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Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

  • Lenis P. Chen-Edinboro (a1), Christopher N. Kaufmann (a1), Jura L. Augustinavicius (a1), Ramin Mojtabai (a1) (a2), Jeanine M. Parisi (a1), Alexandra M. V. Wennberg (a1), Michael T. Smith (a2) and Adam P. Spira (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Background:

We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years.

Methods:

Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested).

Results:

After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15).

Conclusions:

Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr Lenis P. Chen-Edinboro, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, Rm. 884, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Phone: +1-410-502-2066; Fax: +1-410-614-7469. Email: lchen78@jhu.edu.

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Keywords

Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

  • Lenis P. Chen-Edinboro (a1), Christopher N. Kaufmann (a1), Jura L. Augustinavicius (a1), Ramin Mojtabai (a1) (a2), Jeanine M. Parisi (a1), Alexandra M. V. Wennberg (a1), Michael T. Smith (a2) and Adam P. Spira (a1) (a2)...

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