Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-fmrbl Total loading time: 0.661 Render date: 2022-10-05T09:51:49.285Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Who Supports Global Economic Engagement? The Sources of Preferences in American Foreign Economic Policy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 February 2011

Helen V. Milner
Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. E-mail:
Dustin H. Tingley
Harvard University, Boston. E-mail:
Get access


In this article we bring together opposing international relations theories to better understand U.S. foreign policy, in particular foreign trade and aid. Using votes in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1979–2004, we explore different theoretical predictions about preferences for foreign economic policy. We assess the impact of domestic factors, namely political economy and ideological preferences, versus foreign policy pressures. Our three main results highlight the differential effect of these factors in the two issue areas. First, aid preferences are as affected by domestic political economy factors as are trade preferences. Second, trade preferences, but not economic aid ones, are shaped by the president's foreign policy concerns; for economic aid, domestic political economy factors matter more than foreign policy ones. Third, aid preferences are shaped more by ideological factors than are trade ones, but ideology plays a different substantive role in each. Different constituencies support aid and trade. This finding has implications for foreign policy substitutability, “the internationalist coalition” in U.S. foreign policy, “statist” theories of foreign policy, and the connection between public opinion and legislative voting.

Research Article
Copyright © The IO Foundation 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Alden, Chris. 2000. From Neglect to ‘Virtual Engagement’: The United States and Its New Paradigm for Africa. African Affairs 99 (396):355–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alesina, Alberto, and Dollar, David. 2000. Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why? Journal of Economic Growth 5 (1):3363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, Douglas R. 1992. The Logic of Congressional Action. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Asher, Herbert B., and Weisberg, Herbert F.. 1978. Voting Change in Congress: Some Dynamic Perspectives on an Evolutionary Process. American Journal of Political Science 22 (2):391425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avery, William P. 1998. Domestic Interests in NAFTA Bargaining. Political Science Quarterly 113 (2):281305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, Michael A. 2001. Quiet Influence: The Representation of Diffuse Interests on Trade Policy, 1983–1994. Legislative Studies Quarterly 26 (1):4580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, Michael A., Goldstein, Judith, and Weingast, Barry R.. 1997. The Institutional Roots of American Trade Policy: Politics, Coalitions, and International Trade. World Politics 49 (3):309–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin, Robert E., and Magee, Christopher S.. 2000. Is Trade Policy for Sale? Congressional Voting on Recent Trade Bills. Public Choice 105 (1-2):79101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bates, Robert H. 1997. Open-Economy Politics: The Political Economy of the World Coffee Trade. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Beaulieu, Eugene. 2002a. Factor or Industry Cleavages in Trade Policy? An Empirical Analysis of the Stopler-Samuelson Theorem. Economics and Politics 14 (2):99131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaulieu, Eugene. 2002b. The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem Faces Congress. Review of International Economics 10 (2):343–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhagwati, Jagdish N., Brecher, Richard A., and Hatta, Tatsuo. 1983. The Generalized Theory of Transfers and Welfare: Bilateral Transfers in a Multilateral World. American Economic Review 73 (4):606–18.Google Scholar
Bhagwati, Jagdish N., Brecher, Richard A., and Hatta, Tatsuo. 1984. The Paradoxes of Immiserizing Growth and Donor-Enriching ‘Recipient-Immiserizing’ Transfers: a Tale of Two Literatures. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 110:228–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bobbio, Norberto. 1996. Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Brakman, Steven, and van Marrewijk, Charles. 1998. The Economics of International Transfers. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broz, J. Lawrence. 2005. Congressional Politics of International Financial Rescues. American Journal of Political Science 49 (3):479–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broz, J. Lawrence, and Hawes, Michael Brewster. 2006. Congressional Politics of Financing the International Monetary Fund. International Organization 60 (2):367–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busby, Joshua W., and Monten, Jonathan. 2008. Without Heirs? Assessing the Decline of Establishment Internationalism in U.S. Foreign Policy. Perspectives on Politics 6 (3):451–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cameron, David R. 1978. The Expansion of the Public Economy: A Comparative Analysis. American Political Science Review 72 (4):1243–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2006. Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy, and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Canes-Wrone, Brandice, Howell, William G., and Lewis, David E.. 2008. Toward a Broader Understanding of Presidential Power: A Re-Evaluation of the Two Presidencies Thesis. Journal of Politics 70 (1):116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carter, Ralph. 1999. Congressional Trade Politics, 1985–1995. Congress & the Presidency 26 (1):6176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaudoin, Stephen, Milner, Helen, and Tingley, Dustin. 2010. The Center Holds: Liberal Internationalism Survives. International Security 35 (1):7594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Citrin, Jack, Green, Donald P., Muste, Christopher, and Wong, Cara. 1997. Public Opinion Toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations. Journal of Politics 59 (3):858–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, David H. 2001. Trading Butter for Guns: Domestic Imperatives for Foreign Policy Substitution. Journal of Conflict Resolution 45 (5):636–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, David H., and Reed, William. 2005. The Strategic Sources of Foreign Policy Substitution. American Journal of Political Science 49 (3):609–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clinton, William. 2000. The Trade and Development Act of 2000: Strengthening Our Economic Partnership with Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean Basin. Available at ⟨⟩. Accessed 30 March 2010.Google Scholar
Collier, Kenneth, and Munger, Michael. 1994. A Comparison of Incumbent Security in the House and Senate. Public Choice 78 (2):145–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Congressional Record. 1984. Congressional Record of the House. 98th Cong., 2d sess., 5 September.Google Scholar
Danahy, Patrick. 1998. Testimony of the President of American Textile Manufacturers Institute to the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. 105th Cong., 2d sess., 17 June.Google Scholar
Denzau, Arthur T., and Munger, Michael C.. 1986. Legislators and Interest Groups: How Unorganized Interests Get Represented. American Political Science Review 80 (1):89106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Destler, I. M. 1995. American Trade Politics. 3d ed.Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
Diehl, Paul F. 1994. Substitutes or Complements? The Effects of Alliances on Military Spending in Major Power Rivalries. International Interactions 19 (3):159–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Divine, Robert A. 1967. Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism in America during World War II. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
Dutt, Pushan, and Mitra, Devashish. 2005. Political Ideology and Endogenous Trade Policy: An Empirical Investigation. Review of Economics and Statistics 87 (1):5972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, George C. III 1989. At the Margins: Presidential Leadership in Congress. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Fleck, Robert K., and Kilby, Christopher. 2001. Foreign Aid and Domestic Politics: Voting in Congress and the Allocation of USAID Contracts Across Congressional Districts. Southern Economic Journal 67 (3):598617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleisher, Richard, and Bond, Jon R.. 1988. Are There Two Presidencies? Yes, But Only for Republicans. Journal of Politics 50 (3):747–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleisher, Richard, Krutz, Glen S., and Hanna, Stephen. 2000. The Demise of the Two Presidencies. American Politics Research 28 (1):325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fordham, Benjamin O. 2008. Economic Interests and Public Support for American Global Activism. International Organization 62 (1):163–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fordham, Benjamin O., and McKeown, Timothy J.. 2003. Selection and Influence: Interest Groups and Congressional Voting on Trade Policy. International Organization 57 (3):519–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friman, H. Richard. 1993. Side-Payments Versus Security Cards: Domestic Bargaining Tactics in International Economic Negotiations. International Organization 47 (3):387410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Government Printing Office (GPO). 2004. Table B-97—Farm Income, 1945–2003. Available at ⟨⟩. Accessed 30 March 2010.Google Scholar
Grossman, Gene M., and Helpman, Elhanan. 2002. Interest Groups and Trade Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Guisinger, Alexandra. 2009. Determining Trade Policy: Do Voters Hold Politicians Accountable? International Organization 63 (3):533–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggard, Stephen. 1988. The Institutional Foundations of Hegemony: Explaining the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934. International Organization 42 (1):91119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2006. Learning to Love Globalization: Education and Individual Attitudes Toward International Trade. International Organization 60 (2):469–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2007. Educated Preferences: Explaining Individual Attitudes Toward Immigration in Europe. International Organization 61 (2):399442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, John Mark. 1991. Gaining Access: Congress and the Farm Lobby, 1919–1981. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Hanson, Gordon H., Scheve, Kenneth F., and Slaughter, Matthew. 2007. Public Finance and Individual Preferences Over Globalization Strategies. Economics and Politics 19 (1):133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hays, Jude C., Ehrlich, Sean D., and Peinhardt, Clint. 2005. Government Spending and Public Support for Trade in the OECD: An Empirical Test of the Embedded Liberalism Thesis. International Organization 59 (2):473–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinckley, Barbara. 1994. Less Than Meets the Eye: Foreign Policy Making and the Myth of the Assertive Congress. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Hiscox, Michael J. 2002a. Commerce, Coalitions, and Factor Mobility: Evidence from Congressional Votes on Trade Legislation. American Political Science Review 96 (3):593608.Google Scholar
Hiscox, Michael J. 2002b. International Trade and Political Conflict : Commerce, Coalitions, and Mobility. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Holsti, Ole R. 1979. The Three-Headed Eagle: The United States and System Change. International Studies Quarterly 23 (3):339–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, William G., and Pevehouse, Jon C.. 2007. While Dangers Gather: Congressional Checks on Presidential War Powers. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ikenberry, David, Lake, David A., and Mastanduno, Michael. 1988. The State and American Foreign Economic Policy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Johnson, Robert David. 2006. Congress and the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Jones, Ronald W. 1984. The Transfer Problem in a Three Agent Setting. Canadian Journal of Economics 17 (1):114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalt, Joseph P., and Zupan, Mark A.. 1993. Capture and Ideology in the Economic Theory of Politics. Public Choice Theory. Vol. 2, The Characteristics of Political Equilibrium. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, Vol. 24, 238–59.Google Scholar
Karol, David. 2007. Does Constituency Size Affect Elected Officials' Trade Policy Preferences? Journal of Politics 69 (2):483–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katzenstein, Peter J. 1978. Between Power and Plenty: Foreign Economic Policies of Advanced Industrial States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Kemp, Murray C. 1995. The Gains from Trade and the Gains from Aid: Essays in International Trade Theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kesselman, Mark. 1961. Presidential Leadership in Congress on Foreign Policy. Midwest Journal of Political Science 5 (3):284–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krasner, Stephen D. 1978. Defending the National Interest: Raw Materials Investments and U.S. Foreign Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Krugman, Paul. 1993. The Uncomfortable Truth About NAFTA: It's Foreign Policy, Stupid. Foreign Affairs 72 (5):1319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kupchan, Charles A., and Trubowitz, Peter L.. 2007. Dead Center: The Demise of Liberal Internationalism in the United States. International Security 32 (2):744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ladewig, Jeffrey W. 2006. Domestic Influences on International Trade Policy: Factor Mobility in the United States, 1963–1992. International Organization 60 (1):69103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Legro, Jeffrey W. 2000. Whence American Internationalism. International Organization 54 (2):253–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liang, Kung-Yee, and Zeger, Scott L.. 1993. Regression Analysis for Correlated Data. Annual Review of Public Health 14:4358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindsay, James. 1994. Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Policy. Baltimore. Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Lohmann, Susanne, and O'Halloran, Sharyn. 1994. Divided Government and U.S. Trade Policy: Theory and Evidence. International Organization 48 (4):595632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lumsdaine, David H. 1993. Moral Vision in International Politics: The Foreign Aid Regime 1949–1989. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Magee, Christopher. 2010. Would NAFTA Have Been Approved by the House of Representatives Under President Bush? Presidents, Parties, and Trade Policy. Review of International Economics 18 (2):382–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magee, Stephen P., Brock, William A., and Young, Leslie. 1989. Black Hole Tariffs and Endogenous Policy Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Manning, Bayless. 1977. The Congress, the Executive and Intermestic Affairs: Three Proposals. Foreign Affairs 55 (2):306–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D., and Mutz, Diana C.. 2009. Support for Free Trade: Self-Interest, Sociotropic Politics, and Out-Group Anxiety. International Organization 63 (3):425–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Bryan W. 2005. Explaining Congressional-Executive Rivalry in International Affairs: The Changing Role of Parties, Committees, and the Issue Agenda. In Divided Power: The Presidency, Congress, and the Formation of American Economic Policy, edited by Kelly, Donald R., 111–32. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.Google Scholar
Marshall, Bryan W., and Prins, Brandon C.. 2002. The Pendulum of Congressional Power: Agenda Change, Partisanship, and the Demise of the Post–World War II Foreign Policy Consensus. Congress and the Presidency 29 (2):195212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayda, Anna Maria, and Rodrik, Dani. 2005. Why Are Some People (and Countries) More Protectionist Than Others? European Economic Review 49 (6):1393–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayer, Wolfgang, and Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis. 2003. The Politics of Foreign Aid: A Median Voter Perspective. Review of Development Economics 7 (2):165–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarty, Nolan, Poole, Keith T., and Rosenthal, Howard. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge. Mass.: MIT Press.Google Scholar
McCormick, James M., and Wittkopf, Eugene R.. 1990. Bipartisanship, Partisanship, and Ideology in Congressional-Executive Foreign Policy Relations, 1947–1988. Journal of Politics 52 (4):1077–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCormick, Ryan. 2006. The African Growth and Opportunity Act: The Perils of Pursuing African Development Through U.S. Trade Law. Texas International Law Journal 41 (2):339–84.Google Scholar
McGinnis, Michael D. 1990. A Rational Model of Regional Rivalry. International Studies Quarterly 34 (1):111–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinlay, Robert D., and Little, Richard. 1977. A Foreign Policy Model of U.S. Bilateral Aid Allocations. World Politics 30 (1):5886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinlay, Robert D., and Little, Richard. 1978. A Foreign-Policy Model of the Distribution of British Bilateral Aid, 1960–70. British Journal of Political Science 8 (3):313–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinlay, Robert D., and Little, Richard. 1979. The U.S. Aid Relationship: A Test of the Recipient Need and the Donor Interest Models. Political Studies 27 (2):236–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meernik, James. 1993. Presidential Support in Congress: Conflict and Consensus on Foreign and Defense Policy. Journal of Politics 55 (3):569–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meernik, James, and Oldmixon, Elizabeth. 2008. The President, the Senate, and the Costs of Internationalism. Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (2):187206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milner, Helen, and Tingley, Dustin. 2010. The Domestic Politics of Foreign Aid: American Legislators and the Politics of Donor Countries. Economics and Politics 22 (2):200–32Google Scholar
Most, Benjamin A., and Starr, Harvey. 1984. International Relations Theory, Foreign Policy Substitutability, and ‘Nice’ Laws. World Politics 36 (3):383406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, Douglas R., and Greenaway, David. 2006. The Distinct Political Economies of Trade and Migration Policy: Through the Window of Endogenous Policy Models, with a Focus on North America. In Labor Mobility and the World Economy, edited by Foders, Federico and Langhammer, Rolf J., 295327. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
Neuhaus, J. M., Kalbfleisch, J. D., and Hauck, W. W.. 1991. A Comparison of Cluster-Specific and Population-Averaged Approaches for Analyzing Correlated Binary Data. International Statistical Review 59 (1):2535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noël, Alain, and Thérien, Jean-Philippe. 1995. From Domestic to International Justice: The Welfare State and Foreign Aid. International Organization 49 (3):523–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noël, Alain, and Thérien, Jean-Philippe. 2008. Left and Right in Global Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 2007. Table 2a: Disbursements. Available at ⟨⟩. Accessed 30 March 2010.Google Scholar
O'Rourke, Kevin H., and Sinnott, Richard. 2001. The Determinants of Individual Trade Policy Preferences: International Survey Evidence. Brookings Trade Forum, 157206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palmer, Glenn., and Morgan, T. Clifton. 2006. A Theory of Foreign Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Palmer, Glenn, Wohlander, Scott B., and Morgan, T. Clifton. 2002. Give or Take: Foreign Aid and Foreign Policy Substitutability. Journal of Peace Research 39 (1):526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poole, Keith T., and Daniels, R. Steven. 1985. Ideology, Party, and Voting in the U.S. Congress, 1959–1980. American Political Science Review 97 (2):373–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regan, Patrick M. 2000. Substituting Policies During U.S. Interventions in Internal Conflicts: A Little of This, a Little of That. Journal of Conflict Resolution 44 (1):90106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodrik, Dani. 1998. Why Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments? Journal of Political Economy 106 (5):9971032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogowski, Ronald. 1989. Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rohde, David W. 2004. Roll Call Voting Data for the United States House of Representatives, 1953–2004. Compiled by the Political Institutions and Public Choice Program, East Lansing, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
Roscoe, Douglas D., and Jenkins, Shannon. 2005. A Meta-Analysis of Campaign Contributions' Impact on Roll Call Voting. Social Science Quarterly 86 (1):5268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosendorff, B. Peter, and Milner, Helen. 1996. Trade Negotiations, Information and Domestic Politics. Economics and Politics 8 (2):145–89.Google Scholar
Ruggie, John. 1982. International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order. International Organization 36 (2):379417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russett, Bruce. 1990. Controlling the Sword: The Democratic Governance of National Security. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheve, Kenneth F., and Slaughter, Matthew J.. 2001a. Labor Market Competition and Individual Preferences Over Immigration Policy. Review of Economics and Statistics 83 (1):133–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheve, Kenneth F., and Slaughter, Matthew J.. 2001b. What Determines Individual Trade-Policy Preferences? Journal of International Economics 54 (2):267–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schraeder, Peter J., Hook, Stephen W., and Taylor, Bruce. 1998. Clarifying the Foreign Aid Puzzle: A Comparison of American, Japanese, French, and Swedish Aid Flows. World Politics 50 (2):294323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, James M., and Carter, Ralph G.. 2002. Acting on the Hill: Congressional Assertiveness in U.S. Foreign Policy. Congress & the Presidency 29 (2):151–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sigelman, Lee. 1979. A Reassessment of the Two Presidencies Thesis. Journal of Politics 44 (4):1195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thérien, Jean-Philippe, and Noël, Alain. 2000. Political Parties and Foreign Aid. American Political Science Review 94 (1):151–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, Carol B. 2004. U.S. Trade with Africa: African Growth & Opportunity? Review of African Political Economy 31 (101):457–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilton, Douglas. 1998. U.S.-Africa Economic Initiatives. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Policy in Focus, 1 May.Google Scholar
Tingley, Dustin. 2010. Donors and Domestic Politics: Political Influences on Foreign Aid Commitments. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 50 (1):4049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trubowitz, Peter. 1998. Defining the National Interest: Conflict and Change in American Foreign Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Trubowitz, Peter, and Mellow, Nicole. 2005. ‘Going Bipartisan’: Politics by Other Means. Political Science Quarterly 120 (3):433–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uslaner, Eric M. 1998. Let the Chits Fall Where They May? Executive and Constituency Influences on Congressional Voting on NAFTA. Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (3):347–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walters, Ronald. 2004. The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Changing Foreign Policy Priorities Toward Africa in a Conservative Political Culture. In Diversity and U.S. Foreign Policy: A Reader, edited by III, Ernest J. Wilson, 288306. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Weissman, Stephen R. 1996. Culture of Deference: Congress's Failure of Leadership in Foreign Policy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Wildavsky, Aaron. 1966. The Two Presidencies. Trans-Action 4:714.Google Scholar
Wittkopf, Eugene R. 1990. Faces of Internationalism: Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Wolfowitz, Paul D. 1994. Clinton's First Year. Foreign Affairs 73 (1):2843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Trade Organization (WTO). 2006. “International Trade Statistics.” Geneva.Google Scholar
Younas, Javed. 2008. Motivation for Bilateral Aid Allocation: Altruism or Trade Benefits. European Journal of Political Economy 24 (3):661–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Who Supports Global Economic Engagement? The Sources of Preferences in American Foreign Economic Policy
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Who Supports Global Economic Engagement? The Sources of Preferences in American Foreign Economic Policy
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Who Supports Global Economic Engagement? The Sources of Preferences in American Foreign Economic Policy
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *