Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-2xdlg Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-18T02:23:56.224Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The Global Diffusion of Law: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2018

Get access

Abstract

In the past few decades new laws criminalizing certain transnational activities have proliferated: from money laundering, corruption, and insider trading to trafficking in weapons and drugs. Human trafficking is one example. We argue that criminalization of trafficking in persons has diffused in large part because of the way the issue has been framed: primarily as a problem of organized crime rather than predominantly an egregious human rights abuse. Framing human trafficking as an organized crime practice empowers states to confront cross-border human movements viewed as potentially threatening. We show that the diffusion of criminalization is explained by road networks that reflect potential vulnerabilities to the diversion of transnational crime. We interpret our results as evidence of the importance of context and issue framing, which in turn affects perceptions of vulnerability to neighbors' policy choices. In doing so, we unify diffusion studies of liberalization with the spread of prohibition regimes to explain the globalization of aspects of criminal law.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The IO Foundation 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andreas, Peter, and Greenhill, Kelly M.. 2010. Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Bales, Kevin. 2005. Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Basinger, Scott J., and Hallerberg, Mark. 2004. Remodeling the Competition for Capital: How Domestic Politics Erases the Race to the Bottom. American Political Science Review 98 (2):261–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baybeck, Brady, Berry, William D., and Siegel, David A.. 2011. A Strategic Theory of Policy Diffusion via Intergovernmental Competition. The Journal of Politics 73 (1):232–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, Nathaniel, Gleditsch, Kristian S., and Beardsley, Kyle. 2006. Space Is More than Geography: Using Spatial Econometrics in the Study of Political Economy. International Studies Quarterly 50 (1):2744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, Gary S. 1968. Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy 76 (2):169217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benford, Robert D. 1997. An Insider's Critique of the Social Movement Framing Perspective. Sociological Inquiry 67 (4):409–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, Sarah M. 2005. Interdependent and Domestic Foundations of Policy Change: The Diffusion of Pension Privatization Around the World. International Studies Quarterly 49 (2):273–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao, Xun. 2010. Networks as Channels of Policy Diffusion: Explaining Worldwide Changes in Capital Taxation, 1998–2006. International Studies Quarterly 54 (3):823–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cao, Xun, and Prakash, Aseem. 2011. Growing Exports by Signaling Product Quality: Trade Competition and the Cross-National Diffusion of ISO 9000 Quality Standards. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30 (1):111–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charnysh, Volha, Lloyd, Paulette, and Simmons, Beth A.. 2015. Frames and Consensus Formation in International Relations: The Case of Trafficking in Persons. European Journal of International Relations 21 (2):323–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, Seo-Young, Dreher, Axel, and Neumayer, Eric. 2014. Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Policies: Evidence from a New Index. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 116 (2):429–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chuang, Janie. 2005–2006. The United States as Global Sheriff: Using Unilateral Sanctions to Combat Human Trafficking. Michigan Journal of International Law 27:437–94.Google Scholar
Clark, Ann Marie. 2001. Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cole, Wade M. 2013. Government Respect for Gendered Rights: The Effect of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on Women's Rights Outcomes, 1981–2004. International Studies Quarterly 57 (2):233–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coomaraswamy, Radhika. 1997. Reinventing International Law: Women's Rights as Human Rights in the International Community. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 23 (3–4):1249–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornell, Svante E. 2009. The Interaction of Drug Smuggling, Human Trafficking and Terrorism. In Human Trafficking and Human Security, edited by Jonsson, Anna, 4866. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Curley, Melissa, and Wong, Siu-lun. 2008. Security and Migration in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitisation. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeStefano, Anthony M. 2007. The War on Human Trafficking: US Policy Assessed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Di Nicola, Andrea. 2009. Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Focus on Clients. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiMaggio, Paul, and Powell, Walter W.. 1991. The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Dobbin, Frank, Simmons, Beth, and Garrett, Geoffrey. 2007. The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition, or Learning? Annual Review of Sociology 33 (1): 449–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doezema, Jo. 1999. Loose Women or Lost Women? The Re-emergence of the Myth of White Slavery in Contemporary Discourses of Trafficking in Women. Gender Issues 18 (1):2350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dottridge, M. 2007. Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights around the World. Bangkok: Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women.Google Scholar
Druckman, James N. 2001. On the Limits of Framing Effects: Who Can Frame? The Journal of Politics 63 (4):1041–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Efrat, Asif. 2012. Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation Against Illicit Trade. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elkins, Zachary, Guzman, Andrew T., and Simmons, Beth A.. 2006. Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960–2000. International Organization 60 (4):811–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Epp, Charles R. 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fariss, Christopher J. 2014. Respect for Human Rights Has Improved Over Time: Modeling the Changing Standard of Accountability. American Political Science Review 108 (2):297318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farrell, Amy, and Fahy, Stephanie. 2009. The Problem of Human Trafficking in the US: Public Frames and Policy Responses. Journal of Criminal Justice 37 (6):617–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fein, Helen. 2007. Human Rights and Wrongs: Slavery, Terror, Genocide. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
Finnemore, Martha. 1996. Norms, Culture, and World Politics: Insights from Sociology's Institutionalism. International Organization 50 (2):325–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finnemore, Martha, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization 52 (4):887918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friman, H. Richard, and Reich, Simon. 2007. Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkans. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallagher, Anne. 2001. Human Rights and the New UN Protocols on Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling: A Preliminary Analysis. Human Rights Quarterly 23 (4):9751004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilardi, Fabrizio. 2010. Who Learns from What in Policy Diffusion Processes? American Journal of Political Science 54 (3):650–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilardi, Fabrizio. 2012. Transnational Diffusion: Norms, Ideas, and Policies. In Handbook of Internatoinal Relations, edited by Carlsnaes, Walter, Risse, Thomas, and Simmons, Beth A., 453–77. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Gilardi, Fabrizio, and Wasserfallen, Fabio. 2016. How Socialization Attenuates Tax Competition. British Journal of Political Science 46 (1):4565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodliffe, Jay, Hawkins, Darren, Horne, Christine, and Nielson, Daniel L.. 2012. Dependence Networks and the International Criminal Court. International Studies Quarterly 56 (1):131–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, Ryan, and Jinks, Derek. 2013. Socializing States: Promoting Human Rights Through International Law. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenhill, Brian. 2016. Transmitting Rights: International Organizations and the Diffusion of Human Rights Practices. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenhill, Brian, Mosley, Layna, and Prakash, Aseem. 2009. Trade-based Diffusion of Labor Rights: A Panel Study, 1986–2002. American Political Science Review 103 (4):669–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gros, Jean-Germain. 2003. Trouble in Paradise: Crime and Collapsed States in the Age of Globalization. The British Journal of Criminology 43 (1):6380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, Donna M. 2000. The “Natasha” Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women. Journal of International Affairs 53 (2):625–52.Google Scholar
Huysmans, Jef. 2000. The European Union and the Securitization of Migration. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 38 (5):751–77.Google Scholar
Ibrahim, Maggie. 2005. The Securitization of Migration: A Racial Discourse. International Migration 43 (5):163–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iyengar, Shanto, and Kinder, Donald R.. 1987. News That Matters: Television and American Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Johnston, Alastair Iain. 2001. Treating International Institutions as Social Environments. International Studies Quarterly 45 (4): 487516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonsson, Anna. 2009. Human Trafficking and Human Security. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kara, Siddharth. 2009. Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Keck, Margaret E., and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Keenan, Patrick J. 2006. The New Deterrence: Crime and Policy in the Age of Globalization. Iowa Law Review 91 (2):505–60.Google Scholar
Kelley, Judith, and Simmons, Beth A.. 2015. Politics by Number: Indicators as Social Pressure in International Relations. American Journal of Political Science 59 (1):1146–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kempadoo, Kamala, and Doezema, Jo, eds. 1998. Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Korey, William. 1998. NGOs and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Curious Grapevine. New York: St. Martin's Press.Google Scholar
Lee, Chang Kil, and Strang, David. 2006. The International Diffusion of Public Sector Downsizing. International Organization 60 (4):883909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leghari, Faryal. 2007. Narcotics and Human Trafficking to the GCC States. Dubai: Gulf Research Center.Google Scholar
Lenschow, Andrea, Liefferink, Duncan, and Veenman, Sietske. 2005. When the Birds Sing: A Framework for Analysing Domestic Factors Behind Policy Convergence. Journal of European Public Policy 12 (5):797816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linos, Katerina. 2011. Diffusion through Democracy. American Journal of Political Science 55 (3):678–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lloyd, Paulette, and Simmons, Beth A.. 2015. Framing and Transnational Legal Organization: The Case of Human Trafficking. In Transnational Legal Orders, edited by Halliday, Terence and Shaffer, Gregory, 400–38. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lloyd, Paulette, Simmons, Beth A., and Stewart, Brandon M.. 2012. Combating Transnational Crime: The Role of Learning and Norm Diffusion in the Current Rule of Law Wave. In The Dynamics of the Rule of Law, edited by Nollkaemper, André, Zürn, Michael, and Peerenboom, Randy, 153–80. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lutz, Ellen, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 2000. International Human Rights Law and Practice in Latin America. International Organization 54 (3):633–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsueda, Ross L., Kreager, Derek A., and Huizinga, David. 2006. Deterring Delinquents: A Rational Choice Model of Theft and Violence. American Sociological Review 71 (1):95122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N., eds. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meseguer, Covadonga. 2005. Policy Learning, Policy Diffusion, and the Making of a New Order. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 598 (1):6782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, John W., Boli, John, Thomas, George M., and Ramirez, Francisco O.. 1997. World Society and the Nation-state. American Journal of Sociology 103 (1):144–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moyn, Samuel. 2010. The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Nelson, Thomas E., and Oxley, Zoe M.. 1999. Issue Framing Effects on Belief Importance and Opinion. The Journal of Politics 61 (4):1040–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peck, Jamie. 2011. Geographies of Policy: From Transfer-Diffusion to Mobility-Mutation. Progress in Human Geography 35 (6):773–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plümper, Thomas, and Neumayer, Eric. 2010. Model Specification in the Analysis of Spatial Dependence. European Journal of Political Research 49 (3):418–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plümper, Thomas, Troeger, Vera E., and Winner, Hannes. 2009. Why Is There No Race to the Bottom in Capital Taxation? International Studies Quarterly 53 (3):761–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prakash, Aseem, and Potoski, Matthew. 2006. Racing to the Bottom? Trade, Environmental Governance, and ISO 14001. American Journal of Political Science 50 (2):350–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Steve C., and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1999. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salt, John. 2000. Trafficking and Human Smuggling: A European Perspective. International Migration 38 (S1):3156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scarpa, Silvia. 2008. Trafficking in Human Beings: Modern Slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, Carina. 2014. The Diffusion of Privatization in Europe: Political Affinity or Economic Competition? Public Administration 92 (3):615–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla, and Thomas, Andrew C.. 2011. Homophily and Contagion Are Generically Confounded in Observational Social Network Studies. Sociological Methods and Research 40 (2):211–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1993. Human Rights, Principled Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America. International Organization 47 (3):411–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A. 2009. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank, and Garrett, Geoffrey. 2008. The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, Beth A., and Elkins, Zachary. 2004. The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy. American Political Science Review 98 (1):171–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snow, David A., and Benford, Robert D.. 1988. Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization. International Social Movement Research 1 (1):197217.Google Scholar
Stinnett, Douglas M., Tir, Jaroslav, Diehl, Paul F., Schafer, Philip, and Gochman, Charles. 2002. The Correlates of War Project Direct Contiguity Data, version 3. Conflict Management and Peace Science 19 (2):5866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swank, Duane. 2016. Taxing Choices: International Competition, Domestic Institutions and the Transformation of Corporate Tax Policy. Journal of European Public Policy 23 (4):571603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thachuk, Kimberley L. 2007. Transnational Threats: Smuggling and Trafficking in Arms, Drugs, and Human Life. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.Google Scholar
Therneau, Terry M., and Grambsch, Patricia M.. 2000. Modeling Survival Data: Extending the Cox Model. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tversky, Amos, and Kahneman, Daniel. 1981. The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. Science 211 (4481):453–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
United States Government Accountability Office. 2006. Human Trafficking: Better Data, Strategy, and Reporting Needed to Enhance US Antitrafficking Efforts Abroad. Washington, DC: Report to the Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary and the Chairman, Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives. Available at: <http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06825.pdf>. Accessed 13 December 2017..+Accessed+13+December+2017.>Google Scholar
Vlassis, Dimitri. 2000. The Global Situation of Transnational Organized Crime, the Decision of the International Community to Develop an International Convention and the Negotiation Process. Annual Report for 2000 and Resource Material Series 59:475794.Google Scholar
Ward, Hugh, and John, Peter. 2013. Competitive Learning in Yardstick Competition: Testing Models of Policy Diffusion with Performance Data. Political Science Research and Methods 1 (1):325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weitzer, Ronald. 2014. New Directions in Research on Human Trafficking. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 653 (1):624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyland, Kurt Gerhard. 2006. Bounded Rationality and Policy Diffusion: Social Sector Reform in Latin America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Wotipka, Christine Min, and Ramirez, Francisco O.. 2008. World Society and Human Rights: An Event History Analysis of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. In The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy, edited by Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank, and Garrett, Geoffrey, 303–43. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Simmons et al. supplementary material 1

Appendix

Download Simmons et al. supplementary material 1(PDF)
PDF 1 MB