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    Merrill, David A. Siddarth, Prabha Raji, Cyrus A. Emerson, Natacha D. Rueda, Florangel Ercoli, Linda M. Miller, Karen J. Lavretsky, Helen Harris, Laurel M. Burggren, Alison C. Bookheimer, Susan Y. Barrio, Jorge R. and Small, Gary W. 2016. Modifiable Risk Factors and Brain Positron Emission Tomography Measures of Amyloid and Tau in Nondemented Adults with Memory Complaints. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,

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Healthy behavior and memory self-reports in young, middle-aged, and older adults

  • Gary W. Small (a1), Prabha Siddarth (a1), Linda M. Ercoli (a1), Stephen T. Chen (a1), David A. Merrill (a1) and Fernando Torres-Gil (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 21 February 2013

Background: Previous research has shown that healthy behaviors, such as regular physical exercise, a nutritious diet, and not smoking, are associated with a lower risk for Alzheimer's disease and dementia. However, less is known about the potential link between healthy behaviors and mild memory symptoms that may precede dementia in different age groups.

Methods: A daily telephone survey (Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index) of US residents yielded a random sample of 18,552 respondents ranging in age from 18 to 99 years, including 4,423 younger (age 18–39 years), 6,356 middle-aged (40–59 years), and 7,773 older (60–99 years) adults. The questionnaire included demographic information and the Healthy Behavior Index (questions on smoking, eating habits, and frequency of exercise). General linear models and logistic regressions were used in the analysis.

Results: Older adults were more likely to report healthy behaviors than were middle-aged and younger adults. Reports of memory problems increased with age (14% of younger, 22% of middle-aged, and 26% of older adults) and were inversely related to the Healthy Behavior Index. Reports of healthy eating were associated with better memory self-reports regardless of age, while not smoking was associated with better memory reports in the younger and middle-aged and reported regular exercise with better memory in the middle-aged and older groups.

Conclusions: These findings indicate a relationship between reports of healthy behaviors and better self-perceived memory abilities throughout adult life, suggesting that lifestyle behavior habits may protect brain health and possibly delay the onset of memory symptoms as people age.

Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Gary W. Small, Semel Institute, Suite 38-251, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Phone: +1 310-825-0291; Fax: +1 310-825-3910. Email:
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International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
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