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Irish republican women in Australia: Kathleen Barry and Linda Kearns's tour in 1924–5

  • Dianne Hall (a1)

Abstract

The 1924–5 fundraising tour in Australia by republican activists, Kathleen Barry and Linda Kearns, although successful, has received little attention from historians, more focused on the controversial tour of Fr Michael O'Flanagan and J. J. O'Kelly the previous year. While O'Flanagan and O'Kelly's tour ended with their deportation, Barry and Kearns successfully navigated the different agendas of Irish-Australian political and social groups to organise speaking engagements and raise considerable funds for the Irish Republican Prisoners’ Dependants' Fund. The women were experienced republican activists, however on their Australian tour they placed themselves firmly in traditional female patriotic roles, as nurturers and supporters of men fighting for Irish freedom. This article analyses their strategic use of gendered expectations to allay suspicions about their political agenda to successfully raise money and negotiate with political and ecclesiastical leaders.

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Corresponding author

*College of Arts and Education, Victoria University, Australia, Dianne.hall@vu.edu.au

References

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1 The Truth (Brisbane, Queensland), 18 Jan. 1925.

2 Bundaberg Mail (Queensland), 26 Jan. 1925.

3 An exception is Whitaker, Anne-Marie, ‘Linda Kearns and Kathleen Barry Irish republican fundraising tour, 1924–25’ in Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society, xxxvii, no. 2 (2016), pp 208–11.

4 Eichacker, Joanne Mooney, Irish republican women in America: lecture tours, 1916–1925 (Dublin, 2003); O'Farrell, Patrick, The Irish in Australia (3rd ed., Sydney, 2000), p. 293.

5 Finnane, Mark, ‘Deporting the Irish envoys: domestic and national security in 1920s Australia’ in Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History, xli, no. 3 (2013), p. 416.

6 Keogh, Dermot, ‘Mannix, De Valera and Irish nationalism, part ii’ in Australasian Catholic Record, lxv (1988), p. 347. He does not mention the tour in Keogh, Dermot, ‘Mannix, memory and Irish independence’ in Noone, Val and Naughton, Rachel (eds), Daniel Mannix: his legacy (Melbourne, 2014), pp 3594.

7 Finnane suggests that less than £200 was raised in the first weeks of the Irish envoys’ campaign (Finnane, ‘Deporting the Irish envoys’, p. 409). For the Redmond brothers’ tour in 1883, see Jeff Kildea, ‘The Redmond brothers’ Australian tour 1883: a narrative account’, p. 38 (https://jeffkildea.com/articles/) (29 Mar. 2017). For Irish home rule party fundraising tours in South Australia, including that of William Redmond in 1912, see Fidelma Breen, ‘“Yet we are told that Australians do not sympathise with Ireland”: a study of South Australian support for Irish home rule, 1883 to 1912’ (M.A. thesis, University of Adelaide, 2013), pp 161–9.

8 For overviews of recent scholarship on revolutionary women, see Coleman, Marie, ‘Compensating Irish female revolutionaries, 1916–1923’ in Women's History Review, xxvi, no. 6 (2016), pp 915–34; Ryan, Louise, ‘Splendidly silent: representing Irish Republican women, 1919–23’ in Gallagher, Ann-Maree, Lubelska, Cathy and Ryan, Louise (eds), Re-presenting the past: women and history (Harlow, 2001), p. 30.

9 Morrison, Eve, ‘The Bureau of Military History and female republican activism, 1913–1923’ in Valiulis, Maryann Gialanella (ed.), Gender and power in Irish history (Dublin, 2009), pp 5983.

10 Kiernan, Colm, ‘Home rule for Ireland and the formation of the Australian Labor Party, 1883–91’ in Australian Journal of Politics & History, xxxviii, no. 1 (Apr. 1992), pp 111. See also Malcolm, Elizabeth and Hall, Dianne, A new history of the Irish in Australia (Sydney, 2018), pp 308–9.

11 Overlack, Peter, ‘“Easter 1916” in Dublin and the Australian press: background and response’ in Journal of Australian Studies, xxi, nos 54–5 (1997), pp 188–93.

12 O'Farrell, The Irish in Australia, pp 288–91; Campbell, Malcolm, ‘Emigrant responses to war and revolution, 1914–21: Irish opinion in the United States and Australia’ in I.H.S., xxxii, no. 125 (May 2000), pp 7592.

13 Catholic Press (Sydney), 5 Jan. 1922.

14 The Advocate (Melbourne), 7 Dec. 1922.

15 O'Farrell, Patrick, ‘The Irish Republican Brotherhood in Australia: the 1918 internments’ in Donagh, Oliver Mac, Mandle, W. F. and Travers, Pauric (eds), Irish culture and nationalism, 1750–1950 (London, 1983), pp 182–93; O'Farrell, Patrick, ‘A. T. Dryer and the Irish National Association, Sydney, 1915–16’ in Gray, Peter (ed.), Passing the torch (Sydney, 2005), pp 6386; Whitaker, Anne-Maree, ‘Irish War of Independence veterans in Australia’ in Davis, Richard et al. (eds), Irish-Australian studies: papers delivered at the eighth Irish-Australian conference, Hobart 1995 (Sydney, 1996), pp 413–20.

16 V. J. Collins, ‘“A one-battalioned mind”: Albert Thomas Dryer (1888–1963): identity, culture and politics’ (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 2013).

17 For the I.N.A., see Albert Dryer, ‘History of the movement in Australia for independence of Ireland, 1915–1925’, 21 Aug. 1956 (Military Archives of Ireland, Bureau of Military History (hereafter M.A.I., B.M.H.), W.S. 1526).

18 Hopkinson, Michael, Green against green: the Irish Civil War (2nd ed., Dublin, 2004), p. 254.

19 Brisbane Courier (Queensland), 28 May 1923.

20 Archbishop Duhig to W. T. Cosgrave, 24 July 1924 (N.A.I., TSCH/S1369/21).

21 James O'Flaherty, Adelaide, to Kathleen Barry and Linda Kearns, 19 Jan. 1925 (University College Dublin Archives (hereafter U.C.D.A.), Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

22 For the politicisation of this generation, see R. F. Foster, Vivid faces: the revolutionary generation in Ireland, 1890–1923 (London, 2015).

23 McCoole, Sinéad, No ordinary women: Irish female activists in the revolutionary years, 1900–1923 (Dublin, 2003), pp 83–4, 177–8.

24 Proinnsíos Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns: a revolutionary Irishwoman (Manorhamilton, 2002), pp 68–9. Linda Kearns's witness statement to the Bureau of Military History gives a full account (M.A.I., B.M.H., W.S. 404, p. 28).

25 Mooney Eichacker, Irish republican women in America, pp 156–68.

26 Cited in Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, p. 72.

27 Mooney Eichacker, Irish republican women in America, pp 169–90.

28 Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, p. 90.

29 There is currently no biography of Kathleen Barry Moloney. The opening pages of her statement to the Bureau of Military History (M.A.I., B.M.H., W.S. 731, pp 1–4) outline her own activities with the I.R.A. (the rest of her statement concerns her brother, Kevin). Eve Morrison, ‘One woman's Civil War in Ireland’ in Irish Times, 23 May 2013, provides a lively summary of her life.

30 Donal O'Donovan, Kevin Barry and his time (Dublin, 1985).

31 Mooney Eichacker, Irish republican women in America, pp 141–52.

32 Andrews, C. S., Dublin made me (Dublin, 2001), p. 301 mentions her appearance in west Cork wearing lipstick while carrying despatches during the Civil War. See McCoole, No ordinary women, pp 91–2 for Barry and Kearns's presence with Cathal Brugha during the battle in O'Connell Street.

33 Liam Lynch, Cork, to Kathleen Barry, 22 Nov. 1922, (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/28).

34 Matthews, Ann, Dissidents: Irish republican women, 1922–1941 (Cork, 2012), pp 37–8.

35 See for example, Annie Doyle, Brideswell, Carnew, Co. Wexford, to Anne O'Rahilly, secretary of the I.R.P.D.F., 9 Sept. 1922, (U.C.D.A., Papers of Sighle Humphreys, P106/1297).

36 Documents related to the restructure and reorganisation of the I.R.P.D.F., dated September and October 1923 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/46).

37 In late 1923, there were approximately 12,000 anti-Treaty prisoners (Hopkinson, Green against green, p. 263).

38 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 6 June 1923 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/116).

39 Even so, large sums had been raised in the U.S., see Wilk, Gavin, Transatlantic defiance: the militant Irish republican movement in America, 1923–45 (Manchester, 2015), pp 1516.

40 Mooney Eichacker, Irish republican women, pp 181–203.

41 Cited in Mooney ibid., p. 193.

42 Keogh, ‘Mannix, De Valera and Irish nationalism, part ii’ p. 345; Kiernan, Colm, Daniel Mannix and Ireland (Dublin and Morwell, Vic., 1984), p. 177.

43 Kiernan, Daniel Mannix and Ireland, p. 179; Cablegram sent by Archbishop Mannix to W. T. Cosgrave, 4 Dec. 1923 (N.A.I., TSCH/3/S1369/13).

44 Cosgrave included the full text of the appeal in his reply to Archbishop Duhig in January 1924 (N.A.I., TSCH/3/S1369/21).

45 Cable from Duhig to Cosgrave, 23 Dec. 1923 (N.A.I., TSCH/3/S1369/21).

46 Copies of the final letter, dated 9 Jan. 1924, earlier drafts and research notes (N.A.I., TSCH/3/S1369/21). See also Keogh, ‘Mannix, De Valera and Irish nationalism, part ii’, p. 345.

47 Boland, T. B., James Duhig (St Lucia, Queensland, 1986), pp 162–6 has an account of the tour of O'Flanagan and O'Kelly but does not mention Barry and Kearns.

48 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 19 June 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/120).

49 Hopkinson, Green against green, pp 253–5.

50 De Valera to P. Ruttledge, Dec. 1923 (U.C.D.A., Mulcahy papers, P7/B/140), cited in Hopkinson, Green against green, p. 261.

51 Notice of I.R.P.D.F. executive meeting addressed to Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington, 25 Apr. 1924; the typed notice was signed by Kathleen Barry in her role as secretary and was endorsed by hand ‘Very special business to be decided’ (N.L.I., Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington papers, MS 41,178/35).

52 Jim Moloney was in prison between March 1923 and July 1924. For the hunger strikes generally, see Hopkinson, Green against green, pp 268–71.

53 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 8 July 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/121).

54 See, for example, Barry's speeches as reported in Catholic Press, 11 Jan. 1924.

55 P. J. Ruttledge to Kathleen Barry, 11 July 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/46).

56 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 8 July 1924 (ibid., P94/121).

57 Barry believed that Mary MacSwiney, Constance Markievicz and Mrs (Kathleen) O'Callaghan had all refused to go to Australia (Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 24 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56)). However, difficulties accessing passports prevented at least some of those who were asked from travelling. See Molly O'Brien's later statement that she and Mrs O'Callaghan were asked to go to Australia but could not secure passports (M.A.I., B.M.H., W.S. 363, p. 12).

58 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 8, 25 July, 14 Aug. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

59 Same to same, 23 Nov. 1924 (ibid., P94/127).

60 Same to same, 6 Nov. 1924 (ibid., P94/116).

61 List of subscribers, The Advocate (Melbourne), 25 Dec. 1924; Mary Mac[Swiney] to Kathleen Barry, 11 Dec.1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

62 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 8 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127).

63 ibid.

64 The Advocate,11 Dec.1924.

65 Scates, Bruce, ‘The unknown sock knitter: voluntary work, emotional labour, bereavement and the Great War’ in Labour History, no. 81 (Nov. 2001), pp 2949; Oppenhemier, Melanie, Australian women and war (Canberra, 2008), pp 3644; eadem, All work, no pay: Australian civilian volunteers in war (Walcha, 2002) pp 58–9.

66 Daily Standard (Brisbane), 20 Nov. 1924.

67 The Advocate, 27 July 1912.

68 Ibid., 1 July 1916, and see Dianne Hall, ‘Women of the Rising in the Australian and New Zealand press’ in Peter Kuch (ed.), New Zealand responses to the 1916 Easter Rising (forthcoming 2019).

69 Catholic Press, 28 Dec. 1916.

70 Fitzpatrick, Orla, ‘Portraits and propaganda: photographs of the widows and children of the 1916 leaders in the Catholic Bulletin’ in Godson, Lisa and Brück, Joanna (eds), Making 1916: material and visual culture of the Easter Rising (Liverpool, 2015), pp 8290. On the organisations distributing funds, see Dháibhéid, Caoimhe Nic, ‘The Irish National Aid Association and the radicalization of public opinion in Ireland, 1916–1918’ in Hist. Jn., cv, no. 3 (Sept. 2012), pp 705–29.

71 The Advocate, 25 Dec.1919. For the context of these articles, see McCoole, Sinéad, Easter widows: seven Irish women who lived in the shadow of the 1916 Rising (Dublin, 2014), pp 265–8.

72 Mooney Eichacker, Irish republican women in America, passim.

73 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 22 Oct. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127).

74 Freeman's Journal, 5 Mar. 1925.

75 Warrnambool Standard (Victoria), 29 Nov.1924.

76 An example is the leaflet for Queensland Irish Relief fund (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

77 Fr Tom Lynch, West Wyalong, to Kathleen Barry, 24 Oct. 1924 (ibid., 94/56).

78 Irish Press, 8 June 1951, cited in Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, p. 164.

79 Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, p. 89; Mooney Eichacker, Irish republican women in America, p. 142.

80 For Fr O'Dwyer, see Noone, Val, Hidden Ireland in Victoria (Ballarat, 2012), p. 127.

81 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 1 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127).

82 There were clubs, societies and benefit societies in major cities and many towns in every state in Australia. See McConville, Chris, Croppies, Celts & Catholics: the Irish in Australia (Caulfield East, Vic., 1987), pp 100–4 for an overview.

83 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 29 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127).

84 Letterhead of the Queensland Relief Fund (ibid., P94/57).

85 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 24 Dec. 1924 (ibid., P94/127).

86 Same to same, 16 Jan. 1925 (ibid., P94/127).

87 The Advocate, 18 Dec. 1924.

88 Catholic Press, 15 Jan. 1925.

89 Mary Mac[Swiney] to Kathleen Barry, 13 Nov. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers P94/56).

90 Fr O'Dwyer, Coburg, to Kathleen Barry , 16 Dec. 1924 (ibid., P94/56).

91 Patrick O'Farrell, The Catholic church in Australia: a short history, 1788–1967 (London, 1969), pp 205–9, 224–5, 232.

92 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 13 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127); Patrick O'Farrell, ‘Archbishop Kelly and the Irish question’ in Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society, iv, no. 3 (1974), pp 12–14.

93 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 13 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A. Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127). For Sheehan, see O'Farrell, The Catholic Church in Australia, pp 250–1.

94 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 18 Dec.1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney, papers P94/127).

95 D. M. O'Flynn to Kathleen Barry, 29 Nov. 1924 (ibid., P94/56).

96 For Duhig's views on Ireland, see Sullivan, Rodney and Sullivan, Robin, ‘Archbishop James Duhig and the Queensland Irish Association, 1898–1920: exploring connections’ in Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society, xxxiv (2013), pp 4457.

97 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 29 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127).

98 Same to same, 8 Jan. 1925 (ibid., P94/127).

99 M. Moran, O.S.A., St Monica's, Cairns, to Kathleen Barry, 2 Feb. 1925 (U.C.D.A. Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

100 M. R. MacGinley, ‘McDonnell, Francis (Frank) (1863–1928)’ in Australian Dictionary of Biography (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/mcdonnell-francis-frank-7343/text12747) (23 December 2018).

101 Catholic Advocate (Brisbane), 3 Sept. 1914.

102 Brisbane Courier, 28 Nov. 1928; Rodney Sullivan and Robin Sullivan, ‘The Queensland Irish Association, 1898–1928: heroes and memorials’ in Australasian Journal of Irish Studies, xv (2015), p. 22.

103 Copy of notice of meeting addressed to W. Fegan, 30 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

104 Peter McLachlan, secretary of the Self-Determination for Ireland League of Australia, Queensland Branch, to Kathleen Barry, 11 Jan. 1925 (ibid., P94/56).

105 Kathleen Barry to Peter McLachlan, 11 Jan. 1925 (ibid., P95/56).

106 D. M. O'Flynn to Kathleen Barry, 23 Feb. 1924 (ibid., P94/56).

107 Freeman's Journal, 12 Feb.1925.

108 Catholic Press, 19 Feb. 1925.

109 Ibid.

110 Chief Secretary, Queensland, to Kathleen Barry and Linda Kearns, 14 Jan. 1925 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56); J. Fihelly to Mr J. Bugacott, Jan. 1925 (ibid.).

111 Elizabeth Malcolm and Dianne Hall, ‘Catholic Irish Australia and the labor movement: race in Australia and nationalism in Ireland, 1880s–1920s’ in Greg Patmore and Shelton Stromquist (eds), Frontiers of labor: comparative histories of the United States and Australia (Urbana, Chicago, 2018), pp 152–3.

112 Archer, Robin, Damousi, Joy, Goot, Murray and Scalmer, Sean (eds), The conscription conflict and the Great War (Melbourne, 2016).

113 Malcolm and Hall, A new history of the Irish in Australia, pp 308–22; O'Farrell, The Irish in Australia, pp 346–53; Kildea, Jeff, Tearing the fabric: sectarianism in Australia, 1910–25 (Sydney, 2002).

114 Kildea, Jeff, ‘Paranoia or prejudice: Billy Hughes and the Irish question, 1916–1922’ in Brownrigg, Jeff, Mongan, Cheryl and Reid, Richard (eds), Echoes of Irish Australia: rebellion to republic (Galong, New South Wales, 2007), pp 155–66.

115 Report of the Queensland Irish relief tour, n.d. (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

116 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 17 Feb. 1925 (ibid., P94/127).

117 D. M. O'Flynn to Kathleen Barry, 23 Feb. 1925 (ibid., P94/56), outlining the difficulties in Ipswich and Maryborough.

118 William Fegan to Kathleen Barry, 25 Jan. 1925 (ibid.).

119 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 20 Jan. 1925 (ibid., P94/127).

120 D. M. O'Flynn to Kathleen Barry Moloney, 23 Feb. 1925 (ibid., P94/56).

121 Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton), 5 Mar. 1925.

122 Various reports, including Catholic Press, 19 Feb.1925; Freeman's Journal, 9 Feb. 1925.

123 Freeman's Journal, 19 Feb. 1925.

124 ‘Under the Red Flag’ and a letter to the editor by Sir Thomas Henley, recently retired M.L.A., Sydney Morning Herald, 18 Feb. 1925.

125 Invitation from Communist Party, Sydney, to Kathleen Barry and Linda Kearns, 16 Feb.1925. (U.C.D.A. Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

126 Sydney Morning Herald, 20, 23 Feb. 1925.

127 Ibid., 23 Feb. 1925.

128 Mark Lyons, ‘Oakes, Charles William (1861–1928)’ in Australian Dictionary of Biography (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/oakes-charles-william-7866/text13669) (23 Dec. 2018); The Sun (Sydney), 24 Feb. 1925. The Northern Star (Lismore, New South Wales) reported, on 25 Feb. 1925, that he had said they were creating revolution within the British Empire.

129 Newcastle Morning Herald (New South Wales), 25 Feb. 1925; Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 26 Feb. 1925 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127). To date no evidence has been found in the archives of the Australian intelligence agencies to indicate that there was formal surveillance.

130 D. M. O'Flynn to Kathleen Barry, 17 Mar. 1926 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/67).

131 Freeman's Journal, 22 Mar. 1928. More research is needed into the history of Cumann na mBan in Australia, Anne-Marie Whitaker, ‘The Irish Women's Club: Cumann na mBan in Sydney, 1919–1935’, paper delivered at the 23rd Australasian Conference of Irish Studies, November 2018, University of Sydney.

132 Copy of letter from Cumann na mBan in Melbourne to president of Cumann na mBan, Dublin. July 1925 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/67); Maree McKee to Kathleen Barry, 2 Feb. 1926 (ibid.).

133 The Telegraph (Brisbane), 15 Aug. 1925.

134 ‘Papers of Kathleen Barry Moloney, P94, descriptive catalogue’, p. v (https://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/p0094-moloney-kathleen-barry-descriptive-catalogue.pdf) (18 Jan. 2019).

135 She died in 1969 (Irish Press, 13 Jan. 1969); my thanks to Professor Eunan O'Halpin for this reference and for sharing recollections of his grandmother.

136 Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, pp 123–65; McCoole, No ordinary women, p. 178.

137 The interview was published in An Phoblacht (Dublin), 3 July 1925, cited in Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, p. 97. Parts of the interview were also published in Southern Cross (Adelaide), 3 July 1925.

138 ‘Accounts of Reconstruction Committee, I.R.P.D.F.’ (N.L.I., MS 42,024, p. 310).

139 ‘Accounts’ (N.L.I., MS 42,024, p. 41).

140 ‘Reconstruction Committee, I.R.P.D.F.’ (N.L.I., MS 42,023).

141 Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, pp 99–100.

142 Fr M. Moran to Kathleen Barry, 2 Feb.1925 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/56).

143 The Truth (Brisbane), 18 Jan. 1925.

144 Kathleen Barry to Jim Moloney, 24 Dec. 1924 (U.C.D.A., Kathleen Barry Moloney papers, P94/127).

145 Ó Duigneáin, Linda Kearns, p. 157.

146 Margaret Buckley quoted in Ryan, ‘Splendidly silent’, p. 38.

147 Versions of this paper were given at the Australian Women's History Network conference, Melbourne, 2016 and the Irish Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand conference, Adelaide, 2016. Research was funded by the Australian Research Council and Victoria University, Melbourne. I am also grateful to Elizabeth Malcolm, Antoine Guillemette, Val Noone, Rod Sullivan, and Eunan O'Halpin.

Irish republican women in Australia: Kathleen Barry and Linda Kearns's tour in 1924–5

  • Dianne Hall (a1)

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