family Management in the Later Han as Seen in the Monthly Instructions for the Four Classes of People.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 17 (1974), pp. 173205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faure 2007 Faure, David. Emperor and Ancestor: State and Lineage in South China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gan 1991 Huaizhen, Gan 甘懷真. Tangdai jiamiao lizhi yanjiu 唐代家廟禮制研究. Taipei: Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1991.Google Scholar
Hebeisheng Wenwu Yanjiusuo and Linchengxian Wenwu Baoguansuo 2009 Hebei, 河北省文物研究所; Baoguansuo, Linchengxian Wenwu 临城县文物保管所, eds., authored by Fei, Xie 谢飞; Zhizhong, Zhang 张志忠; Chao, Yang 杨超, Bei Song Lincheng Wangshi jiazu muzhi 北宋临城王氏家族墓志. Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe, 2009.Google Scholar
Iiyama 2014 Iiyama, Tomoyasu. “A Career between Two Cultures: Guo Yu, A Chinese Literatus in the Yuan Bureaucracy.” Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 44 (2014), pp. 479509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iiyama 2013 Tomoyasu, Iiyama 飯山 知保. “‘Sonkōryō hikokugun’ no kenkyū: 12 kara 14 seiki kahoku ni okeru seneihi no shutsugen to keihu denshō no hensen ‘孫公亮墓’ 碑刻群の研究――12–14 世紀華北における‘先塋碑’ の出現と系譜伝承の変遷―.” Ajiaahurika gengo bunka kenkyū アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究 85 (2013), pp. 61170.Google Scholar
Iiyama 2008 Tomoyasu, Iiyama 飯山 知保. “Mongoru jidai kahoku ni okeru keihu denshō to hikoku shiryō モンゴル時代華北における系譜伝承と碑刻史料.” Shiteki 史滴 30 (2008), pp. 164–80.Google Scholar
Inaba 1966 Shōju, Inaba 稲葉 正就. “Gen no teishi ni kansuru kenkyū: keitō to kenji wo chūshin toshite 元の帝師に関する研究――系統と年次を中心として.” Ōtani daigaku kenkyū nenpō 大谷大学研究年報 17 (1966), pp. 79156.Google Scholar
Liu 1999 Zhiwei, Liu 刘志伟. “Chuanshuo, fuhui yu lishi zhenshi: Zhujiang sanjiaozhou zupu zhong zongzulishi de xushijiegou ji qi yiyi 传说、附会与历史真实――珠江三角洲族谱中宗族历史的叙事及其意义.” Heming, Wang 王鹤鸣, et al. , eds., Zhongguo pudie yanjiu 中国谱牒研究. Shanghai: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe, 1999.Google Scholar
Ma 2012 Jinhua, Ma 马金花 et al. , eds. Shanxi beijie xubian 山西碑碣续编. Taiyuan: Sanjin Chubanshe 三晋出版社, 2012.Google Scholar
McDermott 2013 McDermott, Joseph, P.The Making of a New Rural Order in South China: I. Village, Land, and Lineage in Huizhou, 900–1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morita 2004 Kenji, Morita 森田 憲司. Gendai chishikijin to chi'iki shakai 元代知識人と地域社会. Tokyo: Kyūko Sho'in, 2004.Google Scholar
Morita 1979 Kenji, Morita 森田 憲司. “Sōgen jidai ni okeru shūfu 宋元時代における修譜.” Tōyōshi kenkyū 東洋史研究 37:4 (1979), pp. 509–35.Google Scholar
Mote 2000 Mote, F. W.Imperial China, 900–1800. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Szonyi 2002 Szonyi, Michael. Practicing Kinship: Lineage and Descent in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
Tackett 2014 Tackett, Nicolas. The Destruction of the Medieval Chinese Aristocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang 2012 Run, Wang 汪润. “Ming Qing shiqi huabei zongzu zuzhi xingtai xintan: yi Beijing fangshan de xianyingbei weili 明清时期华北宗族组织形态新探――以北京房山的先茔碑为例.” In “Quyu kuaquyu yu wenhua zhenghe” shehuishi guojixueshuyantaohui lunwenji “区域、跨区域与文化整合” 社会史国际学术研讨会论文集, eds. Yun, Wang 王云 and Liangkuan, Ma 马亮宽, pp. 332–40. Tianjin: Tianjin Renmin Chubanshe, 2012.Google Scholar
Wang 2009 Ting, Wang 王頲. “Fenguan yiyin: yuan dasitu chenping de jiashi yu shiji 汾關遺胤-元大司徒陳萍的家世餘事蹟.” Xiyu nanhai shidi yanjiu 西域南海史地研究 4 (2009), pp. 301–12.Google Scholar
Wei 2014 Feng, Wei 魏峰. “Xianyingbeiji yu yuandai jiazu zuzhi 先塋碑記与元代家族組織.” Paper presented to the conference “Chuancheng yu biange: 10–14 shiji zhongguo de duobian zhengzhi yu duoyuan wenhua guoji xueshu huiyi 传承与変革—10–14 世纪中国的多边政治与多元文化国际学术会议,” Fudan University, Shanghai, August 28, 2014.Google Scholar
Wu, Ge, and Cao 1997 Songdi, Wu 吴松弟, Jianxiong, Ge 葛剑雄, Shuji, Cao 曹树基. Zhongguo yimin shi 中国移民史 vol. 4. Fuzhou: Fujian Renmin Chubanshe, 1997.Google Scholar
Wu 2001 Jingshan, Wu 吴景山, Xibei minzu beiwen 西北民族碑文. Lanzhou: Gansu Renmin Chubanshe, 2001.Google Scholar
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GENEALOGICAL STELES IN NORTH CHINA DURING THE JIN AND YUAN DYNASTIES
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GENEALOGICAL STELES IN NORTH CHINA DURING THE JIN AND YUAN DYNASTIES
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GENEALOGICAL STELES IN NORTH CHINA DURING THE JIN AND YUAN DYNASTIES
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