Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Tiwari, Vishvanath and Khokhar, Manoj 2014. Mechanism of action of anti-hypercholesterolemia drugs and their resistance. European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 741, p. 156.


    Todd, Stephen Barr, Stephen Roberts, Mark and Passmore, A Peter 2013. Survival in dementia and predictors of mortality: a review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, p. n/a.


    2009. Current awareness in geriatric psychiatry. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 24, Issue. 8, p. i.


    Meng, Xiangfei and D'Arcy, Carl 2013. Mortality and morbidity hazards associated with cognitive status in seniors: A Canadian population prospective cohort study. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. 175.


    Kamat, Sanjeev M. Kamat, Anjali S. and Grossberg, George T. 2010. Dementia Risk Prediction: Are We There Yet?. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 113.


    Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur Doggui, Sihem Dao, Lé and Ramassamy, Charles 2011. Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and Degenerative Disease Prevention.


    Nunes, Belina Silva, Ricardo D Cruz, Vitor T Roriz, Jose M Pais, Joana and Silva, Maria C 2010. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. BMC Neurology, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,


    Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique De Paula, Andre Maues Gavaudan, Gilles Bartoli, Christophe Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure Leonetti, Georges and Pellissier, Jean-François 2010. Interpretation of neuropathological lesions: Its limitations in medico-legal experts’ reports. Forensic Science International, Vol. 194, Issue. 1-3, p. e1.


    Shpanskaya, Katie S. Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy Hostage, Christopher Murphy, Kelly R. Petrella, Jeffrey R. and Doraiswamy, P. Murali 2014. Educational attainment and hippocampal atrophy in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative cohort. Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. 41, Issue. 5, p. 350.


    Lojo-Seoane, Cristina Facal, David and Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo 2012. ¿Previene la actividad intelectual el deterioro cognitivo? Relaciones entre reserva cognitiva y deterioro cognitivo ligero. Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, Vol. 47, Issue. 6, p. 270.


    Strand, Bjørn Heine Langballe, Ellen Melbye Rosness, Tor A. Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina Engedal, Knut Nafstad, Per Tell, Grethe S. Ormstad, Heidi Tambs, Kristian and Bjertness, Espen 2014. Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol. 345, Issue. 1-2, p. 75.


    Pistollato, Francesca Cavanaugh, Sarah E. and Chandrasekera, P. Charukeshi 2015. A Human-Based Integrated Framework forAlzheimer’s Disease Research. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 47, Issue. 4, p. 857.


    Vemuri, P. Weigand, S. D. Przybelski, S. A. Knopman, D. S. Smith, G. E. Trojanowski, J. Q. Shaw, L. M. Decarli, C. S. Carmichael, O. Bernstein, M. A. Aisen, P. S. Weiner, M. Petersen, R. C. and Jack, C. R. 2011. Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are independent determinants of cognition. Brain, Vol. 134, Issue. 5, p. 1479.


    Li, Shaomin Jin, Ming Zhang, Dainan Yang, Ting Koeglsperger, Thomas Fu, Hongjun and Selkoe, Dennis J. 2013. Environmental Novelty Activates β2-Adrenergic Signaling to Prevent the Impairment of Hippocampal LTP by Aβ Oligomers. Neuron, Vol. 77, Issue. 5, p. 929.


    Perneczky, R. Alexopoulos, P. Schmid, G. Sorg, C. Förstl, H. Diehl-Schmid, J. and Kurz, A. 2011. Kognitive Reservekapazität und ihre Bedeutung für Auftreten und Verlauf der Demenz. Der Nervenarzt, Vol. 82, Issue. 3, p. 325.


    Degerman Gunnarsson, M. Lannfelt, L. Ingelsson, M. Basun, H. and Kilander, L. 2014. High Tau Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid Predict Rapid Decline and Increased Dementia Mortality in Alzheimer's Disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, Vol. 37, Issue. 3-4, p. 196.


    Lacny, Catherine Kirk, Andrew Morgan, Debra G. and Karunanayake, Chandima 2012. Predictors of Cognitive Impairment Severity in Rural Patients at a Memory Clinic. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Vol. 39, Issue. 06, p. 774.


    Zhang, Yi Qiu, Chengxuan Lindberg, Olof Bronge, Lena Aspelin, Peter Bäckman, Lars Fratiglioni, Laura and Wahlund, Lars-Olof 2010. Acceleration of hippocampal atrophy in a non-demented elderly population: the SNAC-K study. International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 22, Issue. 01, p. 14.


    Agüera-Ortiz, Luis Frank-García, Ana Gil, Pedro and Moreno, Alfonso 2010. Clinical progression of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden: a 12-month multicenter prospective observational study. International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 22, Issue. 08, p. 1265.


    Maller, Jerome J. Thomson, Richard H.S. Lewis, Philip M. Rose, Stephen E. Pannek, Kerstin and Fitzgerald, Paul B. 2010. Traumatic brain injury, major depression, and diffusion tensor imaging: Making connections. Brain Research Reviews, Vol. 64, Issue. 1, p. 213.


    ×

Systematic review of the effect of education on survival in Alzheimer's disease

  • Matt Paradise (a1), Claudia Cooper (a1) and Gill Livingston (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610208008053
  • Published online: 01 February 2009
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Background: According to the cognitive reserve model, higher levels of education compensate for the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), delaying its clinical manifestations. This model suggests that for any level of cognitive impairment, people with more education have worse neuropathology than those with less education and will therefore have shorter survival post-diagnosis. This is the first systematic review of the relationship between more education and decreased survival in people with AD.

Methods: We reviewed the literature systematically, searching electronic databases and reference lists of included studies. We used Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria for inclusion and rating of the validity of cohort studies that reported the relationship of education to survival in people with AD.

Results: 22 studies met inclusion criteria. We found Grade A evidence (highest evidence level) that more education was not associated with decreased survival post-diagnosis in AD. Only one of 11 studies rated 1b (highest level of quality) supported our hypothesis that more education predicted reduced survival after adjusting for age, gender and dementia severity; it comprised African-Caribbean participants, who had on average more severe cognitive impairment than other studies' participants.

Conclusions: Education delays the onset of the dementia syndrome in AD, but does not lead to earlier death after diagnosis.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Matt Paradise, Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, Holborn Union Building, Archway Campus, Highgate Hill, London, N19 5LW, U.K. Phone: +44 (0) 207 2885931 Email: mattparadise7@gmail.com.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

H. Agüero-Torres , L. Fratiglioni , Z. Guo , M. Viitanen and B. Winblad (1998). Prognostic factors in very old demented adults: a seven-year follow-up from a population-based survey in Stockholm. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 444452.

D. A. Bennett (2003). Education modifies the relation of AD pathology to level of cognitive function in older persons. Neurology, 60, 19091915.

J. D. Bowen (1996). Predictors of mortality in patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 47, 433439.

J. C. Brehaut , P. Raina and J. Lindsay (2004). Does cognitive status modify the relationship between education and mortality? Evidence from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. International Psychogeriatrics, 16, 7591.

A. Bruandet (2008). Cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease according to education level. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25, 7480.

J. J. Claus (1998). Predicting survival in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 9, 284293.

L. Fratiglioni (1991). Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in an elderly urban population: relationship with age, sex, and education. Neurology, 41, 18861892.

S. Freels , D. L. Nyenhuis and P. B. Gorelick (2002). Predictors of survival in African American patients with AD, VaD, or stroke without dementia. Neurology, 59, 11461153.

T. Fritsch (2001). Effects of educational attainment on the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease: results from a research registry. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 16, 369376.

M. Ganguli , H. H. Dodge , C. Shen , R. S. Pandav and S. T. DeKosky (2005). Alzheimer disease and mortality: a 15-year epidemiological study. Archives of Neurology, 62, 779784.

M. I. Geerlings , D. J. Deeg , B. Schmand , J. Lindeboom and C. Jonker (1997). Increased risk of mortality in Alzheimer's disease patients with higher education? A replication study. Neurology, 49, 798802.

M. I. Geerlings (1999). Cognitive reserve and mortality in dementia: the role of cognition, functional ability and depression. Psychological Medicine, 29, 12191226.

J. M. Guralnik , K. C. Land , D. Blazer , G. G. Fillenbaum and L. G. Branch (1993) Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 110116

C. Helmer , P. Joly , L. Letenneur , D. Commenges and J. F. Dartigues (2001). Mortality with dementia: results from a French prospective community-based cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 642648.

A. Heyman , B. Peterson , G. Fillenbaum and C. Pieper (1996). The consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD). Part XIV: Demographic and clinical predictors of survival in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 46, 656660.

D. B. Hier , J. D. Warach , P. B. Gorelick and J. Thomas (1989). Predictors of survival in clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Archives of Neurology, 46, 12131216.

J. S. Hui , R. S. Wilson , D. A. Bennett , J. L. Bienias , D. W. Gilley and D. A. Evans (2003). Rate of cognitive decline and mortality in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 61, 13561361.

S. K. Hussain , A. Altieri , J. Sundquist and K. Hemminki (2008). Influence of education level on breast cancer risk and survival in Sweden between 1990 and 2004. International Journal of Cancer, 122, 165169.

R. Katzman (1993). Education and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 43, 1320.

E. B. Larson (2004). Survival after initial diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 501509.

G. Livingston , G. Leavey , G. Kitchen , M. Manela , S. Sembhi and C. Katona (2001). Mental health of migrant elders: the Islington study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 361366.

O. L. Lopez , R. P. Brenner , J. T. Becker , R. F. Ulrich , F. Boller and S. T. DeKosky (1997). EEG spectral abnormalities and psychosis as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in probable Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 48, 15211525.

D. J. Moritz , P. J. Fox , F. A. Luscombe and H. C. Kraemer (1997). Neurological and psychiatric predictors of mortality in patients with Alzheimer disease in California. Archives of Neurology, 54, 878885.

V. N. Pavlik , R. S. Doody , P. J. Massman and W. Chan (2006). Influence of premorbid IQ and education on progression of Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22, 367377.

C. Qiu , L. Backman , B. Winblad , H. Agüero-Torres and L. Fratiglioni (2001). The influence of education on clinically diagnosed dementia incidence and mortality data from the Kungsholmen Project. Archives of Neurology, 58, 20342039.

C. Regan , C. Katona , Z. Walker , J. Hooper , J. Donovan and G. Livingston (2006). Relationship of vascular risk to the progression of Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 67, 13571362.

C. M. Roe , C. Xiong , J. P. Miller and J. C. Morris (2007). Education and Alzheimer disease without dementia: support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis. Neurology, 68, 223228.

B. Satz (1993). Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: a formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory. Neuropsychology, 7, 273295.

B. S. Schoenberg , E. Kokmen and H. Okazaki (1987). Alzheimer's disease and other dementing illnesses in a defined United States population: incidence rates and clinical features. Annals of Neurology, 22, 724729.

K. Steenland , J Henley and M. Thun (2002). All-cause and cause-specific death rates by educational status for two million people in two American Cancer Society cohorts, 1959–1996. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 1121.

Y. Stern , G. E. Alexander , I. Prohovnik and R. Mayeux (1992). Inverse relationship between education and parietotemporal perfusion deficit in Alzheimer's disease. Annals of Neurology, 32, 371375.

Y. Stern , M. X. Tang , J. Denaro and R. Mayeux (1995). Increased risk of mortality in Alzheimer's disease patients with more advanced educational and occupational attainment. Annals of Neurology, 37, 590595.

X. Tang (2001). Incidence of AD in African-Americans, Caribbean Hispanics, and Caucasians in northern Manhattan. Neurology, 56, 4956.

P. T. van Dijk , D. W. Dippel and J. D. Habbema (1991). Survival of patients with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 39, 603610.

J. S. Walsh , H. G. Welch and E. B. Larson (1990). Survival of outpatients with Alzheimer-type dementia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 429434.

R. S. Wilson (2006). Cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 356362.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: