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Early Metal Working in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Recent Research*

  • Duncan E. Miller (a1) and Nikolaas J. Van Der Merwe (a1)

Extract

This paper is a review of the course of research during the past decade into the history of indigenous metal working in sub-Saharan Africa. It comprises three sections: a summary of the chronology of early metallurgy and the spread of metal working; a description of African metal working in terms of mining, smelting and smithing, with particular emphasis on recent interpretations of the iron-smelting technology; and a conclusion summarizing the main developments and some lines of future enquiry. A glossary of technical terms used in this paper is appended.

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1 For summaries and discussions of this literature see: Cline, W. B., Mining and Metallurgy in Negro Africa (Menasha, 1937); Shinnie, P. L. (ed.), The African Iron Age (Oxford, 1971); Kense, F. J., Traditional African Iron Working (University of Calgary Department of Archaeology, African Occasional Papers, No. 1, 1983); Haaland, R. and Shinnie, P. (eds.), African Iron Working—Ancient and Traditional (Oslo, 1985).

2 Wertime, T. A. and Muhly, J. D. (eds.), The Coming of the Age of Iron (New Haven, 1980); Haaland and Shinnie, African Iron Working; Herbert, E. W., Red Gold of Africa (London, 1984).

3 Frobenius, L., Erythräe, Länder und Zeiten des heiligen Königsmordes (Berlin, 1931), 277–93; Stanley, G. H., ‘Some products of native iron smelting’, South African Journal of Science, XXVIII (1931), 66–8; Schulz, E. H., ‘Zusammensetzung und Aufbau einiger Metallfunde der Afrika-Expedition von Leo Frobenius 1928/30’, Paideuma, v (1950), 5965; Miller, D. E., ‘Pioneering metallographic analyses of indigenous metal artefacts from southern Africa—material collected by the Frobenius expedition in 1929/1930’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, XLVII (1992), 108–15; Desch, C. H., ‘Report on the metallurgical examination of specimens for the Sumerian Committee’, Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (London, 1936), 308–10.

4 Glumac, P. D. (ed.), ‘Recent trends in archaeometallurgical research’, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Technology, VIII (I) (1991); Ehrenreich, R. M. (ed.), ‘Metals in society: theory beyond analysis’, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Technology, VIII (2) (1991).

5 Killick, D. J., ‘Technology in its social setting: bloomery iron smelting at Kasungu, Malawi, 1860–1940’ (Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, 1990); Killick, D. J., ‘The relevance of recent African iron-smelting practice to reconstructions of prehistoric smelting technology’, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Technology, VIII (I) (1991), 4754.

6 van der Merwe, N. J., ‘The advent of iron in Africa’, in Wertime, and Muhly, (eds.), The Coming of the Age of Iron, 463506; Kense, F. J., ‘The initial diffusion of iron to Africa’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 1127.

7 Warnier, E.g. J. P. and Fowler, I., ‘A nineteenth-century Ruhr in Central Africa’, Africa, XL (1970), 329–47; Goucher, C., ‘Iron is iron ʾtil it is rust: trade and ecology in the decline of West African iron-smelting’, J. Afr. Hist., XXII (1981), 179–89; Goucher, C., ‘The iron industry of Bassar, Togo: an interdisciplinary investigation of African technological history’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of California-Los Angeles, 1984); Pole, L. M., ‘Decline or survival? Iron production in West Africa from the seventeenth to twentieth centuries’, J. Afr. Hist., XXIII (1982), 503–13; Friede, H. M., ‘Socio-economic aspects of metal production in the western Transvaal (South Africa)’, Nyame Akuma, XXI (1982), 41; Sassoon, H., ‘Kings, cattle and blacksmiths: royal insignia and religious symbolism in the interlacustrine states’, Azania, XVIII (1983), 93106; Herbert, Red Gold; Wright, M., ‘Iron and regional history: report on a research project in southwestern Tanzania’, African Economic History, XIV (1985), 147–65; R. Haaland, ‘Iron production, its socio-cultural context and ecological implications’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 5072; de Maret, P., ‘The smith's myth and the origin of leadership in central Africa’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 7387; de Barros, P., ‘Bassar: a quantified, chronologically controlled, regional approach to a traditional iron production centre in West Africa’, Africa, LVI (1986), 148–73; Larick, R., ‘Iron smelting and interethnic conflict among precolonial Maa-speaking pastoralists of north-central Kenya’, The African Archaeological Review, IV (1986), 165–76; van der Merwe, N. J. and Avery, D., ‘Science and magic in African technology: traditional iron smelting in Malawi’, Africa, LVII (1987), 143–72; Digombe, L., Schmidt, P. R., Mouleingeu-Boukosso, V., Mombo, J.-B. and Locko, M., ‘The development of an Early Iron Age prehistory in Gabon’, Current Anthropology, XXIX (1988), 179–84; Perinbam, B. M., ‘The political organization of traditional gold mining: the Western Loby, c. 1850 to c. 1910’, J. Afr. Hist., XXIX (1988), 437–62; Killick, ‘Technology’; Childs, S. T., ‘Style, technology, and iron smelting furnaces in Bantu-speaking Africa’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, X (1991), 332–59; Childs, S. T., ‘Transformations: iron and copper production in central Africa’, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Technology, VIII (I) (1991), 3346; Childs, S. T., ‘Iron as utility or expression: reforging function in Africa’, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Technology, VIII (2) (1991), 5768.

8 Schmidt, E.g. P. R. and Avery, D. H., ‘Complex iron smelting and prehistoric culture in Tanzania’, Science, CCI (1978), 1085–9; Schmidt, P. R. and Avery, D. H., ‘More evidence for an advanced prehistoric iron industry in Africa’, Journal of Field Archaeology, X (1983), 421–34; Avery, D. H. and Schmidt, P. R., ‘A metallurgical study of the iron bloomery particularly as practiced in Buhaya’, Journal of Metals, XXXI (1979), 1420; van der Merwe, N. J. and Avery, D.H., ‘Pathways to steel’, American Scientist, lxX (1982), 146–55; Gordon, R. B. and van der Merwe, N. J., ‘Metallographic study of iron artefacts from the eastern Transvaal, South Africa’, Archaeometry, XXVI (1984), 108–27; Schmidt, P. R. and Childs, S. T., ‘Innovation and industry during the Early Iron Age in East Africa: the KM2 and KM3 sites of northwest Tanzania’, The African Archaeological Review, III (1985), 5394; Kiriama, H. O., ‘Archaeo-metallurgy of iron smelting slags from a Mwitu Tradition site in Kenya’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, lxII (1987), 125–30; David, N., Heimann, R., Killick, D. and Wayman, M., ‘Between bloomery and blast furnace: Mafa iron-smelting technology in North Cameroon’, The African Archaeological Review, VII (1989), 183208; Avery, D. H., van der Merwe, N. J. and Saitowitz, S., ‘The metallurgy of the iron bloomery in Africa’, in Maddin, R. (ed.), The Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys (Cambridge, MA, 1988), 261–82; Killick, D. J. and Gordon, R. B., ‘The mechanism of iron production in the bloomery furnace’, in Farquhar, R. M., Hancock, R. G. V. and Pavlish, L. A. (eds.), Proceedings of the 26th International Archaeology Symposium (Toronto, 1988), 120–3; Killick, D. J., ‘A comparative perspective on African ironworking technologies’ (paper presented at The African Studies Association, Chicago, 1988); Killick, D. J., ‘A little-known extractive process: iron smelting in natural-draft furnaces’, Journal of Metals, xliii (1991), 62–4; D. J. Killick, ‘Relevance’; Killick, D. J., ‘A tin lerale from the Soutpansberg, northern Transvaal, South Africa’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, XLVI (1991), 137–41.

9 We have not attempted to evaluate the arguments based on linguistic reconstructions for the spread of metal-using peoples in Africa. E.g. Phillipson, D. W., ‘Notes on the later prehistoric radiocarbon chronology of eastern and southern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., xi (1970), 115; Phillipson, D. W., ‘The chronology of the Iron Age in Bantu Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., xvi (1975), 321–42; de Maret, P. and Nsuka, F., ‘History of Bantu metallurgy’, History in Africa, IV (1977), 4365; Vansina, J., ‘Western Bantu expansion’, J. Afr. Hist., XXV (1984), 129–45; Denbow, J. R., ‘Congo to Kalahari: data and hypotheses about the political economy of the western stream of the Early Iron Age’, African Archaeological Review, VIII (1990), 139–76.

10 Killick, ‘Technology’.

11 Killick, D. J., ‘Recent films and publications of African metallurgy’, Nyame Akuma, XXX (1988), 3941; Herbert, E. W. and Pole, L. M., ‘African iron working on film and video’, Nyame Akuma, XXXI (1989), 47–9.

12 Schmidt and Avery, ‘Complex iron smelting’; Schmidt and Avery, ‘More evidence’; Avery and Schmidt, ‘Metallurgical study’; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’; Schmidt and Childs, ‘Innovation’.

13 Rehder, J. E., ‘Use of preheated air in primitive furnaces: comment on the views of Avery and Schmidt’, Journal of Field Archaeology, XIII (1986), 352–3; Eggert, M., ‘On the alleged complexity of early and recent iron-smelting in Africa: further comments on the preheating hypothesis’, Journal of Field Archaeology, XIV (1987), 377–82; Killick, ‘Comparative perspective’; Killick, D. J., van der Merwe, N. J., Gordon, R.B. and Grébénart, D., ‘Reassessment of the evidence for early metallurgy in Niger, West Africa’, Journal of Archaeological Science, XV (1988), 367–94.

14 McIntosh, S. K. and McIntosh, R. J., ‘From stone to metal: new perspectives on the later prehistory of West Africa’, Journal of World Prehistory, II (1988), 89133; Thomasson, G. C., ‘Primitive Kpelle steelmaking: a high technology indigenous knowledge system for Liberia's future’, Liberian Studies Journal, XII (1987), 149–64; Thomasson, G. C., ‘Liberia's seeds of knowledge’, Cultural Survival Quarterly (Summer 1991), 23–8.

15 Killick, Comparative perspective’.

16 Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’; David et al., ‘Bloomery and blast furnace’.

17 Stanley, G. H., ‘Primitive metallurgy in South Africa: some products and their significance’, South African Journal of Science, XXVI (1929), 732–48.

18 Childs, S. T., Dewey, W., Kamwanga, M. wa B. and de Maret, P., ‘Iron and Stone Age research in Shaba Province, Zaïre: an interdisciplinary and international effort’, Nyame Akuma, XXXII (1989), 54–9; Childs, ‘Transformations’.

19 Miller, D. E., ‘Iron Age metal working at the Tsodilo Hills, northwestern Botswana’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Cape Town, 1992); Miller, D. E. and van der Merwe, N. J., ‘Early Iron Age metal working at the Tsodilo Hills, northwestern Botswana’, Journal of Archaeological Science (in press); Miller, D. E. and van der Merwe, N. J., ‘Late Iron Age metal working at Nqoma, Tsodilo Hills, northwestern Botswana’, Historical Metallurgy (in press).

20 Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., II (1961), 137–9; Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa:II’, J. Afr. Hist., IV (1963), 127–8; Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa: III’, J. Afr. Hist., vi (1965), 107–16; Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa: IV’, J. Afr. Hist., VII (1966), 495506; Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa: V’, J. Afr. Hist., VIII (1967), 513–27; Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa: VI’, J. Afr. Hist., X (1969), 149–69; Phillipson, ‘Notes’; Phillipson, ‘Chronology’; Willett, F. A., ‘A survey of recent results in the radiocarbon chronology of western and northern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XII (1971), 339–70; Sutton, J. E. G., ‘New radiocarbon dates for eastern and southern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XIII (1972), 124; Flight, C., ‘A survey of recent results in the radiocarbon chronology of northern and western Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XIV (1973), 531–54; Soper, R. C., ‘New radiocarbon dates for eastern and southern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XV (1974), 175–92; Posnansky, M. and McIntosh, R., ‘New radiocarbon dates for northern and western Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XVII (1976), 161–95; de Maret, P., van Noten, F. and Cahen, D., ‘Radiocarbon dates for West Central Africa: a synthesis’, J. Afr. Hist., XVIII (1977), 481505; Maggs, T., ‘Some recent radiocarbon dates from eastern and southern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XVIII (1977), 161–91; Calvocoressi, D. and David, N., ‘A new survey of radiocarbon and thermo-luminescence dates for West Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XX (1979), 129; Close, A. E., ‘Current research and recent radiocarbon dates from northern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXI (1980), 145–67; Hall, M. and Vogel, J. C., ‘Some recent radiocarbon dates from southern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXI (1980), 431–55; Mgomezulu, G. G. Y., ‘Recent archaeological research and radiocarbon dates from eastern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXII (1981), 435–56; de Maret, P., ‘New survey of archaeological research and dates for West-Central and North-Central Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXIII (1982), 115; Sutton, J. E. G., ‘Archaeology in West Africa: a review of recent work and a further list of radiocarbon dates’, J. Afr. Hist., XXIII (1982), 291313; Close, A. E., ‘Current research and recent radiocarbon dates from northern Africa, II’, J. Afr. Hist., XXV (1984), 124; Robertshaw, P., ‘Archaeology in eastern Africa: recent developments and more dates’, J. Afr. Hist., XXV (1984), 369–93; de Maret, P., ‘Recent archaeological research and dates from Central Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXVI (1985), 129–48; McIntosh, S. K. and McIntosh, R. J., ‘Recent archaeological research and dates from West Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXVII (1986), 413–42; Parkington, J. and Hall, M., ‘Patterning in recent radiocarbon dates from southern Africa as a reflection of prehistoric settlement and interaction’, J. Afr. Hist., XXVIII (1987), 125; Close, A. E., ‘Current research and recent radiocarbon dates from northern Africa, III’, J. Afr. Hist., XXIX (1988), 145–76; Maggs, T. and Whitelaw, G., ‘A review of recent archaeological research on food-producing communities in southern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXXII (1991), 324; Sinclair, P. J. J., ‘Archaeology in eastern Africa: an overview of current chronological issues’, J. Afr. Hist., XXXII (1991), 179219.

21 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Herbert, Red Gold; Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

22 McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Recent archaeological research’.

23 The interpretation of African Iron Age radiocarbon dates is a topic beyond the scope of this paper. For discussion of this problem, see McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Recent archaeological research’; Killick, D. J., ‘On the dating of metallurgical sites’, Nyame Akuma, XXVIII (1987), 2930; Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

24 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

25 Tylecote, R. F., A History of Metallurgy (London, 1976), 1182.

26 Rothenberg, B., Tylecote, R. F. and Boydell, P. J., ‘Chalcolithic copper smelting’, IAMS Archaeo-Metallurgy Monographs, 1 (1978), 151; Rothenberg, B. (ed.), The Ancient Metallurgy of Copper (London, 1990), 1191.

27 Waldbaum, J. C., ‘The first archaeological appearance of iron and the transition to the Iron Age’, in Wertime, and Muhly, (eds.), The Coming of the Age of Iron, 69126; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

28 Desch, ‘Report’; Waldbaum, ‘First archaeological appearance’; Gayar, E. S. El and Jones, M. P., ‘Metallurgical investigations of an iron plate found in 1837 in the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, Egypt’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, XXIII (1989), 7583; Gale, N. H., Bachmann, H. G., Rothenberg, B., Stos-Gale, Z. A. and Tylecote, R. F., ‘The adventitious production of iron in the smelting of copper’, in Rothenberg, (ed.), The Ancient Metallurgy of Copper, 182–91.

30 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

31 Coghlan, H. H., ‘Copper artefacts from Tutankhamun's tomb’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, IV (1975), 65–7; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

32 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

33 Tylecote, History; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

34 Shinnie, P. L. and Kense, F. J., ‘Meroitic iron working’, Meroitica, IV (1982), 1728; der Merwe, van, ‘Advent’, 471.

35 Tylecote, History; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

36 van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’.

37 Calvocoressi and David, ‘New survey’; Sutton, ‘Archaeology’; Tylecote, R. F., ‘Early copper slags and copper-base metal from the Agadez region of Niger’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, xvi (1982), 5864.

38 Herbert, Red Gold; Grébénart, D. N. H., ‘Les métallurgies de cuivre et du fer autour d'Agadez (Niger), des origines au débout de la période médiévale’, Mémoires de la Société des Africanistes, IX (1983), 109–25; D. N. H. Grébénart, ‘Characteristics of the final Neolithic and Metal Ages in the region of Agadez (Niger)’, in Close, A. (ed.), Prehistory of Arid North Africa: Essays in Honour of Fred Wendorf (Dallas, 1987), 287316.

39 Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

40 Schiffer, M. B., ‘Radiocarbon dating and the “old wood” problem: the case of the Hohokam chronology’, Journal of Archaeological Science, XIII (1986), 1330; Killick, ‘On the dating of metallurgical sites’.

41 Calvocoressi and David, ‘New survey’; Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

42 Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

43 See: Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’; Andah, B. W., ‘Iron Age beginnings in West Africa: reflections and suggestions’, West African Journal of Archaeology, IX (1979), 135–50; Schmidt and Avery, ‘More evidence’; Amadi, I. R., ‘The northern factor in the history of sub-Saharan Africa: the Hamitic hypothesis revisited’, Transafrican Journal of History, XVIII (1989), 80–9.

44 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’; McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Stone to metal’.

45 Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

46 Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

47 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’.

48 Trigger, B. C., ‘The myth of Meroë and the African Iron Age’, African Historical Studies, II (1969), 2350; Tylecote, R. F., ‘Iron working at Meroë, Sudan’, Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group, IV (1970), 6772.

49 Shinnie, P., ‘Iron working at Meroë’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 2835.

50 Tylecote, R. F., ‘Iron smelting at Taruga, Nigeria’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, IX (1975), 4956; Tylecote, R. F., ‘The origin of iron-smelting in Africa’, West African Journal of Archaeology, V (1975), 19; Shinnie and Kense, ‘Meroitic’; Shinnie, ‘Meroë’.

51 Wainwright, G. A., ‘Iron in the Napatan and Meroitic Ages’, Sudan Notes and Records, XXVI (1945), 436; Trigger, ‘Myth of Meroe’; Shinnie and Kense, ‘Meroitic’.

53 Robertshaw, ‘Archaeology’.

54 Tylecote, ‘Iron smelting at Taruga’; Tylecote, History; Shinnie and Kense, ‘Meroitic’; Shinnie, ‘Meroë’.

55 Posnansky and McIntosh, ‘New radiocarbon dates’; Herbert, Red Gold.

56 Calvocoressi and David, ‘New survey’; McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Stone to metal’.

57 Tylecote, R. F., ‘Iron smelting on the Nigerian Early Iron Age site at Taruga, Abuja Emirate’, Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group, 11 (1968), 81–2; Tylecote, ‘Origin of iron-smelting’; Okafor, E. E. and Phillips, P.. ‘New 14C ages from Nsukka, Nigeria, and the origins of African metallurgy’, Antiquity, lxVI (1992), 686–8.

58 Sutton, ‘Archaeology’; Okafor and Phillips, ‘New 14C ages’.

59 Schiffer, ‘Radiocarbon dating’.

60 McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Stone to metal’; Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

61 Tylecote, History; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Sutton, J. E. G., ‘West African metals and the ancient Mediterranean’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, II (1983), 181–8; Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

62 Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’; McIntosh, S. K. and McIntosh, R. J., ‘Current directions in West African prehistory’, Annual Review of Anthropology, XII (1983), 215–58; McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Recent archaeological research’.

63 Calvocoressi and David, ‘New survey’.

64 McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Recent archaeological research’.

65 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

66 Schmidt, P. R., Digombe, L., Locko, M. and Mouleingui, V., ‘Newly dated Iron Age sites in Gabon’, Nyame Akuma, XXVI (1985), 1618; Clist, B., ‘Early Bantu settlements in west-central Africa: a review of recent research’, Current Anthropology, XXVIII (1987), 380–2.

67 Digombe, L., Schmidt, P. R., Mouleingui-Boukosso, V., Mombo, J.-B. and Locko, M., ‘Gabon; the earliest Iron Age of West Central Africa’, Nyame Akuma, XXVIII (1987), 911; Digombe et al., ‘Development of an Early Iron Age prehistory’; Oslisly, R. and Peyrot, B., ‘L'arrivée des premiers métallurgistes sur l'Ogooué, Gabon’, African Archaeological Review, X (1992), 129–38.

68 Digombe et al., ‘Gabon’, II.

69 van Noten, F., ‘The Early Iron Age in the Interlacustrine region: the diffusion of iron technology’, Azania, XIV (1979), 6180; van Noten, F., ‘Ancient and modern iron smelting in Central Africa: Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 102–20; Raymaekers, J. and van Noten, F., ‘Early iron furnaces with “bricks” in Rwanda: complementary evidence from Mutwarumbona’, Azania, XXI (1986), 6584.

70 Schmidt, E.g. and Childs, , ‘Innovation and industry’, 59; Maggs, T., ‘The Iron Age south of the Zambezi’, in Klein, R. G. (ed.), Southern African Prehistory and Palaeoenvironments (Rotterdam, 1984), 341.

71 ‘Since reports of these furnace “bricks”/“briques” have occasioned some misunderstanding, it should be explained that they were not in general pre-fired. As illustrated below, the shafts of the furnaces (or ‘kilns’) were built up with short lengths and rolls of wet clay arranged in coils. These were baked to brick consistency during the smelt. Some thus fired were re-used in building the lower courses of new furnaces or in renovating old ones,’ Ibid. 65.

72 Schmidt and Childs, ‘Innovation and industry’.

74 E.g. van Noten, F. and Raymaekers, J., ‘Early iron smelting in Central Africa’, Scientific American, CCLVIII (1988), 104–11.

75 Schmidt and Avery, ‘Complex iron smelting’; Avery and Schmidt, ‘Metallurgical study’; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’; Sinclair, ‘Archaeology’.

76 Schmidt and Avery, ‘More evidence’.

77 Schmidt and Childs, ‘Innovation and industry’.

78 Schmidt, P. R., ‘Eastern expressions of the “Mwitu” tradition: Early Iron Age industry of the Usambara mountains, Tanzania’, Nyame Akuma, XXX (1988), 36–7.

79 Chami, F. A., ‘Excavations of a coastal Early Iron Age site in Kisarawe District, Tanzania’, Nyame Akuma, XXX (1988), 34–5.

80 Sinclair, ‘Archaeology’.

81 Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’; J. R. Denbow, pers. comm.

82 Denbow, ‘Congo to Kalahari’.

84 Morais, J., ‘Mozambican archaeology: past and present’, African Archaeological Review, n (1984), 113–28; Maggs, , ‘Iron Age south of the Zambezi’, 329–60; Maggs and Whitelavv, ‘A review’.

85 Morais, ‘Mozambican archaeology’.

86 Maggs and Whitelaw, ‘A review’; Sinclair, ‘Archaeology’.

87 Friede, H. M. and Steel, R. H., ‘Notes on Iron Age copper-smelting technology in the Transvaal’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXV (1975), 221–31.

88 Denbow, ‘Congo to Kalahari’.

89 Friede and Steel, ‘Notes’.

90 Maggs, ‘The Iron Age’.

91 McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Stone to metal’, 107.

92 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

93 McIntosh and McIntosh, ‘Stone to metal’.

94 Summers, R., Ancient Mining in Rhodesia and Adjacent Areas (Salisbury, 1969); Herbert, Red Gold.

95 Hassan, A. A. and Hassan, F. A., ‘Source of galena in predynastic Egypt at Nagada’, Archaeometry, XXIII (1981), 7782; Chikwendu, V. E., Craddock, R. M., Farquhar, R. W., Shaw, T. and Umeji, A. C., ‘Nigerian sources of copper, lead, and tin for the Igbo Ukwe bronzes’, Archaeometry, XXXII (1989), 2736.

96 Trevor, T. G., ‘Some observations on ancient mine workings in the Transvaal’, Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, XII (1912), 267–75; Beaumont, P. B., ‘The ancient pigment mines of southern Africa’, South African Journal of Science, lxIX (1973), 140–6; Cohen, G., ‘The ancient workings at Gakgale’, Botswana Notes and Records, IX (1977), 1719; Thackeray, A. I., Thackeray, J. F. and Beaumont, P. B., ‘Excavations at the Blinkklipkop specularite mine near Postmasburg’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, XXXVIII (1983), 1725.

97 Beaumont, ‘Ancient pigment mines’.

98 Mason, R. J., ‘Prehistoric mining in South Africa and Iron Age copper mines in the Dwarsberg, Transvaal’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXXII (1982), 134–44.

99 Calvocoressi and David, ‘New survey’.

100 Bernus, S. and Echard, N., ‘Metalworking in the Agadez Region (Niger): an ethno-archaeological approach’, in Craddock, P. T. and Hughes, M. J. (eds.), Furnaces and Smelting Technology in Antiquity (London, 1985), 7180.

101 Herbert, Red Gold.

102 Ibid.

103 Andersson, C. J., Lake Ngami (London, 1856), 182203; Bürg, G., Die nutzbaren Minerallagerstätten von Deutsch-Südwestafrika (Berlin, 1942), 66–9, 102–3, 120–1; Heintze, B., ‘Buschmänner und Ambo’, Journal, Südwest-Afrikanische Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft (Windhoek), XXVI (1972), 4556.

104 Goodwin, A. J. H., ‘Metal working among the early Hottentots’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, xi (1956), 4651.

105 Ibid. 48.

106 Cornell, F. C., The Glamour of Prospecting (Cape Town, 1986), 146–7.

107 Herbert, Red Gold.

108 Bisson, M. S., ‘Prehistoric copper mining in northwestern Zambia’, Archaeology, XXVII (1974), 242–8.

109 Bisson, ‘Prehistoric copper mining’; Bisson, M. S., ‘Continuity and discontinuity in Copperbelt and North-western Province ceramic sequences’, Nyame Akuma, XXXI (1989), 43–6.

110 Herbert, Red Gold.

111 Summers, Ancient Mining.

112 Molyneux, T. G. and Reinecke, T., ‘Ancient ruins and mines of the Tati region of north-east Botswana’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, XXXVIII (1983), 99; Johnson, R. S., ‘The Phoenix and Selkirk nickel-copper sulphide ore deposits, Tati greenstone belt, eastern Botswana’, in Anhaeusser, C. R. and Maske, S. (eds.), Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa (Johannesburg, 1986), 243–8; van Waarden, C., ‘Prehistoric copper mining in Botswana’ (Paper presented to the Archaeometallurgy Workshop, Southern African Association of Archaeologists, Pretoria, 1987).

113 Stanley, G. H., ‘Notes on ancient copper workings and smelting in the northern Transvaal’, Proceedings of the University of Durham Philosophical Society, III (1910), 307–12; Fripp, F. E. B., ‘An engineer's notes on old mine-workings of Transvaal and Rhodesia’, Proceedings of the Rhodesia Scientific Association, xi (1912), 168–81; Trevor, ‘Some observations’; Trevor, T. G., ‘Some observations on ancient mine workings in the Transvaal: reply to discussion’, Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, XIII (1913), 148–9; Trevor., T. G., ‘Some observations on the relics of pre-European culture in Rhodesia and South Africa’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, lx (1930), 389–99.

114 Evers, T. M. and van den Berg, R. P., ‘Ancient mining in southern Africa, with reference to a copper mine in the Harmony Block, north-eastern Transvaal’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 217–26; Mason, R., ‘Background to the Transvaal Iron Age—new discoveries at Olifantspoort and Broederstroom’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 211–16; Mason, ‘Prehistoric mining’; Friede, H. M., ‘Iron Age mining in the Transvaal’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXX (1980), 156–65; Steel, R. H., ‘Iron Age mining and metallurgy in South Africa’, in Hitchcock, R. K. and Smith, M. R. (eds.), Settlement in Botswana (Johannesburg, 1980), 94–7.

115 de Vaal, B. J., ‘Die ou kopermyne van Messina’, Lantern, 1 (1952), 405–8; Hanish, E. O. M., ‘Copper working in the Messina district’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 250–3; Wilson, M., ‘Historical aspects of mining in and around Venda’, Newsletter of the South African Development Trust Corporation Ltd., IV (1989), 67.

116 Schwellnus, C. M., ‘Short notes on the Phalaborwa smelting ovens’, South African Journal of Science, XXXIII (1937), 904–12; Verwoerd, W. J., ‘Sekere produkte van primitiewe koper-, yster-, en bronssmeltery in Oos Transvaal met besonder verwysing na Phalaborwa’, Tegnikon, IX (1956), 91104; van der Merwe, N. J. and Scully, R. T. K., ‘The Phalaborwa story: archaeological and ethnographic investigation of a South African Iron Age group’, World Archaeology, III (1971), 179202; More, C. E., ‘Some observations on “ancient” mining at Phalaborwa’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 227–32.

117 van der Merwe and Scully, ‘The Phalaborwa story’.

118 Ibid.

119 Mason, ‘Prehistoric mining’.

120 Summers, Ancient Mining.

121 Ibid.; Hromnik, C. A., Indo-Africa (Cape Town, 1981), 45.

122 Trevor, ‘Some observations’; Summers, Ancient Mining.

123 Trevor, ‘Some observations’; Fripp, ‘Traditional smithing’; de Vaal, J. B., ‘An ancient mine in the Transvaal’, African Studies, I (1942), 151–2; Mason, R., Prehistory of the Transvaal (Johannesburg, 1962), 419; Thain, G. M., ‘Ancient gold-mining sites in the Transvaal’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 243–4; Friede, ‘Iron Age mining’.

124 Summers, Ancient Mining.

125 Ibid.; Huffman, T. N., ‘Ancient mining and Zimbabwe’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 238–42; Huffman, T. N., ‘Archaeology and ethnohistory of the African Iron Age’, Annual Review of Anthropology, xi (1982), 133–50; Phimister, I. R., ‘“Ancient” mining near Great Zimbabwe’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 233–7; Phimister, I. R., ‘Pre-colonial gold mining in southern Zambezia: a reassessment’, African Social Research, XXI (1976), 130; Maggs, ‘The Iron Age’; Oddy, A., ‘On the trail of Iron Age gold’, Transvaal Museum Bulletin, XIX (1983), 24–6; Oddy, A., ‘Gold in the southern African Iron Age’, Gold Bulletin, XVII (1984), 70–8; Hall, M., The Changing Past: Farmers, Kings and Traders in Southern Africa, AD 200–1860 (Cape Town, 1987), 1161.

126 Friede, ‘Iron Age mining’; Steel, ‘Iron Age mining’; Grant, M. R., ‘A radiocarbon date on a tin artefact from Rooiberg’, South African Journal of Science, lxXXVI (1990), 63.

127 Summers, Ancient Mining.

128 King, D. E. S., ‘The provenance of tin metal in working for alluvial cassiterite in Nigeria’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, XXIII (1989), 3540; Chikwendu et al., ‘Nigerian sources’.

129 King, ‘The provenance of tin’.

130 Okafor, E. E., ‘Ancient mines in the north of Igboland’, Nyame Akuma, XXIV/XXV (1984), 1415; Chikwendu et al., ‘Nigerian sources’.

131 Goucher, C. L., Teilhet, J. H., Wilson, K. R., and Chow, T. J., ‘Lead isotope studies of metal sources for ancient Nigerian “bronzes’”, Nature, CCLXII (1976), 130–1; Craddock, P. T., ‘Medieval copper alloy production and West African bronze analyses—part 1’, Archaeometry, XXVII (1985), 1741; Craddock, P. T. and Picton, J., ‘Medieval copper alloy production and West African bronze analyses—part II’, Archaeometry, XXVIII (1986), 332; Chikwendu et al., ‘Nigerian sources’.

132 Baumann, M., ‘Ancient tin mines of the Transvaal’, Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, XIX (1919), 120–32; Trevor, , ‘Some observations’; Frobenius, Erythräe, Länder and Zeiten des heiligen Königsmordes, 277–93.

133 Oxland, G. St. J. O. and White, H., ‘Ancient mining practices in the Rooiberg area’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 245; M. R. Grant, pers. comm.

134 Grant, ‘A radiocarbon date’.

135 Baumann, ‘Ancient tin mines’; Friede, H. M. and Steel, R. B., ‘Tin mining and smelting in the Transvaal during the Iron Age’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXVI (1976), 461–70; Grant, ‘A radiocarbon date’.

136 Wagner, P. A., ‘Bronze from an ancient smelter in the Waterberg District, Transvaal’, South African Journal of Science, XXIII (1926), 899900; Wagner, P. A. and Gordon, H. S., ‘Further notes on ancient bronze smelters in the Waterberg District, Transvaal’, South African Journal of Science, XXVI (1929), 563–74; Friede, H. M., ‘Notes on the composition of pre-European copper and copper-alloy artefacts from the Transvaal’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXV (1975), 185–91.

137 Thompson, L. C., ‘Ingots of native manufacture’, Native Affairs Department Annual, XXVI (1949), 722; Thompson, L. C., ‘A native-made ingot’, Native Affairs Department Annual, XXXI (1954), 40–1.

138 Stanley, ‘Primitive metallurgy’; Stanley, G. H., ‘The composition of some pre-historic South African bronzes with notes on the methods of analysis’, South African Journal of Science, XXVI (1929), 44–9; Caton-Thompson, G., The Zimbabwe Culture: Ruins and Reactions (Oxford, 1931), 200–28.

139 Grant, ‘A radiocarbon date’; M. R. Grant, pers. comm.

140 Küsel, U. S., ‘Extractive metallurgy in Iron Age South Africa’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 246–9.

141 Craddock, P. T., Freestone, I. C., Gurjar, L. K., Hegde, K. T. M. and Sonawane, V. H., ‘Early zinc production in India’, Mining Magazine, CLII (1985), 4552; Freestone, I. C., Craddock, P. T., Hegde, K. T. M., Hughes, M. J. and Paliwal, H. V., ‘Zinc production at Zawar, Rajasthan’, in Craddock, and Hughes, (eds.) Furnaces and Smelting Technology, 229–44; Paliwal, H. V., Gurjar, L. K., and Craddock, P. T., ‘Zinc and brass in ancient India’, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIX (1986), 75–9.

142 Friede, ‘Iron Age mining’.

143 E.g. van der Merwe, N. J. and Killick, D. J., ‘Square: an iron smelting site near Phalaborwa’, South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, III (1979), 8693.

144 E.g. Wenner, D. B. and van der Merwe, N. J., ‘Mining for the lowest grade ore: traditional iron production in Malawi’, Geoarchaeology, n (1986), 199216.

145 Keesman, I., Preuss, J. and Endres, J., ‘Eisengewinnung aus laterischen Erzen, Ruki-Region, Provinz Equateur/Zaire’, Offa, XL (1983), 183–90.

146 Wenner and van der Merwe, ‘Mining’.

147 Killick, D., ‘Recent iron-smelting in central Malawi’, Nyame Akuma, XXVIII (1987), 27–9; Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’; Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’.

148 Rostoker, W. and Bronson, B., Pre-industrial Iron: its Technology and Ethnology (Philadelphia, 1990), 1232.

149 Sassoon, H., ‘Iron-Smelting in the hill village of Sukur, north-eastern Nigeria’, Man, lxIV (1964), 174–8.

150 de Barros, ‘Bassar’.

151 Wenner and van der Merwe, ‘Mining’.

152 van der Merwe and Killick, ‘Square’.

153 Cline, Mining and Metallurgy.

154 Miller, D. E. and Maggs, T., ‘Pre-colonial metalworking in Africa, especially southern Africa: a bibliography’ (Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town 1991), 161.

155 van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Science and magic’.

156 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Pole, L. M., ‘Furnace design and the smelting operation: a survey of written reports or iron smelting in West Africa’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 142–63.

157 van der Merwe, N. J., The Carbon-14 Dating of Iron (Chicago, 1969), 1137; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; van der Merwe, N. J., ‘Production of high carbon steel in the African Iron Age: the direct steel process’, in Leakey, R. E. and Ogot, B. A. (eds.), Proceedings of the Pan African Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies (Nairobi, 1977), 331–4; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’; Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’; Killick, ‘A comparative perspective’; Killick, ‘Technology’; Killick, ‘A little-known extractive process’.

158 Pleiner, R., ‘Problem of direct steel production in early ferrous metallurgy’, Steel Times, XX (1968), 312–18; Clough, R. E., ‘The bloomery process—observations on the use of rich ores and the production of natural steel’, in Scott, B. G. and Cleere, H. (eds.), The Crafts of the Blacksmith (Belfast, 1984), 1927; Bjorkenstam, N., ‘Prehistoric and medieval iron production: reaction processes in the reduction of iron ores in low shaft furnaces’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, XIX (1985), 186–92; Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’; Rostoker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

159 Grébenart, ‘Characteristics’; Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

160 Herbert, Red Gold.

161 Schwellnus, ‘Short notes’; van der Merwe and Scully, ‘The Phalaborwa story’; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

162 Friede and Steel, ‘Notes’.

163 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Herbert, Red Gold.

164 Ibid.

165 van der Merwe and Scully, ‘The Phalaborwa story’.

166 Herbert, Red Gold.

167 Sandelowsky, B. H., ‘Prehistoric metal-working in South West Africa’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIV (1974), 363–6.

168 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

169 Herbert, Red Gold.

170 Ibid.

171 Friede and Steel, ‘Notes’.

172 Killick et al., ‘Reassessment’.

173 Tylecote, History.

174 Herbert, Red Gold.

175 Rostoker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

176 van der Merwe, Carbon-14 Dating; Rostoker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

177 van der Merwe, ‘Production of high carbon steel’; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’.

178 Killick, ‘A comparative perspective’; Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’.

179 Morton, G. R. and Wingrove, J., ‘The efficiency of the bloomery process’, Bulletin of the Historical Metallurgy Group, III (1969), 66–7; Bjorkenstam, ‘Prehistoric and medieval iron production’.

180 Morton and Wingrove, ‘Efficiency of the bloomery’.

181 Ibid.; Rostoker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

182 Pleiner, ‘Problem of direct steel production’.

183 Ibid.; Morton and Wingrove, ‘Efficiency of the bloomery’; Tylecote, R. F., Austin, J. M. and Wraith, A. E., ‘The mechanism of the bloomery process in shaft furnaces’, Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, CCIX (1971), 342–63; Friede, H. M. and Steel, R. H., ‘An experimental study of iron-smelting techniques used in the South African Iron Age’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXVII (1977). 233–42; van der Merwe, ‘Production of high carbon steel’; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’; Avery, D. H., ‘The iron bloomery’, in Wertime, T. A. and Wertime, S. F. (eds.), Early Pyrotechnology: the Evolution of the First Fire-using Industries (Washington, 1982), 205–14; Clough, ‘The bloomery process’; Friede, H. M., Hejja, A. A., Koursaris, A. and Steel, R. H., ‘Thermal aspects of the smelting of iron ore in reconstructed South African Iron Age furnaces’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXXIV (1984), 285–97; Bjorkenstam, ‘Prehistoric and medieval iron production’; Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’; Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’; Rostocker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

184 Bellamy, C. V., ‘A West African smelting house’, Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, LVI (1904), 99127; Stanley, G. H., ‘Some products of native iron smelting’, South African Journal of Science, XXVIII (1931), 131–4; Schulz, E. H., ‘Zusammensetzung und Aufbau einiger Metallfunde der Afrika-Expedition von Leo Frobenius 1929/30’, Paideuma, v (1950), 5965; Avery and Schmidt, ‘Metallurgical Study’; van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; Schmidt, P. R., ‘Further evidence for an advanced prehistoric technology in Africa’, Journal of Field Archaeology, X (1983), 421–34; Schmidt and Childs, ‘Innovation and industry’; Todd, J. A., ‘Studies of the African Iron Age’, Journal of Metals, XXXI (1979), 3945; Killick, ‘A comparative perspective’; Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’; David et al., ‘Bloomery and blast furnace’.

185 Pleiner, ‘Problem of direct steel production’; Pleiner, R., ‘Early iron metallurgy in Europe’, in Wertime, and Muhly, (eds.), The Coming of the Age of Iron, 375415.

186 Pleiner, ‘Problem of direct steel production’; Tylecote et al., ‘Mechanism of the bloomery’; Tylecote, R. F. and Merkel, J. F., ‘Experimental smelting techniques: achievements and future’, in Craddock, and Hughes, (eds.), Furnaces and Smelting Technology, 320.

187 Ibid.

188 Clough, ‘The bloomery process’.

189 Pleiner, ‘Early iron metallurgy’.

190 Killick, ‘A comparative perspective’; Rostocker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

191 Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’; Allen, R. F., Dawson, J. C., Glenn, M. F., Gordon, R. B., Killick, D. J. and Ward, R. W., ‘An archaeological survey of bloomery forges in the Adirondacks’, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archaeology, xvi (1990), 320; Gordon, R. B. and Killick, D. J., ‘The metallurgy of the American bloomery process’, Archeomaterials, vi (1992), 141–67.

192 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’; van der Merwe and Avery, ‘Pathways’; Rostoker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron.

193 Todd, J. A. and Charles, J. A., ‘Ethiopian bloomery iron and the significance of inclusion analysis in iron studies’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, XII (1978), 6387; Todd, ‘Studies of the African Iron Age’; Todd, J. A., ‘Iron production by the Dimi of Ethiopia’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 88101.

194 Schmidt and Avery, ‘Complex iron smelting’; Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’.

195 Schmidt and Avery, ‘Complex iron smelting’; Schmidt and Avery, ‘More evidence’; Avery and Schmidt, ‘Metallurgical study’; Avery, D. H. and Schmidt, P. R., ‘The use of preheated air in ancient and recent African iron smelting furnaces: a reply to Rehder’, Journal of Field Archaeology, XIII (1986), 354–7; Schmidt and Childs, ‘Innovation and industry’.

196 Eggert, ‘Alleged complexity’; Rehder, ‘Use of preheated air’; Rehder, J. E., ‘Reply to Avery and Schmidt’, Journal of Field Archaeology, XIV (1987), 122; Killick, ‘A comparative perspective’.

197 Childs, S. T. and Schmidt, P. R., ‘Experimental iron smelting: a genesis of a hypothesis with implications for African prehistory and history’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 121–41.

198 Killick, ‘A comparative perspective’.

199 Avery and Schmidt, ‘Metallurgical study’.

200 Pleiner, ‘Problem of direct steel production’; Tylecote et al., ‘Mechanism of the bloomery’; Eggert, ‘Alleged complexity’; Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’.

201 Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’.

202 Tylecote, History.

203 Killick, ‘A little-known extractive process’.

204 Prendergast, M. D., ‘A new furnace type from the Darwendale Dam basin’, Journal of the Prehistory Society of Rhodesia, VII (1975), 1620.

205 Killick, ‘A little-known extractive process’; Killick, ‘The relevance of recent African iron-smelting practice’.

206 Bellamy, ‘West African smelting house’.

207 Zacharias, S. and Bachmann, H.-G., ‘Iron smelting in Western Africa: Ivory Coast’, Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, XVII (1983), 13.

208 Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’; Killick, ‘A little-known extractive process’.

209 Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’.

210 Ibid.

211 Wenner and van der Merwe, ‘Mining’.

212 Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’.

213 David et al., ‘Bloomery and blast furnace’.

214 Ibid.

215 Bellamy, ‘West African smelting house’.

216 Rostocker and Bronson, Pre-industrial Iron, 138.

217 Ibid.

218 Ibid.

219 Avery et al., ‘Metallurgy’.

220 Ibid. 276.

221 Ibid. 278.

222 The reduced pisolith illustrated in Fig. 1 of Killick and Gordon (“The mechanism of iron production’, 122), captioned ‘Kasungu, Malawi. Concentric shells of ferrite, pseudomorphous after a laterite pisolith, in slag of fayalite, glass and undissolved quartz’, is almost identical to those in Figs. 24.5c and 24.5d of Avery et al. (‘Metallurgy’, 278), captioned ‘Concentric formation of platelets into protonodules, Chulu ngʾ anjo’ and ‘Hollow nodule’ respectively.

223 Killick and Gordon, ‘The mechanism of iron production’.

224 Ibid. 120.

225 Ibid.

226 Ibid.

227 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

228 Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

229 van der Merwe, ‘Advent’.

230 Kense, ‘Initial diffusion’.

231 Pole, ‘Furnace design’; Sutton, J. E. G., ‘Temporal and spatial variability in African iron furnaces’, in Haaland, and Shinnie, (eds.), African Iron Working, 164–96.

232 Pole, ‘Furnace design’.

233 Sutton, ‘Temporal and spatial variability’, 190.

234 Küsel, U. S., ‘“Primitive” iron smelting in the Transvaal’, Studies by the National Cultural History and Open-Air Museum, in (1974), 120.

235 Friede, H. M., ‘Iron-smelting furnaces and metallurgical traditions of the South African Iron Age’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXIX (1979). 372–81.

236 Friede, H. M., ‘The metallurgical past of southern Africa: distribution, typology and characteristics of traditional iron smelting furnaces’, University of the Witwatersrand Archaeological Research Unit Occasional Papers 15 (1986), 121.

237 Maggs, ‘The Iron Age’; Friede, ‘Metallurgical past’.

238 Prendergast, ‘A new furnace type’.

239 Friede, ‘Metallurgical past’.

240 Friede, ‘Metallurgical past’; Childs, ‘Style’; Killick, ‘The relevance of recent African iron-smelting practice’.

241 Friede, H. M. and Steel, R. H., ‘Traditional smithing and forging of South African bloomery iron’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, XLI (1986), 81–6.

242 Bellamy, ‘West African smelting house’.

243 Ibid.

244 Sassoon, ‘Iron-smelting’.

245 Crawhill, T. C., ‘Iron working in the Sudan’, Man, XXXIII (1933), 41–3.

246 Todd and Charles, ‘Ethiopian bloomery iron’; Todd, ‘Studies of the African Iron Age’.

247 Brown, J., ‘Iron working in southern Mbeere’, Mila, XXII (1971), 3750.

248 Maggs, T., ‘Hloma Mathonsi, the Zulu Blacksmith: a recording by the Rev. H. F. O. Dedekind in 1929’, Annals of the Natal Museum, XXVII (1986), 481–9.

249 David et al., ‘Bloomery and blast furnace’.

250 Herbert, Red Gold.

251 Hechter-Schulz, K., ‘Wire bangles, a record of a Bantu craft; a note on the making of brass wire bangles by a Shangaan on the gold mines near Springs’, South African Journal of Science, lix (1963), 51–3.

252 Fagan, B. M., ‘Wire-drawing’, South African Journal of Science, lix (1963), 525–6; Herbert, Red Gold.

253 Steel, R. H., ‘Ingot casting and wire drawing in Iron Age southern Africa’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, lxXV (1975), 232–7.

254 Herbert, Red Gold.

255 Herbert, Red Gold.

256 Shaw, T., ‘The analysis of West African bronzes’, Ibadan, XXVIII (1970), 80–9; Willett, F., ‘Who taught the smiths of Igbo Ukwu?’, New Scientist, XCVIII (1983), 65–8; Craddock, ‘Medieval copper alloy production’.

257 Herbert, Red Gold.

258 Ibid.

259 Virchow, R., ‘Ethnographische Gegenstände aus Süd-Africa’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, XXV (1893), 319–20; Stow, G. W., The Native Races of South Africa (London, 1905), 1618; Haddon, A. C., ‘Copper rod currency from the Transvaal’, Man, lxV (1908), 121–2; Hemsworth, H. D., ‘Note on marali currency’, Man, lxV (1908), 122; Stanley, ‘Notes’; Stanley, ‘Primitive metallurgy’; Trevor, ‘Some observations’; Dicke, B. H., ‘A Bavenda sacred object’, South African Journal of Science, XXIII (1926), 935–6; Lindblom, G., ‘Copper rod “currency” from Palaborwa, N. Transvaal’, Man, XXVI (1926), 144–7; Stayt, H. A., The Bavenda (London, 1931), 66–8; Thompson, L. C., ‘The Mu-Tsuku’, South African Journal of Science, XXXV (1938), 396–8; Thompson, ‘Ingots of native manufacture’; Thompson, ‘A native-made ingot’; van Warmelo, N. J., The Copper Miners of Musina and the Early History of the Zoutpansberg (Pretoria, 1940), 62; de Vaal, ‘Messina’; de Vaal, J. B., ‘Handel langs die vroegste roetes’, Contree, XVII (1985), 514; Bloomhill, G., ‘The ancient copper miners of Africa’, African World (04 1963), 67; van der Merwe and Scully, ‘The Phalaborwa story’; Friede, ‘Notes’; Steel, ‘Ingot casting’; Ackerman, D., ‘Marale van groot argeologiese belang’, Custos, XII (1983), 30–1; Eloff, J. H., “n Nuwe orde’, in Peinaar, U. De V. (ed.), Neem uit die Verlede (National Parks Board of South Africa, 1990), 2847.

260 Killick, ‘A tin lerale’.

261 M. R. Grant, pers. comm.; J. Scholtemeyer, pers. comm.

262 Verhoef, J. and Küsel, M., ‘Thulamela's gold’, Custos, XXI (5) (1992), 3846.

263 Huffman, ‘Ancient mining and Zimbabwe’; Phimister, ‘Pre-colonial gold mining’.

264 Hromník, Indo-Africa; Hromník, C. A., ‘Recent models of the African Iron Age and the cattle-related evidence’, Diogenes (Fall 1982), 103–13; Comité scientifique international pour la rédaction d'une histoire générale de l'Afrique, ‘Controversy concerning the article by Cyril A. Hromník’, Diogenes (Fall 1986), 131–9; Hromník, C. A., ‘Dravidian gold mining and trade in ancient Komatiland’, Journal of Asian and African Studies, XXVI (1991), 283–90.

265 Comité scientifique international pour la rédaction d'une histoire générale de l'Afrique, ‘Controversy’.

* Financial support from the Foundation for Research Development, CSIR (South Africa) and from Anglo-American De Beers Chairman's Fund Educational Trust is acknowledged gratefully. The University of Cape Town provided facilities and administrative support for this research. We wish to thank Judith Sealy for her very thorough reading of a draft and suggestions for improvement. The constructive criticism of anonymous referees is acknowledged with thanks.

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