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  • Cited by 2
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Edelman, David B. McMenamin, Mark Sheesley, Peter and Pivar, Stuart 2016. Origin of the vertebrate body plan via mechanically biased conservation of regular geometrical patterns in the structure of the blastula. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology,

    Bozorgmehr, Joseph E. Hannon 2014. The role of self-organization in developmental evolution. Theory in Biosciences, Vol. 133, Issue. 3-4, p. 145.


The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

  • Stuart Pivar (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 16 August 2010

The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented.

This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

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H. Jockusch & A. Dress (2003). Bull. Math. Biol. 65, 5765.

Y.A. Kraus (2006). Int. J. Dev. Biol. 50, 267275.

S.M. Starodubov , Yu.K. Doronin , V. A. Golichenkov (2008) Doklady Biological Sciences 421(1), 251–.253

S.M. Starodubov & V.A. Golychenkov (2009). Int. J. Dev. Biol. 53, 135137.

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International Journal of Astrobiology
  • ISSN: 1473-5504
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