Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-rbfsf Total loading time: 0.284 Render date: 2022-06-26T18:59:00.421Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

International Order in Historical East Asia: Tribute and Hierarchy Beyond Sinocentrism and Eurocentrism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 September 2019

Get access

Abstract

IR theorizing about international order has been profoundly, perhaps exclusively, shaped by the Western experiences of the Westphalian order and often assumes that the Western experience can be generalized to all orders. Recent scholarship on historical East Asian orders challenges these notions. The fundamental organizing principle in historical East Asia was hierarchy, not sovereign equality. The region was characterized by hegemony, not balance of power. This emerging research program has direct implications for enduring questions about the relative importance of cultural and material factors in both international orders and their influence on behavior—for describing and explaining patterns of war and peace across time and space, for understanding East Asia as a region made up of more than just China, and for more usefully comparing East Asia, Europe, and other regions of the world.

Type
Review Essay
Copyright
Copyright © The IO Foundation 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Acharya, Amitav, and Buzan, Barry. 2007. Why Is There No Non-Western International Relations Theory? International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 7 (3):287312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allan, Bentley B., Vucetic, Srdjan, and Hopf, Ted. 2018. The Distribution of Identity and the Future of International Order: China's Hegemonic Prospects. International Organization 72 (4):839–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, James A. 2007. The Rebel Den of Nùng Trí Cao: Loyalty and Identity Along the Sino-Vietnamese Frontier. University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Anderson, James A. 2013. Distinguishing Between China and Vietnam: Three Relational Equilibriums in Sino-Vietnamese Relations. Journal of East Asian Studies 13 (2):259–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrade, Tonio. 2016. The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anievas, Alexander. 2016. History, Theory, and Contingency in the Study of Modern International Relations: The Global Transformation Revisited. International Theory 8 (3):468–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, Thomas. 2012. War, Guilt, and World Politics After World War II. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bilgin, Pinar. 2016. How to Remedy Eurocentrism in IR? A Complement and a Challenge for the Global Transformation. International Theory 8 (3):492501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brook, Timothy. 2018. Roundtable Review of Ji-Young Lee. H-Diplo/ISSF Roundtable X, no. 7.Google Scholar
Carlson, Allen. 2005. Unifying China, Integrating with the World: Securing Chinese Sovereignty in the Reform Era. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Crossley, Pamela. 2006. Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Crossley, Pamela. Forthcoming. Time and Force: the Ming-Qing Transition, 1600–1683. In Haggard, Stephan and Kang, David, eds. East Asia in the World: Twelve Events that Shaped the Modern International Order. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Deuchler, Martina. 1992. The Confucian Transformation of Korea. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Di Cosmo, Nicola. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Di Cosmo, Nicola, ed. 2009. Military Culture in Imperial China. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Dincecco, Mark, and Wang, Yuhua. 2018. Violent Conflict and Political Development Over the Long Run: China Versus Europe. Annual Review of Political Science 21: 341–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duara, Prasenjit. 2017. Afterword: The Chinese World Order As a Language Game. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 77 (1):123–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elisseeff, Vadime. 1963. The Middle Empire, a Distant Empire, an Empire without Neighbors. Diogenes 42:6064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliott, Mark. 2001. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Elliott, Mark. 2014. Frontier Stories: Periphery as Center in Qing History. Frontiers of History in China 9 (3):336–60.Google Scholar
Finnemore, Martha. 2009. Legitimacy, Hypocrisy, and the Social Structure of Unipolarity: Why Being a Unipole Isn't All It's Cracked Up to Be. World Politics 61 (1):5885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foot, Rosemary, and Goh, Evelyn. 2018. The International Relations of East Asia: A New Research Prospectus. International Studies Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geddes, Barbara. 1990. How the Cases You Choose Affect the Answers You Get: Selection Bias in Comparative Politics. Political Analysis 2:131–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goh, Evelyn. 2013. The Struggle for Order: Hegemony, Hierarchy and Transition in Post-Cold War East Asia. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanscom, Christopher. 2013. The Real Modern: Literary Modernism and the Crisis of Representation in Colonial Korea. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hevia, James Louis. 1995. Cherishing Men From Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793. Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobson, John M. 2012. The Eurocentric Conception of World Politics: Western International Theory, 1760–2010. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, David. 2017. Editorial Preface. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 77 (1):viiviii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hui, Victoria. 2012. Roundtable Review of Wang Yuan-kang, Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. H-Diplo IV (3):15.Google Scholar
Jansen, Marius. 1992. China in the Tokugawa World. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, Iain Alistair. 1995. Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kang, David C. 2010. East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Kang, David C., Nguyen, Dat X., Fu, Ronan Tse-min, and Shaw, Meredith. 2019. War, Rebellion, and Intervention Under Hierarchy: Vietnam–China Relations, 1365 to 1841. Journal of Conflict Resolution 63 (4):896922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, David C., Shaw, Meredith, and Fu, Ronan Tse-Min. 2016. Measuring War in Early Modern East Asia, 1368–1841: Introducing Chinese and Korean Language Sources. International Studies Quarterly 60 (4):766–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, Liam. 2005. Beyond the Bronze Pillars: Envoy Poetry and the Sino-Vietnamese Relationship. University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Kelly, Robert E. 2012. A “Confucian Long Peace” in Pre-Western East Asia? European Journal of International Relations 18 (3):407–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khong, Yuen Foong. 2013. The American Tributary System. Chinese Journal of International Politics 6 (1):147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Seonmin. 2017. Ginseng and Borderland: Territorial Boundaries and Political Relations Between Qing China and Chosƾn Korea, 1636–1912. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Kiser, Edgar, and Cai, Yong. 2003. War and Bureaucratization in Qin China: Exploring an Anomalous Case. American Sociological Review 68 (4):511–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kwan, Alan. 2016. Hierarchy, Status, and International Society: China and the Steppe Nomads. European Journal of International Relations 22 (2):362–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsen, Kirk. 2012. Roundtable 4-3 on Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. ISSF Roundtable, 4 (3):812.Google Scholar
Ledyard, Gari. 1994. Cartography in Korea. In Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies, edited by Harley, J.B. and Woodward, David, 235345. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Lee, Ji-Young. 2016. China's Hegemony: Four Hundred Years of East Asian Domination. Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, Mark Edward. 2007. The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Lorge, Peter. 2005. War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795. Routledge.Google Scholar
MacKay, Joseph. 2016. The Nomadic Other: Ontological Security and the Inner Asian Steppe in Historical East Asian International Politics. Review of International Studies 42 (3):471–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mastanduno, Michael. 2003. Incomplete Hegemony: The United States and Security Order in Asia. In Asian Security Order: Instrumental and Normative Features, edited by Alagappa, Muthiah, 141–70. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Mattern, Janice Bially, and Zarakol, Ayşe. 2016. Hierarchies in World Politics. International Organization 70 (3):623–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McConaughey, Meghan, Musgrave, Paul, and Nexon, Daniel. 2018. Beyond Anarchy: Logics of Political Organization, Hierarchy, and International Structure. International Theory 10 (2):181218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neumann, Iver B. 2011. Entry into International Society Reconceptualised: The Case of Russia. Review of International Studies 37 (2):463–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palais, James. 1996. Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions. University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Park, Eugene. 2006. War and Peace in Premodern Korea: Institutional and Ideological Dimensions. In The Military and Korean Society, edited by Kim-Renaud, Young-Key, Grinker, Richard, and Larsen, Kirk W., 114. Sigur Center Asia Papers no. 26. The Sigur Center for Asian Studies, George Washington University.Google Scholar
Park, Saeyoung. 2017. Long Live the Tributary System! The Future of Studying East Asian Foreign Relations. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 77 (1):120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, Seo-Hyun. 2017. Sovereignty and Status in East Asian International Relations. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perdue, Peter C. 2005. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Perdue, Peter. 2015. The Tenacious Tributary System. Journal of Contemporary China 24 (96):1002–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson, Charles. 1983. Old Illusions and New Realities: Sung Foreign Policy, 1217–1234. In China Among Equals: the Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th–14th Centuries, edited by Rossabi, Morris, 204–41. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Peterson, Mark. 2018. View of the Frog Out of the Well. Korea Times, 8 July.Google Scholar
Phillips, Andrew, and Sharman, J.C.. 2015. Explaining Durable Diversity in International Systems: State, Company, and Empire in the Indian Ocean. International Studies Quarterly 59 (3):436–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pomeranz, Kenneth. 2001. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rawski, Evelyn. 2015. Early Modern China and Northeast Asia: Cross-Border Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, Kenneth. 1992. From Raiders to Traders: Border Security and Border Control in Early Chosƾn, 1392–1450. Korean Studies 16:94115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent, and Wong, R. Bin. 2011. Before and Beyond Divergence: The Politics of Economic Change in China and Europe. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmid, Andre. 2007. Tributary Relations and the Qing- Chosƾn Frontier on Mount Paektu. In The Chinese State at the Borders, edited by Lary, Diana, 126–50. University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
Skaff, Jonathan. 2012. Sui-Tang China and Its Turko-Mongol Neighbors: Culture, Power, and Connections, 580–800. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swope, Kenneth. 2005. Crouching Tigers, Secret Weapons: Military Technology Employed During the Sino-Japanese-Korean War, 1592–1598. The Journal of Military History 69 (1):141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swope, Kenneth. 2009. Dragon's Head and Serpent's Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War, 1592–1598. University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
Swope, Kenneth. 2015. Manifesting Awe: Imperial Leadership and Grand Strategy in the Ming Dynasty. Journal of Military History 79 (3):597634.Google Scholar
Suzuki, Shogo. 2009. Civilization and Empire: China and Japan's Encounter with the European International Society. Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilly, Charles. 1975. Reflections on the History of European Statemaking. In The Formation of National States in Western Europe, edited by Tilly, Charles, 383. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Van de Ven, Hans, , ed. 2000. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill.Google Scholar
Von Glahn, Richard. 2016. The Economic History of China from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Von Glahn, Richard. 2018. The Maritime Trading World of East Asia from the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Centuries. Unpublished manuscript, UCLA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Wang, Yuan-kang. 2010. Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics. Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wills, John E. 1984. Embassies and Illusions: Dutch and Portuguese Envoys to K'ang-Hsi, 1666–1687. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wills, John E. Jr. 2001. Great Qing and Its Southern Neighbors, 1760–1820: Secular Trends and Recovery from Crisis. Unpublished manuscript, University of Southern California. Retrieved from <http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/p/2005/history_cooperative/www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/interactions/wills.html>..>Google Scholar
Womack, Brantly. 2006. China and Vietnam: The Politics of Asymmetry. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Womack, Brantly. 2010. China Among Unequals: Asymmetric Foreign Relations in Asia. World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, R. Bin. 2018. Roundtable Review of Ji-Young Lee. H-Diplo/ISSF Roundtable X (7):2025.Google Scholar
Woodside, Alexander. 2006. Lost Modernities: China, Vietnam, Korea, and the Hazards of World History. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, David. 2005. From War to Diplomatic Parity in Eleventh-Century China: Sung's Foreign Relations with Kitan Liao. Brill.Google Scholar
Yoo, Geun-Ho. 2004. Chosnjo taeoe sasangui hurum [Flows of Ideologies on Foreign Relations during the Chosƾn Period]. Sungshin Women's University Press.Google Scholar
Zhang, Feng. 2015. Chinese Hegemony: Grand Strategy and International Institutions in East Asian History. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Zhang, Yongjin, and Buzan, Barry. 2012. The Tributary System as International Society in Theory and Practice. The Chinese Journal of International Politics 5 (1):336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, Dingxin. 2004. Spurious Causation in a Historical Process: War and Bureaucratization in Early China. American Sociological Review 69 (4):603607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

International Order in Historical East Asia: Tribute and Hierarchy Beyond Sinocentrism and Eurocentrism
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

International Order in Historical East Asia: Tribute and Hierarchy Beyond Sinocentrism and Eurocentrism
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

International Order in Historical East Asia: Tribute and Hierarchy Beyond Sinocentrism and Eurocentrism
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *