Acevedo, F (2000) Use of reactors in biomining processes. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 3(3).
Adami, C (2006) Digital genetics: unravelling the genetic basis of evolution. Nature Genetics 7, 109–118.
Akafa, H (1966) Abundances of selenium, tellurium and indium in meteorites. Journal of Geophysical Research 71(7), 1919–1923.
Amils, R, Fernandez-Remolar, D, Gomez, F, Aguilera, A, Gonzalez-Toril, E, Rodriguez, N (2003) ‘Importance of the iron cycle relevance to Mars exploration’. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology –Mars: The Search for Life (ESA SP-545), Madrid, Spain, 43–46.
Asai, D and Koonce, M (2001) Dynein heavy chain: structure, mechanics and evolution. Trends in Cell Biology 11(5), 196–202.
Atsum, T (2001) Ultrasonic motor model for bacterial flagellar motors. Journal of Theoretical Biology 213, 31–51.
Baas, P, Karabay, A and Qiang, L (2005) Microtubules cut and run. Trends in Cell Biology 15(10), 518–524.
Balcazar, J, Gavalda, R and Siegelmann, H (1997) Computational power of neural networks: a characterization in terms of Kolmogorov complexity. IEEE Transaction of Information Theory 43(4), 1175–1183.
Baum, E and Haussler, D (1989) What size net gives valid generalization? Journal of Neural Computation 1(1), 151–160.
Bedau, M (1992) Philosophical aspects of artificial life. In Varela, F and Bourgine, P (eds). Towards A Practice of Autonomous Systems. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press, pp. 494–503.
Bedau, M (1997) Emergent models of supple dynamics in life and mind. Brain & Cognition 34, 5–27.
Bedau, M (1998) Four puzzles about life. Artificial Life 4, 125–140.
Bedau, M (2003) Artificial life: organisation, adaptation and complexity from the bottom up. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(11), 505–512.
Bedau, M, McCaskill, J, Packard, N, Rasmussen, S, Adami, C, Green, D, Ikegami, T, Kaneko, K and Ray, T (2000) Open problems in artificial life. Artificial Life 6, 363–376.
Beggs, E, Costa, J and Tucker, J (2010) Physical oracles: the Turing machine and the Wheatstone bridge. Studia Logica 94, 1–22.
Ben-Jacobs, E (2009) Learning from bacteria about natural information processing. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1178, 78–90.
Benner, S and Sismour, M (2005) Synthetic biology. Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 533–543.
Berg, H (1974) Dynamic properties of bacterial flagellar motors. Nature 249, 77–79.
Berg, H (1995) Torque generation by the flagellar rotary motor. Biophysical Journal 68, 163s–167s.
Berg, H (2003) Rotary motor of bacterial flagella. Annual Reviews Biochemistry 72, 19–54.
Bersini, H (2010) Software replica of minimal living processes. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 121–130.
Bich, L and Damiano, L (2007) Theoretical and artificial construction of the living: redefining the approach from an autopoietic point of view. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 34, 459–464.
Bird, L, Bonnefoy, V and Newman, D (2011) Bioenergetic challenges of microbial iron metabolism. Trends in Microbiology 19(7), 33–340.
Blair, D (1991) Bacterial rotary motor. Nanotechnology 2, 123–133.
Blair, D (1995) How bacteria sense and swim. Annual Reviews Microbiology 49, 489–522.
Bland, P, Cintala, M, Horz, F and Cressey, G (2001) Survivability of meteorite projectriles – results from impact experiments. In 32nd Lunar & Planetary Science Conference, abstract no 1764.
Bland, P, Artemieva, N, Collins, G, Bottke, W, Bussey, D and Joy, K (2008) Asteroids on the Moon: projectile survival during low velocity impacts. In 39th Lunar & Planetary Science Conference, abstract no 2045.
Bloom, B (1995) Microbial minimalist. Nature 378, 236.
Boden, M (2003) Alien life: how would we know? International Journal of Astrobiology 2(2), 121–129.
Bourgine, P and Stewart, J (2004) Autopoiesis and cognition. Artificial Life 10, 327–345.
Brack, A and Trouble, M (2010) Defining life: connecting robotics and chemistry. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 131–136.
Braitenburg, V (1984) Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brizard, A and van Esch, J (2009) Self-assembly approaches for the construction of cell architectures mimics. Soft Matter 5, 1320–1327.
Bruylants, G, Bartik, K and Reisse, J (2010) Is it useful to have a clear-cut definition of life? On the use of fuzzy logic in prebiotic chemistry. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 137–143.
Burgess, S and Knight, P (2004) Is the dynein motor a winch? Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14, 138–146.
Cabessa, J and Villa, A (2014) Interactive evolving recurrent neural networks are super-Turing. In Wermter, S, Weber, C, Duch, W, Honkela, T, Koprinkova-Hristova, P, Magg, S, Palm, G, Villa, A (eds). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8681. Cham: Springer Publishers, pp. 57–64.
Cabessa, J and Siegelmann, H (2012) Computational power of interactive recurrent neural networks. Neural Computation 24(4), 996–1019.
Cairns-Smith, A (1987) Genetic Takeover & the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cairns-Smith, A (1990) Seven Clues to the Origin of Life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Calabretta, R (1998) Cellular automata in an artificial life perspective. In Bandini, S, Serra, R and Suggi Liverani, F (eds). Cellular Automata: Research Towards Industry. London: Springer-Verlag, pp. 243–246.
Canfield, D, Rosing, M and Bjerrum, C (2006) Early anaerobic metabolisms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 361, 1819–1836.
Carter, F (1984) Molcular device computer: point of departure for large scale cellular automata. Physica 10D, 175–194.
Chaitin, G (1970) To a mathematical definition of ‘life’. ACM SICACT News 4, 12–18.
Chirikjian, G, Zhou, Y and Suthakorn, J (2002) Self-replicating robots for lunar development. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 7(4), 462–472.
Chodasewicz, K (2014) Evolution, reproduction and definition of life. Theory Biosciences 133, 39–45.
Cockell, C (2011) Synthetic geomicrobiology: engineering microbe-mineral interactions for space exploration and settlement. International Journal of Astrobiology 10(4), 315–324.
Cohen, P and Perrault, C (1979) Elements of a plan-based theory of speech acts. Cognitive Science 3(3), 177–212.
Collins, G (2012) Moonstruck magnetism. Science 335, 1176–1177.
Cordova, N, Ermentrout, B and Oster, G (1992) Dynamics of single-motor molecules: the thermal ratchet model. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the United States of America 89, 339–343.
Cronin, L, et al. (2006) Imitation game – a computational chemical approach to recognising life. Nature Biotechnology 24(10), 1203–1206.
Cross, R (2004) Kinetic mechanism of kinesin. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 29(6), 301–309.
Cross, R and Carter, N (2000) Molecular motors. Current Biology 10(5), R177–R179.
Crutchfield, J (1994) Calculi of emergence: computation, dynamics and induction. Physica D 75(1–3), 11–54.
Csanyi, V and Kampus, G (1985) Autogenesis: the evolution of replicative systems. Journal of Theoretical Biology 114, 303–321.
Cui, S and Friedman, A (1999) Analysis of a mathematical model of protocell. Journal of Mathematical Analysis & Applications 236, 171–206.
Damiano, L and Luigi Luisi, P (2010) Towards an autopoietic redefinition of life. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 145–149.
Deamer, D and Pashley, R (1989) Amphiphilic components of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite: surface properties and membrane formation. Origins of Life & Evolution of the Biosphere 19, 21–38.
Deamer, D, Dworkin, J, Sandford, S, Bernstein, M and Allamandola, L (2002) First cell membranes. Astrobiology 2(2), 371–381.
Deming, T (1997) Polypeptide materials: new synthetic methods and applications. Advanced Materials 9(4), 299–311.
Deplazes, A and Huppenbauer, M (2009) Synthetic organisms and living machines. Systems & Synthetic Biology 3, 55–63.
DeRosier, D (1998) Turn of the screw: the bacterial flagellar motor. Cell 93, 17–20.
Deutsch, D (1985) Quantum theory, the Church-Turing principle and the universal quantum computer. Proceedings of The Royal Society A 400, 97–117.
Dohner, K, Nagel, C-H and Sodeik, B (2005) Viral stop-and-go along microtubules: taking a ride with dynein and kinesin. Trends in Microbiology 13(7), 320–327.
Dutcher, S (1995) Flagellar assembly in two hundred and fifty easy-to-follow steps. Trends in Genetics 11(10), 398–404.
Edwards, M (1998) From a soup or a seed? Pyritic metabolic complexes in the origin of life. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13(5), 178–181.
Egelman, E (2003) Actin's prokaryotic homologs. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 13, 244–248.
Eiben, A (2014) Grand challenges for evolutionary robotics. Frontiers in Robotics & AI 1(Jun), 1–8.
Elani, Y, Law, R and Ces, O (2014) Vesicle-based artificial cells as chemical microreactors with spatially segregated reaction pathways. Nature Communications 5, 5305.
Ellery, A (2015) Ultimate smart system – steps towards a self-replicating machine. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Smart Materials & Structures, pp. 225–234.
Ellery, A (2016a) Are self-replicating machines feasible? AIAA J Spacecraft & Rockets 53(2), 317–327.
Ellery, A (2016b) How to build a self-replicating machine on the Moon. In Proceedings of the ASCE Earth & Space Conference, Orlando, pp. 713–724.
Ellery, A (2016c) Solar power satellites for clean energy enabled through disruptive technologies. In Proceedings of the 23rd World Energy Congress (Award Winning Papers), Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 133–147.
Ellery, A (2016d) John von Neumann's self-replicating machine – critical components required. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems Man & Cybernetics, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 314–319.
Ellery, A et al. (2004) Bionics & Space Systems Design 1 – Overview of Biomimetics Technology. ESA-ESTEC Technical Note 1, ESA Contract no 18203/04/NL/PA.
Endy, D (2005) Foundations for engineering biology. Nature 438, 449–453.
Engelborghs, Y (1994) Microtubules: dissipative structures formed by self-assembly. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 9, 685–689.
Ermentrout, B and Edelatein-Keshet, L (1993) Cellular automata approaches to biological modelling. Journal of Theoretical Biology 160, 97–133.
Fegley, B and Swindle, T (1993) Lunar volatiles: implications for lunar resource utilization. In Lewis, J, Matthews, M and Gurrieri, M (eds). Resources of Near Earth Space. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 367–426.
Ferris, H and Minamino, T (2006) Flipping the switch: bringing order to flagellar assembly. Trends in Microbiology 14(12), 519–526.
Ferris, J (2005) Mineral catalysis and prebiotic synthesis: montmorillonite-catalysed formation of RNA. Elements 1, 145–149.
Ferris, J, Hill, A, Liu, R and Orgel, L (1996) Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces. Nature 381, 59–61.
Ferris, J, Joshi, P, Wang, K-J, Miyakawa, S and Huang, W (2004) Catalysis in prebiotic chemistry: application to the synthesis of RNA oligomers. Advances in Space Research 33, 100–105.
Fleischaker, G (1989) Autopoiesis: the status of its system logic. BioSystems 22, 37–49.
Fontana, W and Buss, L (1994) Arrival of the fittest: toward a theory of biological organisation. Bull Mathematical Biology 56(1), 1–64.
Forterre, P (2010) Defining life: the virus viewpoint. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 151–160.
Freitas, R & Gilbreath, W (1980) Advanced Automation for Space Missions. In Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study, NASA CP-2255, Santa Clara, CA.
Freitas, R & Merkle, R (2004) Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines. Austin TX: Landes Bioscience.
Frixione, E (2000) Recurring views on the structure and function of the cytoskeleton: a 300 year epic. Cell Motility & the Cytoskeleton 46, 73–94.
Froese, T and Stewart, J (2010) Life after Ashby: ultrastability and the autopoietic foundations of biological autonomy. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 17(4), 7–50.
Gabora, L (2006) Self-other organisation: why early life did not evolve through natural selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology 241, 443–450.
Gerdes, K, Meller-Jensen, J, Ebersbach, G, Kruse, T and Nordstrom, K (2004) Bacterial mitotic machineries. Cell 116, 359–366.
Gibbs, W (2004) Synthetic life. Scientific American 290(5), 74–81.
Goldin, D and Wegner, P (2005) Church-Turing thesis: breaking the myth. In Cooper, S, Lowe, B and Torenvliet, L (eds) Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 3526. Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, pp. 152–168.
Goldstein, L (2001) Molecular motors: from one motor many tails to one motor many tails. Trends in Cell Biology 11(12), 477–482.
Goudreau, M, Giles, L, Chakradhar, S and Chen, D (1994) First order vs second order single layer recurrent neural networks. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 5(3), 511–513.
Han, J-W and Meyyappan, M (2014) Device made of nothing: the vacuum transistor could one day replace silicon. IEEE Spectrum (Jul), 31–35.
Hanczyc, M (2011) Metabolism and motility in prebiotic structures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366, 2885–2893.
Hess, H and Vogel, V (2001) Molecular shuttles based on motor proteins: active transport in synthetic environments. Reviews in Molecular Biotechnology 82, 67–85.
Hordijk, W (2013) Autocatalytic sets: from the origin of life to the economy. Bioscience 63(11), 877–881.
Howard, J, Hudspeth, A and Vale, R (1989) Movement of microtubules by single kinesin molecules. Nature 342, 154–158.
Huitorel, P (1988) From cilia and flagella to intracellular motility and back again: a review of a few aspects of microtubule-based motility. Biology of the Cell 63, 249–258.
Hutton, T (2002) Evolvable self-replicating molecules in an artificial chemistry. Artificial Life 8(4), 341–356.
Hutton, T (2009) Codd's self-replicating computer. Artificial Life 16(2), 99–117.
Huxley, A (2000) Mechanics and models of the myosin motor. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 355, 433–440.
Huxley, H (1996) Personal view of muscle and motility mechanisms. Annual Review of Physiology 58, 1–19.
Itoh, H, Takahashi, A, Adachi, K, Noji, H, Yasuda, R, Yoshida, M and Kinosita, K (2004) Mechanically driven ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase. Nature 427, 465–468.
Jacobson, H (1959) Informational content of mechanisms and circuits. Information & Control 2, 285–296.
Jones, R, Haufe, P, Sells, E, Iravani, P, Olliver, V, Palmer, C and Bowyer, A (2011) Reprap – the replicating rapid prototyper. Robotica 29(Jan), 177–191.
Jorgensen, S and Fath, B (2004) Application of thermodynamic principles in ecology. Ecological Complexity 1, 267–280.
Karcher, R, Deacon, S and Gelfand, V (2002) Motor-cargo interactions: the key to transport specificity. Trends in Cell Biology 12(1), 21–27.
Karplus, M and Gao, Y (2004) Biomolecular motors: the F1-ATPase paradigm. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14, 250–259.
Kephart, J and Chess, D (2003) Vision of autonomic computing. IEEE Computer 36(1), 41–58.
Kinosita, K, Yasuda, R, Noji, H, Ishiwata, S and Yoshida, M (1998) F1-ATPase: a rotary motor made of a single molecule. Cell 93, 21–24.
Klavins, E (2004) Universal self-replication using graph grammars. In Proceedings of the International Conference on MEMS, NANO and Smart Systems, Banff, Canada, paper no. 1508947.
Kolesar, E and Dyson, C (1995) Object imaging with a piezoelectric robotic tactile sensor. IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 4(2), 87–96.
Koonce, M and Samso, M (2004) Of rings and levers: the dynein motor comes of age. Trends in Cell Biology 14(11), 612–619.
Korzeniewski, B (2001) Cybernetic formulation of the definition of life. Journal of Theoretical Biology 209, 275–286.
Koshland, D (2002) Seven pillars of life. Science 295, 2215–2216.
Kull, J, Sablin, E, Lau, R, Fletterick, R and Vale, R (1996) Crystal structure of the kinesin motor domain reveals a structural similarity to myosin. Nature 380, 550–555.
Kwok, R (2010) Five hard truths for synthetic biology. Nature 463, 288–290.
LaBar, T, Adami, C and Hintze, A (2015) Does self-replication imply evolvability? In Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Artificial Life, pp. 596–602.
Lahoz-Beltra, R (1997) Molecular automata assembly: principles and simulation of bacterial membrane construction. BioSystems 44, 209–229.
Laing, R (1975) Some alternative reproductive strategies in artificial molecular machines. Journal of Theoretical Biology 54, 63–84.
Laing, R (1979) Machines as organisms: an exploration of the relevance of recent results. BioSystems 11, 201–215.
Langton, C (1984) Self-reproduction in cellular automata. Physica D 10, 135–144.
Larson, S & Ellery, A (2015) Trainable analogue neural network with application to lunar in-situ resource utilisation. In Proceedings of the International Astronautics Federation Congress, Jerusalem, IAC-15-D3.3.6.
Lazcano, A (2010) Which way to life? Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 161–167.
Lee, E (2005) Building unreliable systems out of reliable components: the real time story. Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences University of California Berkeley Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2005–5.
Letelier, J, Marin, G and Mpoodoziz, J (2003) Autopoietic and (M, R) systems. Journal of Theoretical Biology 222, 261–272.
Luigi Luisi, P (2003) Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal. Naturwissenschaften 90, 49–59.
Luigi Luisi, P and Varela, F (1989) Self-replicating micelles – a chemical version of a minimal autopoietic system. Origins of Life & Evolution of the Biosphere 19, 633–643.
Luisi, P (1998) About various definitions of life. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 28, 613–622.
Machery, E (2012) Why I stopped worrying about the definition of life … and why you should as well. Synthese 185(1), 145–164.
MacLennan, B (2004) Natural computation and non-Turing models of computation. Theoretical Computer Science 317, 115–145.
MacNab, R (2003) How bacteria assemble flagella. Annual Reviews of Microbiology 57, 77–100.
Mandelkow, E and Mandelkow, E-M (2002) Kinesin motors and disease. Trends in Cell Biology 12(12), 585–590.
Margenstein, M (2000) Frontier between decidability and undecidability: a survey. Theoretical Computer Science 231, 217–251.
Martin, W and Russell, M (2003) On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 358, 59–83.
Maturana, H (1975) Organisation of the living: a theory of the living organisation. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 7, 313–332.
McDaniel, R and Weiss, R (2005) Advances in synthetic biology: on the path from prototypes to applications. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 476–485.
McDermott, K, Price, M, Cole, M and Burchell, M (2016) Survivability of copper projectuiles during hypervelocity impacts in porous ice: a laboratory investigation of the survivability of projectiles impacting comets or other bodies. Icarus 268, 102–117.
McMullin, B (2004) Thirty years of computational autopoiesus: a review. Artificial Life 10, 277–295.
McMullin, B & Varela, F (1997) Rediscovering computational autopoiesis. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Life, paper no. 97-02-012.
Melosh, H, Freed, A, Johnson, B, Blair, D, Andrews-Hanna, J, Neumann, G, Phillips, R, Smith, D, Solomon, S, Wieczorek, M and Zuber, M (2013) Origin of lunar mascon basins. Science 340, 1552–1555.
Menezes, A, Montague, M, Cumbers, J, Hogan, J and Arkin, A (2015) Grand challenges in space synthetic biology. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12, 20150803.
Miki, H, Okada, Y and Hirokawa, N (2005) Analysis of the kinesin superfamily: insights into structure and function. Trends in Cell Biology 15(10), 467–476.
Mitchell, M (1998) Computation in cellular automata: a selected review. In Gramss, T, Bornholdt, S, Gross, M and Mitchell, M (eds). Nonstandard Computation. Weinheim, Germany: VCH Publishers, pp. 95–140.
Montesi, L (2013) Solving the mascon mystery. Science 340, 1535–1536.
Moore, E (1956) Artificial Living Plants. Scientific American, 195(4), 118–126.
Moreno Bergareche, A and Ruiz-Mirazo, K (1999) Metabolism and the problem of its universalisation. BioSystems 49, 45–61.
Morowitz, H, Heinz, B and Deamer, D (1988) Chemical logic of a minimum protocell. Origins of Life & Evolution of the Biosphere 18, 281–287.
Moses, M, Ma, H, Wolfe, K and Chirikjian, G (2014) An architecture for universal construction via modular robotic components. Robotics & Autonomous Systems 62(7), 945–965.
Mozafari, R (2005) Liposomes: an overview of manufacturing techniques. Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 10, 711–719.
Muller, A (2003) Finding extraterrestrial organisms living on thermosynthesis. Astrobiology 3(3), 555–564.
Narisawa, M (2010) Silicone resin applications for precursors and composites. Materials 3, 3518–3586.
Oakley, B (2000) Abundance of tubulins. Trends in Cell Biology 10(Dec), 537–542.
Ochman, H, Lawrence, J and Groisman, E (2000) Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature 405, 299–304.
Oro, J, Kimball, A, Fritz, R and Master, F (1959) Amino acid synthesis from formaldehyde and hydroxylamine. Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics 86, 115–130.
Oster, G and Wang, H (2003) Rotary protein motors. Trends in Cell Biology 13(3), 114–121.
Paun, C (2000) Computing with membranes. J Computer & System Sciences 61, 108–143.
Pesavento, U (1995) Implementation of von Neumann's self-reproducing machine. Artificial Life 2(4), 337–354.
Pinto, J, Gladstone, G and Yung, Y (1980) Photochemical production of formaldehyde in Earth's primitive atmosphere. Science 210, 183–185.
Pohorille, A and Deamer, D (2002) Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology. Trends in Biotechnology 20(3), 123–128.
Pross, A (2005a) Stability in chemistry and biology: life as a kinetic state of matter. Pure Applied Chemistry 77(11), 1905–1921.
Pross, A (2005b) On the emergence of biological complexity: life as a kinetic state of matter. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 35, 151–166.
Pross, A (2008) How can a chemical system act purposefully? Bridging between life and non-life. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 21, 724–730.
Pross, A and Pascal, R (2013) Origin of life: what we know, what we can know and what we will never know. Open Biology 3, 120190.
Rasmussen, S, Chen, L, Nilsson, M and Abe, S (2003) Bridging nonliving and living matter. Artificial Life 9(3), 269–316.
Rasmussen, S, Chen, L, Deamer, D, Krakauer, D, Packard, N, Stadler, P and Bedau, M (2004) Transitions from nonliving to living matter. Science 303, 963–965.
Rawlings, A, Bramble, J and Staniland, S (2012) Innovation through imitation: biomimetic, bioninspired and biokleptic research. Soft Matter 8, 6675–6679.
Reggia, J, Armentrout, S, Chou, H-H and Peg, Y (1993) Simple systems exhibiting self-directed replication. Science 259, 1282–1286.
Reimold, W, Koeberl, C, Gibson, R and Dressler, B (2005) Economic mineral deposits in impact structures: a review. In Koebert, C and Henkel, H (eds). Impact Tectonics. Impact Studies, vol. 6. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 479–548.
Ringwood, A & Seifert, S (1986) Nickel-cobalt abundance systematics and their bearing on lunar origin. In Proceedings of the Origins of the Moon Conference, pp. 249–278.
Ruiz-Mirazo, K, Pereto, J and Moreno, A (2004) Universal definition of life: autonomy and open-ended evolution. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 34, 232–346.
Saunders, P and Ho, M (1976) On the increase in complexity in evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 63, 375–394.
Schark, M (2012) Synthetic biology and the distinction between organisms and machines. Environmental Values 21, 19–41.
Schmidhuber, J (2007) Godel machines: fully self-referential optimal universal self-improvers. In Goertzel, B and Pennachin, C (eds). Artificial General Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 199–226.
Schneider, E and Kay, J (1994) Life as a manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics. Mathematical & Computer Modelling 19(6–8), 25–48.
Schuindewolf, U (1980) Selenium and tellurium content of stony meteorites by neutron activation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica 19, 134–136.
Schultze-Makuch, D and Irwin, L (2004) Life in the Universe: expectations and constraints. In Springer Advances in Astrobiology & Biogeophysics. Berlin, Germany: Springer Publishers.
Schulze-Makuch, D and Irwin, L (2008) Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints. Berlin, Germany: Springer Publishers.
Schuster, S and Khan, S (1994) Bacterial flagellar motor. Annual Reviews Biophysics & Biomolecular Structure 23, 509–539.
Schwartz, A (1996) Did minerals perform prebiotic combinatorial chemistry? Chemistry & Biology 3, 515–518.
Schwede, J, Bargstin, I, Riley, D, Hardin, B, Rosenthal, S, Sun, Y, Schmitt, F, Pianetta, P, Howe, R, Shen, Z-X and Melosh, N (2010) Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems. Nature Materials 9, 762–767.
Schwegler, H and Tarumi, K (1986) Protocell: a mathematical model of self-maintenance. BioSystems 19, 307–315.
Senior, A and Wise, J (1983) Proton-ATPase of bacteria and mitochondria. Journal of Membrane Biology 73, 105–124.
Siegelmann, H. (1995) Computation beyond the Turing limit. Science 268, 545–458.
Siegelmann, H and Margenstern, M (1999) Nine switch-affine neurons suffice for Turing universality. Neural Networks 12, 593–600.
Siegelmann, H and Sontag, E. (1995) On the computational power of neural nets. Journal of Computer & System Sciences 50, 132–150.
Sipper, M, Sanchez, E, Mange, D, Tomassini, M, Perez-Uribe, A and Stauffer, A (1997) ‘Phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and epigenetic view of bio-inspired hardware systems. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computations 1(1), 83–97.
Sismour, M and Benner, S (2005) Synthetic biology. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 5(11), 1409–1424.
Skulachev, V (2001) Mitochondrial filaments and clusters as intracellular power-transmitting cables. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 26(1), 23–29.
Soong, R, Bachand, G, Neves, H, Olkhovets, A, Craighead, H and Montemagno, C (2000) Powering a inorganic nanodevice with a biomolecular motor. Science 290, 1555–1558.
Stahlberg, A, Schuster, S, Bauer, M, Baueurlein, E, Zhao, R, Reese, T and Khan, S (1995) Conserved machinery of the bacterial flagellar motor. Biophysical Journal 58(Apr), 168s–172s
Stepney, S (2012) Programming unconventional computers: dynamics, development, self-reference. Entropy 14, 1939–1952.
Sun, G-Z, Chen, H-H, Lee, Y-C and Giles, C (1991) Turing equivalence of neural networks with second order connection weights. In Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, vol. 2, pp. 357–362.
Suthakorn, J and Chirikjian, G (2006) Toward self-replication of robot control circuitry by self-inspection In Ang, M and Khatib, O (eds). Environmental Robotics IX. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 303–309.
Svoboda, K and Block, S (1994) Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules. Cell 77, 773–784.
Szostak, J (2012) Attempts to define life do not help to understand the origin of life. Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 29(4), 599–600.
Szostak, J, Bartel, D and Luigi Luisi, P (2001) Synthesising life. Nature 409, 387–390.
Szostak, N, Wasik, S, Blazewicz, J (2016) Hypercycle. PLoS Computational Biology 12(4), e1004853.
Tabony, J, Pochon, N and Papaseit, C (2001) Microtubule self-organisation depends upon gravity. Advances in Space Research 28(4), 529–535.
Taylor, E (2001) Cell as molecular machine. Molecular Biology of the Cell 12(2), 251–254.
Teuscher, C (2014) Unconventional computing catechism. Frontiers in Robotics & AI 1(Nov), 10.
Teuscher, C and Sipper, M (2002) Hypercomputation’ - hype or computation? Communications of the ACM 45(8), 23–24.
Thomas, N, Bardy, S and Jarrell, K (2001) Archaeal flagellum: a different kind of prokaryotic motility structure. FEMS Microbiology Review 25, 147–174.
Tucker, J and Zilinskas, R (2006) Promise and perils of synthetic biology. New Atlantis (Spring), 25–45.
Turing, A (1937) On computable numbers with an application to the entschedungsproblem. Proceedings of London Mathematical Society, Series 2, 42, 230–265.
Tuszynski, J, Trpisova, B, Sept, D and Sataric, M (1997) Enigma of microtubules and their self-organising behaviour in the cytoskeleton. BioSystems 42, 153–175.
Tyreman, M and Molloy, J (2003) Molecular motors: nature's nanomachines. IEE Proceedings, Nanobiotecnology 150(3), 95–102.
Tyson, J and Mackey, M (2001) Molecular, metabolic and genetic control: an introduction. Chaos 11(1), 81–83.
Ulanowicz, R and Hannon, B (1987) Life and the production of entropy. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 232, 181–192.
Umerez, J (2010) Artificial life: prospects of a synthetic biology. In Angelo L and Queiroz J (eds). Advances in Modelling Adaptive & Cognitive Systems. Brazil: UEFS Open Publishing, pp. 4–16.
Vale, R (1999) Millenial musings on molecular motors. Trends in Biochemical Science 24(12), M38–M41.
Vale, R (2003) Molecular motor toolbox for intracellular transport. Cell 112, 467–480.
Vale, R and Milligan, R (2000) The way things move: looking under the hood of molecular motor proteins. Science 288, 88–95.
Vallee, R and Stehman, S (2005) How dynein helps the cell find its centre: a servomechanical model. Trends in Cell Biology 15(6), 288–294.
van den Ent, F, Amos, L and Lowe, J (2001a) Prokaryotic origin of the actin cytoskeleton. Nature 413, 39–44.
van den Ent, F, Amos, L and Lowe, J (2001b) Bacterial ancestry of actin and tubulin. Current Opinion in Microbiology 4, 634–638.
Varatharajoo, R (2004) Combined energy and attitude control system for small satellites. Acta Astronautica 54, 701–712.
Varela, F, Maturana, H and Uribe, R (1974) Autopoiesis: the organisation of living systems, its characterisation and a model. BioSystems 5, 187–196.
von Neumann, J & Burks, A (eds) (1966) Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata. IL: University of Illinois Press.
Wachtershausen, G (2006) From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 361, 1787–1808.
Wachtershauser, G (1990) Case for the chemoautotrophic origin of life in an iron-sulphur world. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 20, 173–176.
Wachtershauser, G (1992) Groundworks for evolutionary biochemistry: the iron-sulphur world. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology 58, 85–201.
Wang, H and Oster, G (1998) Energy transduction in the F1 motor of ATP synthase. Nature 396, 279–282.
Way, J, Silver, P and Howard, R (2011) Sun-driven microbial synthesis of chemicals in space. International Journal of Astrobiology 10(4), 359–364.
Weber, J (2007) ATP synthase – the structure of the stator stalk. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 32(2), 53–56.
Weber, B (2010) What is life? Defining life in the context of emergent complexity. Origins of Life & Evolution of Biospheres 40, 221–229.
Weber, K, Achenbach, L and Coates, J (2006) Microbes pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 752–764.
Wemmer, K and Marshall, W (2004) Flagellar mobility: all pull together. General Biology 14, R992–R993.
Widdel, F, Schnell, S, Easing, S, Ehrenreich, A, Assmus, B and Schink, B (1983) Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Nature 362, 834–838.
Wieczorek, M and Phillips, R (1999) Lunar multiring basins and the cratering process. Icarus 139, 246–259.
Wieczorek, M, Weiss, B and Steart, S (2012) Impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies. Science 335, 1212–1215.
Wierdermann, J and van Leeuwen, J (2002) Emergent computational potential of evolving artificial living systems. Journal of AI Communications 15(4), 205–215.
Wiesenfeld, K and Moss, F (1995) Stochastic resonance and the benefits of noise: from ice ages to crayfish and SQUIDS. Nature 373, 33–36.
Wittmann, A and Korotev, R (2013) Iron-nickel-(cobalt) metal in lunar rocks revisited. In 44th Lunar & Planetary Science Conference, abstract no 3035.
Woese, C (1998) Universal ancestor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 6854–6859.
Wogan, T (2016) Ceramics made stronger with 3D printing. Chemistry World, 11 January 2016.
Wolfram, S (1985) Undecidability and intractability in theoretical physics. Physical Review Letters 54(8), 735–738.
Wolfram, S (2002) A New Kind of Science. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media.
Yamashita, Y and Nakamura, Y. (2007) Neuron circuit model with smooth nonlinear output function. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory & its Applications, Vancouver, pp. 11–14.
Yildiz, A and Selvin, P (2005) Kinesin: walking, crawling or sliding along? Trends in Cell Biology 15(2), 112–120.
Yue, Z, Johnson, B, Monton, D, Melosh, H, Di, K, Hu, W and Liu, Y (2013) Projectile remains in central peaks of lunar impact craters. Nature Geoscience 6, 435–437.
Zakeri, B and Carr, P (2015) Limits of synthetic biology. Trends in Biotechnology 33(2), 57–58.
Zuravlev, Y and Avetisov, V (2006) Definition of life in the context of its origins. Biogeosciences 3, 281–291.
Zykov, V, Mytilinaios, E, Adams, B and Lipson, H (2005) Self-reproducing machines. Nature 435, 163–164.