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Global prohibition regimes: the evolution of norms in international society

  • Ethan A. Nadelmann (a1)

The dynamics by which norms emerge and spread in international society have been the subject of strikingly little study. This article focuses on norms that prohibit, both in international law and in the domestic criminal laws of states, the involvement of state and nonstate actors in activities such as piracy, slavery, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, the hijacking of aircraft, and the killing of endangered animal species. It analyzes the manner in which these norms have evolved into and been institutionalized by global prohibition regimes and argues that there are two principal inducements to the formation and promotion of such regimes. The first is the inadequacy of unilateral and bilateral law enforcement measures in the face of criminal activities that transcend national borders. The second is the role of moral and emotional factors related to neither political nor economic advantage but instead involving religious beliefs, humanitarian sentiments, fears, prejudices, paternalism, faith in universalism, the individual conscience, and the compulsion to proselytize. The ultimate success or failure of an international regime in effectively suppressing a particular activity depends, however, not only on the degree of commitment to its norms or the extent of resources devoted to carrying out its goals but also on the vulnerability of the activity to its enforcement measures.

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1. Axelrod, Robert, “An Evolutionary Approach to Norms,” American Political Science Review 80 (12 1986), p. 1101.

2. For a discussion of international regimes in general, see Krasner, Stephen D., ed.. International Regimes (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983); Young, Oran R., International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989); Haggard, Stephan and Simmons, Beth A., “Theories of International Regimes,” International Organization 41 (Summer 1987), pp. 493–95; and Keohane, Robert O., After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984).

3. See Kindleberger, Charles P., “Hierarchy Versus Inertial Cooperation,” International Organization 40 (Autumn 1986), p. 845, in which much of the regime literature is criticized for ignoring the role of “conscience, duty, obligation, or such old-fashioned notions as noblesse oblige.”

4. The notion of “transnational moral entrepreneurs” conjoins Becker's concept of “moral entrepreneurs” and Huntington's notion of a “transnational organization.” Becker indicates that moral entrepreneurs are those who “operate with an absolute ethic” in seeking to create new rules to do away with a perceived great evil. See Becker, Howard, Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance (New York: Free Press, 1963), p. 148. Huntington states that a transnational organization is “a relatively large, hierarchically organized, centrally directed bureaucracy… [that] performs a set of relatively limited, specialized, and in some sense, technical functions… across one or more international boundaries and, insofar as it is possible, in relative disregard of those boundaries.” See Huntington, Samuel, “Transnational Organizations in World Politics,” World Politics 25 (04 1973), p. 333.

5. See Bassiouni, M. Cherif, ed., International Criminal Law (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 1986).

6. See Wight, Martin, “Western Values in International Relations,” in Butterfield, Herbert and Wight, Martin, eds., Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics (London: Allen & Unwin, 1966), pp. 89131; Bull, Hedley, “The Emergence of a Universal International Society,” in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam, eds., The Expansion of International Society (London: Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 117–26; and Mayall, James, “International Society and International Theory,” in Donelan, Michael, ed.. The Reason of States: A Study in International Political Theory (London: Allen & Unwin, 1978), pp. 122–41.

7. See Beitz, Charles, “Bounded Morality: Justice and the State in World Politics,” International Organization 33 (Summer 1979), pp. 405–24; and Keohane, , After Hegemony, pp. 247–51.

8. Mayall, James, “Introduction,” in Mayall, James, ed., The Community of States: A Study in International Political Theory (London: Allen & Unwin, 1982), p. 2.

9. The question of when a regime comes into existence, like the question of when a human being comes into existence, is a matter of debate. The answer is largely a function of how we define and make use of the term “regime.”

10. Young, , International Cooperation, pp. 76 and 203.

11. Global prohibition regimes that reach the fifth stage of development resemble other global regimes that have emerged since the mid-1800s to monitor, control, and prevent cholera, plague, yellow fever, smallpox, and other infectious diseases. For a fascinating analysis of how international cooperation against infectious diseases ultimately prevailed, see Cooper, Richard N., International Cooperation in Public Health as a Prologue to Macroeconomic Cooperation (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute, 1986).

12. See Thomson, Janice E., “Sovereignty in Historical Perspective: The Evolution of State Control over Extraterritorial Violence,” in Caparoso, James A., ed., The Elusive State (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1989), pp. 227–54.

13. See Jackson, Robert H., “Quasi-States, Dual Regimes, and Neoclassical Theory: International Jurisprudence and the Third World,” International Organization 41 (Autumn 1987), pp. 533–49.

14. States that are able and willing to employ totalitarian measures and states whose laws are bolstered by strong social sanctions are best able to suppress these types of criminal activities. International society, however, lacks both the potential to employ totalitarian methods and the cultural homogeneity that typically underlies powerful social sanctions.

15. For an overview of the subject, see Gosse, Philip, The History of Piracy (New York: Longmans, Green, 1932).

16. Schwarzenberger, Georg, “International Law,” in The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., vol. 21, p. 725.

17. Schwarzenberger, Georg, “The Problem of an International Criminal Law,” in Mueller, Gerhard O. W. and Wise, Edward M., eds., International Criminal Law (South Hackensack, N.J.: Fred B. Rothman, 1965), p. 6.

18. See Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 2, trans. Reynolds, Sian (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1976), pp. 865–91.

19. Ritchie, Robert C., Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986), p. 11.

20. Senior, C. M., A Nation of Pirates: English Piracy in Its Heyday (New York: Crane Russak, 1976), p. 149.

21. Ritchie, , Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates, pp. 152–54.

22. Senior, ANation of Pirates, p. 151.

23. Watson, Adam, “European International Society and Its Expansion,” in Bull, and Watson, , The Expansion of International Society, p. 25.

24. See, for example, Tarding, Nicholas, Piracy and Politics in the Malay World (Melbourne: F. W. Cheshire, 1963).

25. See Ward, Ralph T., Pirates in History (Baltimore, Md.: York Press, 1974), pp. 112–27; and Wolf, John B., The Barbary Coast (New York: Norton, 1979), pp. 299321.

26. Thomson, , “Sovereignty in Historical Perspective,” pp. 248–49.

27. Ward, , Pirates in History, p. 158.

28. Stark, Francis R., “The Abolition of Privateering and the Declaration of Paris,” dissertation, Columbia University, New York, 1897.

29. See, for example, Grummond, Jane Lucas de, Renato Beluche: Smuggler, Privateer, and Patriot, 1780–1860 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983).

30. Thomson, “Sovereignty in Historical Perspective.”

31. Benjamin Franklin, cited in Lucie-Smith, Edward, Outcasts of the Sea (New York: Paddington Press, 1978), p. 232.

32. Lord Nelson, cited in ibid.

33. Sir Piggott, Francis, The Declaration of Paris, 1856 (London: University of London Press, 1919), pp. 142–49.

34. “Privateer,” in The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., vol. 8, p. 713.

35. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, On the Social Contract, trans. Masters, Roger D. and Masters, Judith R. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978), p. 50.

36. That the regime was not codified in an international convention until the 1958 Convention on the High Seas may well be explained by the fact that global norms condemning piracy were so universally acknowledged by the middle of the nineteenth century that a convention would have been perceived as superfluous. Indeed, many states explicitly condemned other transnational activities, such as slave trading, by linking them with and even labeling them as piracy. See Dubner, Barry H., The Law of International Sea Piracy (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1980).

37. Ward, , Pirates in History, pp. 158–59.

38. Ibid.

39. See Mueller, G. O. W. and Adler, Freda, Outlaws of the Ocean (New York: Hearst Marine Books, 1985), pp. 131–57; and Captain Villar, Roger, Piracy Today: Robbery and Violence at Sea Since 1980 (London: Conway Maritime Press, 1985).

40. For an analysis of the British role, see Craton, Michael, Sinews of Empire: A Short History of British Slavery (Garden City, N.V.: Anchor Books, 1974). The figure often million is derived from Curtin, Philip D., The Atlantic Slave Trade (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), p. 268.

41. Klingberg, Frank J., The Anti-Slavery Movement in England: A Study in English Humanitarianism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1926; Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1968), p. 13.

42. See Miers, Suzanne, Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade (New York: Africans Publishing, 1975).

43. See Craton, , Sinews of Empire, pp. 289 and 378, fn. 8. See also Lloyd, Christopher, The Navy and the Slave Trade: The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century (London: Longmans, Green, 1949); and Ward, W. E. F., The Royal Navy and the Slavers: The Suppression of the Atlantic Slave Trade (London: Pantheon Books, 1970).

44. Miers, Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade.

45. See Bethell, Leslie, The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 327–63; and Adams, Jane Elizabeth, “The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade,” Journal of Negro History, vol. 10, 1925, pp. 607–17.

46. Nicolson, Harold, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity, 1812–1822 (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1946), pp. 209–14.

47. For a seminal exposition of this view, see Williams, Eric E., Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1942).

48. See Clarkson, Thomas, Essay on the Impolicy of the African Slave Trade (1788), excerpted in Craton, Michael, Walvin, James, and Wright, David, eds., Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation: Black Slaves and the British Empire (London: Longman, 1976), pp. 248–53.

49. See Drescher, Seymour, Econocide: British Slavery in the Era of Abolition (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977).

50. See SirCoupland, Reginald, The British Anti-Slavery Movement, 2d ed. (London: Frank Cass, 1964); Temperley, Howard, British Antislavery, 1833–1870 (London: Longman, 1972); Hunvitz, Edith, Politics and the Public Conscience: Slave Emancipation and the Abolitionist Movement in Britain (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973); Miers, Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade; Klingberg, The Anti-Slavery Movement in England; and Ray, James Lee, “The Abolition of Slavery and the End of International War,” International Organization 43 (Summer 1989), pp. 407–15. See also Davis, David Brion, Slavery and Human Progress (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), p. xviii, in which Davis argues that “the impetus behind British antislavery policies was mainly religious, though devout Victorians assumed that good economics was consistent with good religion.”

51. Hampson, Norman, The Enlightenment (Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books, 1968), p. 153.

52. See Seymour Drescher, “Public Opinion and the Destruction of British Colonial Slavery,” and Walvin, James, “The Propaganda of Anti-Slavery,” both in Walvin, James, ed., Slavery and British Society, 1776–1846 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982), pp. 2248 and 49–68, respectively.

53. See Coupland, , The British Anti-Slavery Movement, pp. 206–35; and Rice, C. Duncan, The Rise and Fall of Black Slavery (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975), p. 368.

54. See Miers, Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade.

55. Toledano, Ehud R., The Ottoman Slave Trade and Its Suppression, 1840–1890 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982).

56. Jennings, Lawrence C., French Reaction to British Slave Emancipation (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988), pp. 144–67.

57. DuBois, W. E. B., The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870 (New York: Longmans, Green, 1896), p. 162.

58. See Miers, , Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade, p. 31. See also Temperley, British Antislavery.

59. Miers, , Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade, p. 31.

60. The efforts of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in France are described by Jennings in French Reaction to British Slave Emancipation; those in the United States are described by Fladeland, Betty in Men and Brothers: Anglo-American Antislavery Cooperation (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972); and those in Brazil are briefly noted by Davis, in Slavery and Human Progress, pp. 291–98.

61. Davis, , Slavery and Human Progress, p. 304.

62. See Stewart, James Brewer, Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (New York: Hill & Wang, 1976), pp. 1123.

63. See Fladeland, Men and Brothers.

64. For a discussion of the spread of abolitionist principles in France, see Seeber, Edward Derbyshire, Anti-Slavery Opinion in France During the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1937); and McCoy, Shelby T., The Humanitarian Movement in Eighteenth-Century France (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1957), pp. 82128. For a general discussion, see Davis, David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1966).

65. Davis, , Slavery and Human Progress, p. 297.

66. See Scott, Rebecca J., Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labor, 1860–1899 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1985), p. 38; and Toplin, Robert Brent, The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil (New York: Atheneum, 1972), pp. 4142.

67. See Toplin, , The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil, pp. 4243 and 65; and Corwin, Arthur F., Spain and the Abolition of Slavery in Cuba, 1817–1886 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967).

68. Joaquim Nabuco, cited in Davis, , Slavery and Human Progress, p. 297.

69. Kennion, R. L., “Abolition of Slavery in Nepal,” Nineteenth Century, vol. 98, 1925, pp. 381–89.

70. Toledano, , The Ottoman Slave Trade and Its Suppression, pp. 272–78.

71. See Sawyer, Roger, Slavery in the Twentieth Century (New York: Routledge & Regan Paul, 1986); Sellin, J. Thorsten, Slavery and the Penal System (New York: Elsevier, 1976); and Patterson, Orlando, Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982).

72. The same can be said of some legal institutions, such as marriage, which in its more traditional incarnations gave a man the legal authority to use force against his wife and children. Like slavery, such institutions provide the authority necessary to sustain an ongoing coercive relationship between private individuals.

73. Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary defines extradition as “the surrender of an alleged criminal [usually] under the provisions of a treaty or statute by one state or other authority to another having jurisdiction to try the charge.” Rendition is a more general term which refers here to both extradition and the surrender of fugitives in the absence of a treaty or statute.

74. See Shearer, I. A., Extradition in International Law (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1971), p. 5, citing Langdon, S. and Gardner, A. H., Journal of Egyptian Archeology, vol. 6, 1920, p. 179.

75. Hugo Grotius, De jure belli ac pads, book 2, chap. 21, paragraphs 3 and 4; cited in Shearer, , Extradition in International Law, p. 21.

76. Shearer, , Extradition in International Law, p. 7.

77. See Sarkar, Lotika, “The Proper Law of Crime in International Law,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 11, 1962, p. 446; reprinted in Mueller and Wise, eds., International Criminal Law, p. 50.

78. Shearer, , Extradition in International Law, pp. 910.

79. See, for example, O'Higgins, Paul, “The History of Extradition in British Practice, 1174–1794,” Indian Yearbook of International Affairs, vol. 13, 1964, pp. 78115.

80. Thomas Jefferson, domestic letters, vol. 5, pp. 272–75; cited in Moore, John Bassett, A Treatise on Extradition and Interstate Rendition, vol. 1 (Boston: Boston Book Co., 1891), pp. 2829.

81. On the meaning and development of humanitarianism, see Brinton, Crane, “Humanitarianism,” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 7, 1932, pp. 544–49.

82. See Maestro, Marcello, Cesare Beccaria and the Origins of Penal Reform (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1973), pp. 125–43; Radzinowicz, Leon, A History of the English Criminal Law and Its Administration from 1750, vol. 1 (London: Stevens & Sons, 1948), pp. 277300; Wright, Gordon, Between the Guillotine and Liberty: Two Centuries of the Crime Problem in France (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 1023; Walker, Samuel, Popular Justice: A History of American Criminal Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), pp. 3740; and the collection of essays in Atti del convegno Internationale su Cesare Beccaria promosso dall'Accademia delle Scienze di Torino nel secondo centenario deU'opera “Dei deiitti e delle pene” (Turin, Italy: Academy of Science, 1966).

83. Brinton, Crane, A History of Western Morals (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1959), p. 324.

84. For a discussion of this development, see Nadelmann, Ethan A., “Cops Across Borders Transnational Crime and International Law Enforcement,” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University 1987, pp. 7187.

85. See Nadelmann, Ethan A., “The Role of the United States in the International Enforcemen of Criminal Law,” Harvard International Law Journal 31 (Winter 1990), pp. 3776.

86. For a dated but thorough discussion of this issue, see Rafuse, Robert W., The Extraditio of Nationals (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1939).

87. Personal interviews with U.S. and foreign government officials responsible for extradition relations, Washington, D.C., and European capitals, 1985–1990.

88. Nadelmann, Ethan A., “The DEA in Latin America: Dealing with Institutionalized Corruption,” Journal of lnteramerican Studies and World Affairs 29 (Winter 19871988), pp. 139.

89. See Nadelmann, , “The Role of the United States in the Internationial Enforcement of Criminal Law,” pp. 6769.

90. See Weil, Andrew, The Natural Mind (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), pp. 1738. One possible historical exception to this statement should be noted: the Eskimos, whose environment greatly limited their capacity to grow anything, are not known to have used psychoactive substances prior to their contact with Western civilizations.

91. See Abel, Ernest, Marijuana: The First Twelve Thousand Years (New York: Plenum Press, 1980); Terry, Charles E. and Pellens, Mildred, The Opium Problem (New York: Bureau of Social Hygiene, 1928), pp. 5361; Kennedy, Joseph, Coca Exotica (New York: Cornwall Books, 1985); Fairholt, F. W., Tobacco: Its History and Associations (London: Chapman & Hall, 1859); and Lewin, Louis, Phantastica: Narcotic and Stimulating Drugs, 2d ed., trans. Wirth, P. H. A. (London: Kegan Paul, 1931).

92. See Fairbank, John King, Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1953); Fay, P. W., The Opium War, 1840–1842 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975); and Inglis, Brian, The Opium War (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1976).

93. See Johnson, Bruce D., “Righteousness Before Revenue: The Forgotten Moral Crusade Against the Indo-Chinese Opium Trade,” Journal of Drug Issues 5 (Fall 1975), pp. 304–26; Lowes, Peter D., The Genesis of International Narcotics Control (Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1966), pp. 5884; and Harding, Geoffrey, Opiate Addiction, Morality and Medicine (London: Macmillan, 1988), pp. 3846.

94. See Brown, J. B., “Politics of the Poppy: The Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade, 1874–1916,” Journal of Contemporary History 8 (07 1973), pp. 97111. See also Berridge, Virginia and Edwards, Griffith, Opium and the People: Opiate Use in Nineteenth-Century England (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987), pp. 173–94.

95. Berridge, and Edwards, , Opium and the People, p. 198.

96. Johnson, “Righteousness Before Revenue.”

97. Taylor, Arnold H., American Diplomacy and the Narcotics Traffic, 1900–1939: A Study in International Humanitarian Reform (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1969), p. 29.

98. See Berridge, and Edwards, , Opium and the People, pp. 135–49; Morgan, H. Wayne, Drugs in America: A Social History, 1800–1980 (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1980), pp. 2228; and Jones, N. H., “A Critical Study of the Origins and Early Development of the Hypodermic Syringe,” Journal of the History of Medicine, vol. 2, 1947, pp. 201–49.

99. Latimer, Dean and Goldberg, Jeff, Flowers in the Blood: The Story of Opium (New York: Franklin Watts, 1981), pp. 179200.

100. See Grinspoon, Lester and Bakalar, James B., Cocaine: A Drug and Its Social Evolution, rev. ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1985); and Kennedy, Coca Exotica.

101. See Ashley, Richard, Cocaine: Its History, Uses and Effects (New York: Warner Books, 1975), pp. 5068; Phillips, Joel L. and Wynne, Ronald D., Cocaine: The Mystique and the Reality (New York: Avon Books, 1980), pp. 2770; and Kennedy, Coca Exotica.

102. See Young, James Harvey, The Toadstool Millionaires: A Social History of Patent Medicines in America Before Federal Regulation (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961).

103. See Berridge, and Edwards, , Opium and the People, pp. 113–70; and Erickson, Patricia G. et al. , The Steel Drug: Cocaine in Perspective (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1978), pp. 1119.

104. See Musto, David F., The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1973). The International Reform Bureau was, in the words of Crafts, Wilbur, “a bureau of lectures and literature, for enactment and enforcement of laws against all moral evils, especially the big five: intoxicants, sex abuses, gambling, pugilism, and commercialization of Sunday.” Cited in Cherrington, Ernest H., ed., Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Congress Against Alcoholism, Washington, D.C., 1921, p. 429.

105. Gusfield, Joseph R., Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1963), pp. 5157.

106. Courtwright, David, Dark Paradise: Opiate Addiction in America Before 1940 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982), pp. 3561.

107. Brecher, Edward M. et al. , Licit and Illicit Drugs (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), pp. 4243.

108. Musto, , The American Disease, p. 6.

109. See Williams, Edward H., “The Drug Menace in the South,” Medical Record, vol. 85, 1914, pp. 247–49; Phillips, and Wynne, , Cocaine, pp. 6470; and Morgan, , Drugs in America, pp. 9293.

110. See Himmelstein, Jerome L., The Strange Career of Marihuana: Politics and Ideology of Drug Control in America (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983); and Musto, , The American Disease, pp. 210–29.

111. See Musto, , The American Disease, p. 31. See also Taylor, , American Diplomacy and the Narcotics Traffic, p. 30.

112. Musto, , The American Dream, pp. 6667 and 190–93.

113. Ibid.

114. McWilliams, John C., The Protectors: Harry J. Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 1930–1962 (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1989).

115. See Kinder, Douglas Clark and Walker, William O. III, “Stable Force in a Storm: Harry J. Anslinger and United States Narcotic Foreign Policy, 1930–1962,” Journal of American History 72 (03 1986), pp. 908–27; and Bruun, Kettil, Pan, Lynn, and Rexed, Ingemar, The Gentlemen's Club: International Control of Drugs and Alcohol (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975), pp. 137–43.

116. In 1971, President Nixon declared that “drug traffic is public enemy number one domestically in the United States and we must wage a total offensive, worldwide, nationwide, government-wide, and, if I might say so, media-wide.” The heroin traffickers, he added, “are literally the slave traders of our time.… They are traffickers in Living Death [and] they must be hunted to the ends of the earth.” Cited in Epstein, Edward Jay, Agency of Fear: Opiates and Political Power in America (New York: Putnam, 1977), pp. 174 and 178.

117. See Bruun, , Pan, , and Rexed, , The Gentlemen's Club, pp. 113–31.

118. See Westermeyer, Joseph, “The Pro-Heroin Effects of Anti-Opium Laws in Asia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 33 (09 1976), pp. 1135–39; and Lindesmith, Alfred R., The Addict and the Law (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965), pp. 189221.

119. See Kennedy, Coca Exotica; Mortimer, W. Golden, History of Coca: “The Divine Plant” of the Incas (San Francisco: And/Or Press, 1974); Walker, William O. III, Drug Control in the Americas (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1981); and Strug, David L., “The Foreign Politics of Cocaine: Comments on a Plan to Eradicate the Coca Leaf in Peru,” in Pacini, Deborah and Franquemont, Christine, eds., Coca and Cocaine: Effects on People and Policy in Latin America (Cambridge, Mass.: Cultural Survival, 1985), pp. 7388.

120. U.S. officials played a crucial role in the decision to prohibit cannabis in the 1961 Single Convention, having earlier lobbied successfully for resolutions urging countries to stop using cannabis for medical reasons and identifying cannabis as a dangerous drug. For a description of the U.S. efforts, see Bruun, Pan, and Rexed, , The Gentlemen's Club, pp. 181203. For a discussion of the scientific evidence regarding marijuana, see Grinspoon, Lester, Marihuana Reconsidered, 2d ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977); Lasagna, Louis and Lindzey, Gardner, “Marijuana Policy and Drug Mythology,” Society 20 (0102 1983), pp. 6780; National Commission on Marijuana, and Abuse, Drug, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding (New York: Signet, 1972); and Institute of Medicine, , Marijuana and Health (Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine, 1983).

121. See British Home Office, Tackling Drug Misuse: A Summary of the Government's Strategy (London: Home Office, 1988); Trebach, The Heroin Solution; Wijngaart, Govert F. van de, ”A Social History of Drug Use in the Netherlands: Policy Outcomes and Implications,” Journal of Drug Issues 18 (Summer 1988), pp. 481–95; and Kaplan, Charles D., “The Uneasy Consensus: Prohibitionist and Experimentalist Expectancies Behind the International Narcotics Control System,” Tijdschrift voor Criminologie 26 (0102 1984), pp. 98109. Additional information was obtained from personal interviews with Dutch and British drug authorities in Amsterdam, The Hague, London, and Washington, D.C., 1987–1990.

122. Nadelmann, , “Cops Across Borders,” pp. 229–96.

123. Bruun, , Pan, , and Rexed, , The Gentlemen's Club, pp. 165–80.

124. Iceland banned all wines and spirits from 1908 to 1934, Russia from 1914 to 1924, Norway from 1916 to 1927, and Finland from 1919 to 1932. Absinthe, the liqueur made from wormwood and various herbs, was banned after the turn of the century in a number of countries, including Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, France, and the United States. See Conrad, Barbaby III, Absinthe: History in a Bottle (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1988). For a discussion of antialcohol sentiment, see Gordon, Ernest, The Anti-Alcohol Movement in Europe (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1913); and reports of the annual proceedings of the International Congress Against Alcoholism.

125. See Wuorinen, John H., The Prohibition Experiment in Finland (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931), pp. 211–23; Kottman, Richard N., “Volstead Violated: Prohibition as a Factor in Canadian-American Relations,” Canadian Historical Review 43 (06 1962), pp. 106–26; and Pan, Lynn, Alcohol in Colonial Africa (Helsinki: Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, 1975).

126. Aldrich, Michael R. and Barker, Robert W., “Historical Aspects of Cocaine Use and Abuse,” in Mulé, S. J. ed., Cocaine: Chemical, Biological, Clinical, Social and Treatment Aspects (Cleveland, Ohio: CRC Press, 1976), pp. 112.

127. See, for example, Rubin, Vera and Comitas, Lambros, Ganja in Jamaica (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 2035; Fisher, James, “Cannabis in Nepal: An Overview,” in Rubin, Vera, Cannabis and Culture (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 247–55; and Kruse, Sysette Vinding, ”Drug Criminality from a Legal Point of View,” in Stangeland, Per, ed., Drugs and Drug Control (Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1987), pp. 3452.

128. See Brecher, et al. , Licit and Illicit Drugs, pp. 195–98; Troyer, Ronald J. and Markle, Gerald E., Cigarettes: The Battle over Smoking (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1983), p. 34; and Rorabaugh, W. J., The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 100101.

129. See Allen, Catherine J., “Coca and Cultural Identity in Andean Communities,” in Pacini, and Franquemont, , Coca and Cocaine, pp. 3548.

130. See Westermeyer, , “The Pro-Heroin Effects of Anti-Opium Laws in Asia”; and Lindesmith, Alfred R., The Addict and the Law (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965), pp. 189221.

131. Kaplan, John, The Hardest Drug: Heroin and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), p. 142.

132. For analyses suggesting that the global drug control regime should develop in this direction, see the following articles by Nadelmann, Ethan A.: “Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs, Consequences and Alternatives,” Science 245 (09 1989), pp. 939–47; U.S. Drug Policy: A Bad Export,” Foreign Policy 70 (Spring 1988), pp. 83108; and The Case for Legalization,” The Public Interest 92 (Summer 1988), pp. 331.

133. For a discussion of the origins of the term “white slavery,” see Bristow, Edward J., Prostitution and Prejudice: The Jewish Fight Against White Slavery, 1870–1939 (New York: Schocken Books, 1982), pp. 3538; and Bullough, Vern and Bullough, Bonnie, Women and Prostitution: A Social History (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1987), p. 265.

134. Bullough, and Bullough, , Women and Prostitution, pp. 263–64.

135. See Bristow, , Prostitution and Prejudice, pp. 3637; and Bristow, Edward J., Vice and Vigilance (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1977).

136. Bullough, and Bullough, , Women and Prostitution, p. 263.

137. See Petrie, Glen, A Singular Iniquity: The Campaigns of Josephine Butler (New York: Viking Press, 1971). For discussions of Butler's travels to Italy and France, see Gibson, Mary, Prostitution and the State in Italy, 1860–1915 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1986), pp. 41–48 ; and Harsin, Jill, Policing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century Paris (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 324–25.

138. See McHugh, Paul, Prostitution and Victorian Social Reform (London: Croom Helm, 1980), pp. 104–6.

139. Rosen argues that the leading study of prostitution during the mid-nineteenth century, William Sanger's History of Prostitution: Its Extent, Causes, and Effects Throughout the World, “supported growing xenophobic attitudes [in following decades] by underscoring that most prostitutes were recent immigrants.” See Rosen, Ruth, The Lost Sisterhood: Prostitution in America, 1900–1918 (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982), p. 10. Anti-Semites made much of the Jewish involvement in the white slave trade, depicting Jews as the principal organizers of the traffic. See Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice.

140. Hobson, Barbara Meil, Uneasy Virtue: The Politics of Prostitution and the American Reform Tradition (New York: Basic Books, 1987), p. 142.

141. See Winnick, Charles and Kinsie, Paul M., The Lively Commerce: Prostitution in the United States (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971), pp. 269–80; and Bristow, , Vice and Vigilance, pp. 175–99.

142. Pheterson, Gail, ed., A Vindication of the Rights of Whores (Seattle: Seal Press, 1989), p. 12.

143. Ibid.

144. Bristow, , Prostitution and Prejudice, p. 320.

145. Japanese organized criminals known as the Yakuza are active in importing women into Japan for employment as prostitutes. In other East Asian countries, notably Taiwan, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, women are recruited from the countryside to work in urban brothels, where they entertain men from Japan and elsewhere who are visiting their countries on “sex tours.” See Kaplan, David E. and Dubro, Alec, Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan's Criminal Underworld (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1986), pp. 200208.

146. Bullough, and Bullough, , Women and Prostitution, pp. 290301.

147. Ibid., p. 301.

148. For a history of whaling regulation, see Scarff, James E., “The International Management of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises: An Interdisciplinary Assessment,” Ecology Law Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, 1977, pp. 343–72; and Larson, Scott T., “United States Whale Policy: The Judiciary Casts Its Vote in Favor of a Moderate Approach,” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 20 (01 1987), pp. 125–31.

149. Dean Acheson, cited in M'Gonigle, R. Michael, “The ‘Economizing’ of Ecology: Why Big, Rare Whales Still Die,” Ecology Law Quarterly, vol. 9, no. 1, 1980, p. 132.

150. See McNally, Robert, So Remorseless a Havoc (Boston: Little, Brown, 1981), pp. 369.

151. Scarff, , “The International Management of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises,” p. 384.

152. For a highly sympathetic account of Greenpeace, see Day, David, The Whale War (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1987).

153. Ibid. See also Sutter, Keith D., “The International Politics of Saving the Whale,” Australian Outlook 35 (12 1981), pp. 283–94.

154. Larson, , “United States Whale Policy,” pp. 131–35.

155. Day, , The Whale War, pp. 1519.

156. Ibid. For a provocative analysis suggesting that transnational organizations such as Greenpeace may be more effective in achieving environmentalist objectives than the more traditional intergovernmental negotiations, see Mandel, Robert, “Transnational Resource Conflict: The Politics of Whaling,” International Studies Quarterly 24 (03 1980), pp. 99127.

157. See Birnie, Patricia, “The Role of Developing Countries in Nudging the International Whaling Commission from Regulating Whaling to Encouraging Nonconsumptive Uses of Whales,” Ecology Law Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 4, 1985, pp. 966–67. During the 1960s, whale meat replaced baleen (whalebone) and oil as the primary consumptive use of baleen whales; the principal market is Japan. The oil of the sperm whale, once valued as a fuel before petroleum became readily available in the 1860s, is now used mainly as a high-grade machine lubricant. See Scarff, , ”The International Management of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises,” pp. 341–42. Whale oil is also converted into soaps and fatty acids, which are used in cosmetics and detergents.

158. See Wiirsig, Bernd, “Cetaceans,” Science 244 (06 1989), pp. 1550–57; and Simons, Marlise, “Fish Nets Trap Dolphins in the Mediterranean, Too,” The New York Times, 6 09 1989, p. Al.

159. See, however, Shabecoff, Philip, “Three Companies to Stop Selling Tuna Caught with Dolphins,” The New York Times, 13 04 1990, p. Al.

160. Perlez, Jane, “Can He Save the Elephants?” The New York Times Magazine, 7 01 1990, p. 28.

161. For a general discussion, see Glennon, Michael J., “Has International Law Failed the Elephant?American Journal of International Law 84 (01 1990), pp. 143. For a debate of the issue, see Simmons, Randy and Kreuter, Urs, “Save an Elephant–Buy Ivory,” The Washington Post, 1 10 1989, p. D3; and Sutton, Michael, “Don't Let Them Buy Ivory,” The Washington Post, 9 10 1989, p. A2I.

162. See Parker, Ian and Amin, Mohamed, Ivory Crisis (London: Hogarth Press, 1983), p. 8.

163. Ibid.

164. Cherfas, Jeremy, “Decision Time on African Ivory Trade,” Science 246 (10 1989), p. 26.

165. Nuttall, Nick, “Artificial Ivory Promised Soon,” London Times, 25 08 1989.

166. Perlez, Jane, “Devaluing the Tusk,” The New York Times Magazine, 7 01 1990, p. 30.

167. Parker, and Amin, , Ivory Crisis, pp. 79 and 149.

168. Perlez, Jane, “Kenya, in Gesture, Burns Ivory Tusks,” The New York Times, 19 07 1989, p. A5.

169. Glennon, , “Has International Law Failed the Elephant?” pp. 208–9.

170. See, for example, Moore, W. John, “Global Reach,” National Journal, 11 02 1989, pp. 326–31; Nadelmann, Ethan A., “Unlaundering Dirty Money Abroad: U.S. Foreign Policy and Financial Secrecy Jurisdictions,” Inter-American Law Review 18 (Fall 1986), pp. 3382; and Moessle, Klaus P., “The Basic Structure of United States Securities Law Enforcement in International Cases,” California Western International Law Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, 1986, pp. 151.

171. See Muller-Rappard, Ekkehart, “Judicial Assistance and Mutual Cooperation in Penal Matters: The European System,” in Bassiouni, , International Criminal Law, vol. 2, pp. 93115.

172. See the following works of Young, Oran R.: “The Politics of International Regime Formation: Managing Resources and the Environment,” International Organization 43 (Summer 1989), pp. 349–75; Resource Regimes: Natural Resources and Social Institutions (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982); and International Cooperation. See also McCaffrey, Stephen C., “Crimes Against the Environment,” in Bassiouni, , International Criminal Law, vol. 1, pp. 541–61.

173. See Taylor, Peter, The Smoke Ring: Tobacco, Money and Multinational Politics (New York: Mentor, 1985).

174. See Nath, Uma Ram, Smoking: Third World Alert (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

175. Packer, Herbert L., The Limits of the Criminal Sanction (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1968).

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