Hostname: page-component-7dc689bd49-g7gpc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-21T03:01:45.742Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Affective Politics after 9/11

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2015

Get access


Affect and emotion are key elements of our lived experience as human beings but currently play little role in how we theorize actorhood in international relations. We offer six amendments for integrating affective dynamics into existing conceptions of individual-level actorhood in IR. From these amendments emerge the theoretical micro-foundations upon which we build propositions concerning potential collective-level affective dynamics and political strategies. We illustrate the analytical payoff of our proposals by examining the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. By amending existing understandings of actorhood to include human affective experience, we can integrate and make sense of a variety of psychological, social, and political consequences stemming from the attacks, both within the United States and internationally.

Research Article
Copyright © The IO Foundation 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adler, Emanuel, and Barnett, Michael N.. 1998. Security Communities in Theoretical Perspective. In Security Communities, edited by Adler, Emanuel and Barnett, Michael N., 328. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angelow, Jürgen. 2000. Kalkül und Prestige: Der Zweibund am Vorabend des Ersten Weltkrieges. Cologne: Böhlau.Google Scholar
Beer, Jeniffer S., Heerey, Erin A., Keltner, Dacher, Scabini, Donatella, and Knight, Robert T.. 2003. The Regulatory Function of Self-Conscious Emotion: Insights from Patients with Orbitofrontal Damage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (4):594604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bially Mattern, Janice. 2011. A Practice Theory of Emotion for International Relations. In International Practices, edited by Adler, Emanuel and Pouliot, Vincent, 6386. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blair, Tony. 2010. A Journey: My Political Life. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
Blight, James G. 1990. The Shattered Crystal Ball: Fear and Learning in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Bower, Gordon H., and Cohen, Paul R.. 1982. Emotional Influences in Memory and Thinking: Data and Theory. In Affect and Cognition: Seventeenth Annual Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition, edited by Sydnor Clark, Margaret and Fisk, Susan T., 291–33. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Brooks, Clem, and Manza, Jeff. 2013. Whose Rights? Counterterrorism and the Dark Side of American Public Opinion. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Busby, Joshua 2007. Bono Made Jesse Helms Cry: Jubilee 2000, Debt Relief, and Moral Action in International Politics. International Studies Quarterly 51 (2):247–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bush, George W. 2010. Decision Points. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
Carnagey, Nicholas L., and Anderson, Craig A.. 2007. Changes in Attitudes Towards War and Violence after September 11, 2001. Aggressive Behavior 33 (2):118–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castells, Manuel. 2009. Communication Power. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Chanley, Virginia A. 2002. Trust in Government in the Aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and Consequences. Political Psychology 23 (3):469–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohn, Carol. 1987. Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 12 (4):687715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, Randall. 2004. Rituals of Solidarity and Security in the Wake of Terrorist Attack. Sociological Theory 22 (1):5387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costigliola, Frank. 2012. Roosevelt's Lost Alliances: How Personal Politics Helped Start the Cold War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Coughlin, Con. 2006. American Ally: Tony Blair and the War on Terror. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
Crawford, Neta C. 2000. The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships. International Security 24 (4):116–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crawford, Neta. 2009. Human Nature and World Politics: Rethinking “Man.” International Relations 23 (2):271–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croft, Stuart. 2006. Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror. New York: Cambridge Univerity Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damasio, Antonio. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
Damasio, Antonio. 2010. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Concious Brain. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Dekker, Henk, Malova, Darina, and Hoogendoorn, Sander. 2003. Nationalism and Its Explanations. Political Psychology 24 (2):345–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, Paul. 2003. Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
Elster, Jon. 1999. Strong Feelings: Emotion, Addiction, and Human Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Floyd, Myron F., Gibson, Heather, Pennington-Gray, Lori, and Thapa, Brijesh. 2004. The Effect of Risk Perceptions on Intentions to Travel in the Aftermath of September 11, 2001. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 15 (2–3):1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank, Robert 1988. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Frieden, Jeffrey A. 1999. Actors and Preferences in International Relations. In Strategic Choice and International Relations, edited by Lake, David A. and Powell, Robert, 3976. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Frijda, Nico H. 1988. The Laws of Emotion. American Psychologist 43 (5):349–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frijda, Nico H. 1994. Emotions Require Cognitions, Even If Simple Ones. In The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions, edited by Eckman, Paul and Davidson, Richard J., 197202. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press.Google Scholar
Frijda, Nico H. 2000. The Psychologists’ Point of View. In The Handbook of Emotions. 2nd ed., edited by Lewis, Michael and Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M., 5974. New York: Guildford.Google Scholar
Gadarian, Shana Kushner. 2010. The Politics of Threat: How Terrorism News Shapes Foreign Policy Attitudes. The Journal of Politics 72 (2):469–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaines, Brian J. 2002. Where's the Rally? Approval and Trust of the President, Cabinet, Congress, and Government Since September 11. PS: Political Science and Politics 35 (3):531–36.Google Scholar
Gendolla, Guido H.E. 2000. On the Impact of Mood on Behavior: An Integrative Theory and a Review. Review of General Psychology 4 (4):378408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, Michael, Craighill, Peyton, and Greenberg, Alexandra. 2004. Trying to Understand Behavioral Responses to Terrorism: Personal Civil Liberties, Environmental Hazards, and US Resident Reactions to the September 11, 2001 Attacks. Human Ecology Review 11 (2):165–76.Google Scholar
Griffiths, Paul E. 1997. What Emotions Really Are: The Problem of Psychological Categories. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, James J. 1998. The Emerging Field of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review. Review of General Psychology 2 (3):271–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, Kimberley, Aday, Sean, and Brewer, Paul R.. 2004. A Panel Study of Media Effects on Political and Social Trust after September 11, 2001. International Journal of Press/Politics 9 (4):4973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidt, Jonathan. 2001. The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgement. Psychological Review 108 (4):814–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Todd. 2011. We Will Not Swallow This Bitter Fruit: Theorizing a Diplomacy of Anger. Security Studies 20 (4):521–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hall, Todd. 2012. Sympathetic States: Explaining the Russian and Chinese Responses to September 11. Political Science Quarterly 127 (3):369400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Todd, and Yarhi-Milo, Keren. 2012. The Personal Touch: Leaders’ Impressions, Costly Signaling, and Assessments of Sincerity in International Affairs. International Studies Quarterly 56 (3):560–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, Jack. 2009. From September 11th, 2001 to 9–11: From Void to Crisis. International Political Sociology 3 (3):275–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holsti, Ole. 1989. Crisis Decision Making. In Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, edited by Tetlock, Philip E., Husbands, Jo L., Jervis, Robert, Stern, Paul C., and Tilly, Charles, 884. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Huddy, Leonie, Khatib, Nadia, and Capelos, Theresa. 2002. Trends: Reactions to the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001. Public Opinion Quarterly 66 (3):418–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huddy, Leonie, Feldman, Stanley, Taber, Charles, and Lahav, Gallya. 2005. Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policies. American Journal of Political Science 49 (3):593608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huddy, Leonie, and Feldman, Stanley. 2011. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and their Aftermath. American Psychologist 66 (6):455–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutchison, Emma. 2010. Trauma and the Politics of Emotions: Constituting Identity, Security, and Community after the Bali Bombing. International Relations 24 (1):6586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hymans, Jacques E.C. 2006. The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation: Identity, Emotions, and Foreign Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hymans, Jacques E.C. 2010. The Arrival of Psychological Constructivism. International Theory 2 (3):461–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iacoboni, Marco. 2008. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
Irving, David. 1978. The War Path: Hitler's Germany, 1933–1939. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
Jackson, Richard. 2005. Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics, and Counter-Terrorism. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Jackson, Richard. 2007. Language, Policy and the Construction of a Torture Culture in the War on Terrorism. Review of International Studies 33 (3):353–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, Alastair Iain. 2008. Social States: China in International Institutions, 1980–2000. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
Kaufmann, Chaim. 1994. Out of the Lab and into the Archives: A Method for Testing Psychological Explanations of Foreign Policy Decision Making. International Studies Quarterly 38 (4):557–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufmann, Chaim. 2009. Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas. In American Foreign Policy and the Politics of Fear: Threat Inflation since 9/11, edited by Trevor Thrall, A. and Cramer, Jane K., 97116. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kliger, Doron, and Levy, Ori. 2003. Mood-Induced Variation in Risk Preferences. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 52 (4):573–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krebs, Ronald R., and Lobasz, Jennifer K.. 2007. Fixing the Meaning of 9/11: Hegemony, Coercion, and the Road to War in Iraq. Security Studies 16 (3):409–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kunst-Wilson, William Raft, and Zajonc, Robert B.. 1980. Affective Discrimination of Stimuli That Cannot Be Recognized. Science 207 (4430):557–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kydd, Andrew H., and Walter, Barbara F.. 2006. The Strategies of Terrorism. International Security 31 (1):4980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lake, David. 2002. Rational Extremism: Understanding Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century. Dialog IO 1 (1):1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, Alan J., Scherer, Laura D., Schott, John Paul, Olson, Kristina R., Andrews, Rick K., O'Brien, Thomas C., and Zisser, Alison. 2010. Rally Effects, Threat, and Attitude Change: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Role of Emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (6):886903.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lazarus, Richard S. 1991. Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lebow, Richard Ned. 1981. Between Peace and War: The Nature of International Crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
LeDoux, Joseph. 1996. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
Lerner, Jennifer S., and Keltner, Dacher. 2000. Beyond Valence: Toward a Model of Emotion-specific Influences on Judgement and Choice. Cognition and Emotion 14 (4):473–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levy, Jack S. 2002. Prospect Theory, Rational Choice, and International Relations. International Studies Quarterly 41 (1):87112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, P.A., Critchley, H.D., Smith, A.P., and Dolan, R.J.. 2005. Brain Mechanisms for Mood Congruent Memory Facilitation. NeuroImage 25 (4):1214–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, Peter. 2006. An Eye for an Eye: Public Support for War Against Evildoers. International Organization 60 (3):687722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, Peter. 2014. War and Torture as “Just Deserts.” Public Opinion Quarterly 78 (1):4770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberman, Peter, and Skitka, Linda J.. 2008. Just Deserts in Iraq. Saltzman Working Paper 9. New York: Institute of War and Peace Studies.Google Scholar
Liberman, Peter, and Skitka, Linda J.. 2013. Retribution and the “9/11 Effect” on US Public Support for War Against Iraq. Unpublished manuscript, Queens College, City University of New York.Google Scholar
Loewenstein, George F., Weber, Elke U., Hsee, Christopher K., and Welch, Ned. 2001. Risk as Feelings. Psychological Bulletin 127 (2):267–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Löwenheim, Oded, and Heimann, Gadi. 2008. Revenge in International Politics. Security Studies 17 (4):685724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masters, Daniel, and Alexander, Robert M.. 2008. Prospecting for War: 9/11 and Selling the Iraq War. Contemporary Security Policy 29 (3):434–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDermott, Rose. 1998. Risk-Taking in International Politics: Prospect Theory in American Foreign Policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDermott, Rose. 2004. The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science. Perspectives on Politics 2 (4):691706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKeown, Ryder. 2009. Norm Regress: US Revisionism and the Slow Death of the Torture Norm. International Relations 23 (1):525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mearsheimer, John J. 2011. Why Leaders Lie: The Truth about Lying in International Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mercer, Jonathan. 2005. Rationality and Psychology in International Politics. International Organization 59 (1):77106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, Jonathan. 2006. Human Nature and the First Image: Emotion in International Politics. Journal of International Relations and Development 9 (3):288303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, Jonathan. 2010. Emotional Beliefs. International Organization 64 (1):131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, Jonathan. 2013. Emotion and Strategy in the Korean War. International Organization 67 (2):221–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitzen, Jennifer. 2006. Ontological Security in World Politics: State Identity and the Security Dilemma. European Journal of International Relations 12 (3):341–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgan, G. Scott, Wisneski, Daniel C., and Skitka, Linda J.. 2011. The Expulsion from Disneyland: The Social Psychological Impact of 9/11. American Psychologist 66 (6):447–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrow, James D. 1994. Game Theory for Political Scientists. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Mueller, John. 1970. Presidential Popularity from Truman to Johnson. American Political Science Review 64 (1):1834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mueller, John. 2002. Harbinger or Aberration: A 9/11 Provocation. National Interest 69:4550.Google Scholar
Mueller, John. 2010. The Atomic Terrorist? Nuclear Proliferation Update 5. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.Google Scholar
Mueller, John, and Stewart, Mark G.. 2012. The Terrorism Delusion: America's Overwrought Response to September 11. International Security 37 (1):81110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, Sheila T., and Zajonc, Robert B.. 1993. Affect, Cognition, and Awareness: Affective Priming with Optimal and Suboptimal Stimulus Exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (5):723–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Öhman, Arne, and Weins, Stefan. 2004. The Concept of an Evolved Fear Nodule and Cognitive Theories of Anxiety. In Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, edited by Manstead, Antony S.R., Frijda, Nico H. and Fischer, Agenta, 5880. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ortony, Andrew Clore, Gerald L., and Collins, Allan. 1988. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Panksepp, Jaak, and Biven, Lucy. 2012. The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Phelps, Elizabeth A., and Thomas, Laura A.. 2003. Race, Behavior, and the Brain: The Role of Neuroimaging in Understanding Complex Social Behaviors. Political Psychology 24 (4):747–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Priest, Dana, and Arkin, William M.. 2011. Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. New York: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
Rice, Condoleezza. 2011. No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
Rizzolatti, Giacomo, and Sinigaglia, Corrado. 2008. Mirrors in the Brain: How Our Minds Share Actions, Emotions, and Experience. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ross, Andrew A.G. 2014. Mixed Emotions: Beyond Fear and Hatred in International Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ruby, Keven. 2012. Society, State, and Fear: Managing National Security and the Boundary Between Complacency and Panic. PhD diss., University of Chicago.Google Scholar
Rumsfeld, Donald. 2011. Known and Unknown: A Memoir. New York: Sentinel.Google Scholar
Samoilov, Anna, and Goldfried, Marvin R.. 2000. Role of Emotion in Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 7 (4):373–85.Google Scholar
Sasley, Brent E. 2011. Theorizing States’ Emotions. International Studies Review 13 (3):452–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saurette, Paul. 2006. You Dissin Me? Humiliation and Post 9/11 Global Politics. Review of International Studies 32 (3):495522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schubert, James N., Stewart, Patrick A., and Ann Curran, Margaret. 2002. A Defining Presidential Moment: 9/11 and the Rally Effect. Political Psychology 23 (3):559–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silver, Roxane Cohen, Holman, Alison, McIntosh, Daniel N., Poulin, Michael, and Gil-Rivas, Virginia. 2002. Nationwide Longitudinal Study of Psychological Responses to September 11. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 288 (10):1235–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skitka, Linda, Saunders, Benjamin, Scott Morgan, G., and Wisneski, Daniel. 2009. Dark Clouds and Silver Linings: Social Responses to 9/11. In The Impact of 9/11 on Psychology and Education: The Day that Changed Everything?, edited by Morgan, Matthew J., 6379. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slovic, Paul, Finucane, Melissa L., Peters, Ellen, and MacGregor, Donald G.. 2004. Risk as Analysis and Risk as Feelings: Some Thoughts about Affect, Reason, Risk, and Rationality. Risk Analysis 24 (2):311–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Solomon, Richard H. 1995. Chinese Political Negotiating Behavior, 1967–1984. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
Solomon, Ty. 2012. “I Wasn't Angry, Because I Couldn't Believe It Was Happening”: Affect and Discourse in Responses to 9/11. Review of International Studies 38 (4):907–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solomon, Ty. 2013. Resonances of Neoconservatism. Cooperation and Conflict 48 (1):100–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spigel, Lynn. 2004. Entertainment Wars: Television Culture after 9/11. American Quarterly 56 (2):235–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steele, Brent J. 2008. Ontological Security in International Relations: Self-Identity and the IR State. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Stein, Janice Gross. 2013. Psychological Explanations of International Decision Making and Collective Behavior. In Handbook of International Relations, edited by Carlsnaes, Walter, Risse, Thomas, and Simmons, Beth, 195219. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturken, Marita. 2007. Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumerism from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunstein, Cass R. 2003. Terrorism and Probability Neglect. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 26 (2–3):121–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suskind, Ron. 2006. The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America's Pursuit of Its Enemies since 9/11. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Tannenwald, Nina. 1999. The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Normative Basis of Nuclear Non-Use. International Organization 53 (3):433–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tenet, George. 2007. At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. New York: HarperCollins Google Scholar
Verhey, Jeffrey. 2000. The Spirit of 1914: Militarism, Myth, and Mobilization in Germany. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogel, Rolf. 1967. Deutschlands Weg nach Israel. Stuttgart: Seewald.Google Scholar
Wendt, Alexander. 2004. The State as Person in International Theory. Review of International Studies 30 (2):289316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westen, Drew. 2008. The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
Western, Jon. 2009. The War over Iraq: Selling War to the American Public. In American Foreign Policy and the Politics of Fear: Threat Inflation since 9/11, edited by Trevor Thrall, A. and Cramer, Jane K., 153–71. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wetzel, David. 2003. Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the Franco-Prussian War. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Widmaier, Wesley W. 2007. Constructing Foreign Policy Crises: Interpretive Leadership in the Cold War and the War on Terrorism. International Studies Quarterly 51 (4):779–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods, Joshua. 2011. The 9/11 Effect: Toward a Social Science of the Terrorist Threat. The Social Science Journal 48 (1):213–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods, Joshua. 2012. Freaking Out: A Decade of Living with Terrorism. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
Wu, Jianmin. 2007. Waijiao anli [Case Studies in Diplomacy]. Beijing: Zhongguo Renmin Daxue Chubanshe.Google Scholar
Yum, Young-ok, and Schenck-Hamlin, William. 2005. Reactions to 9/11 as a Function of Terror Management and Perspective Taking. Journal of Social Psychology 145 (3):265–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zajonc, Robert B. 1980. Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences. American Psychologist 35 (2):151–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zajonc, Robert B. 1994. Evidence for Nonconscious Emotions. In The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions, edited by Eckman, Paul and Davidson, Richard J., 293–97. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press.Google Scholar
Zajonc, Robert B. 2000. Feeling and Thinking: Closing the Debate Over the Independence of Affect. In Feeling and Thinking: The Role of Affect in Social Cognition, edited by Forgas, Joseph P., 3158. New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
Zillmann, Dolf. 1996. Sequential Dependencies in Emotional Experience and Behavior. In Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by Kavanaugh, Robert D., Zimmerberg, Betty, and Fein, Steven, 243–72. Mawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar