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JUST LIKE IN COLONIAL TIMES? ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE AND LOCAL REFLECTIONS ON ‘GRASSROOTS NEOCOLONIALISM’ IN AUTONOMOUS AND POSTCOLONIAL DAHOMEY, 1958–65

  • ALEXANDER KEESE (a1)

Abstract

In Dahomey (Benin) during the period of autonomy and the first years of independence, the reference to a colonial past was an important instrument and point of debate. Members of a new group of politicians used it to accuse trade union leaders to make unrealistic claims; local peasants mobilized it as their point of reference against infrastructure projects; officials discussed it to make sense of tax refusals, while locals invoked older forms of tax resistance they had practiced under colonial rule. This article follows the different relationships with the colonial past, through the regions of Abomey and Porto-Novo, and shows how these experiences were viewed by local residents and by nationalist leaders, such as Justin Ahomadegbé. It also serves as an example and an injunction to make use of the administrative postcolonial archive.

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      JUST LIKE IN COLONIAL TIMES? ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE AND LOCAL REFLECTIONS ON ‘GRASSROOTS NEOCOLONIALISM’ IN AUTONOMOUS AND POSTCOLONIAL DAHOMEY, 1958–65
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      JUST LIKE IN COLONIAL TIMES? ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE AND LOCAL REFLECTIONS ON ‘GRASSROOTS NEOCOLONIALISM’ IN AUTONOMOUS AND POSTCOLONIAL DAHOMEY, 1958–65
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      JUST LIKE IN COLONIAL TIMES? ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE AND LOCAL REFLECTIONS ON ‘GRASSROOTS NEOCOLONIALISM’ IN AUTONOMOUS AND POSTCOLONIAL DAHOMEY, 1958–65
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Research for this article was supported by Project n° 157443 (SNSF Research Professors) of the Swiss National Science Foundation. Author's e-mail: Alexander.Keese@unige.ch

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References

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1 Archives Nationales du Bénin, Porto-Novo, Benin (ANB), PR, 1251, Benoît Iké, Apollinaire Kokou, Jean Etchou, Félix Adjaï, Lazarre Bancolé, Joachin Edoun, Calixte Adégbola, Séraphin Okanlawon, all for ‘Jeunesse révolutionnaire de Kétou’, to Mathieu Kérékou, President of the Popular Republic of Benin, 21 August 1975, 1.

2 The principal reflection — a structural interpretation of the transition around 1990 rather than a source-based historical approach — on the 1960s in Benin/Dahomey is Banégas, R., La démocratie à pas de caméléon: transitions et imaginaires politiques au Bénin (Paris, 2003), 3346.

3 ANB, PR, 809, Renseignements a/s du Congrès des Elèves et Etudiants du Borgou et de l'Atacora tenu à Parakou les 11 et 12 Août 1967. (n° 205), 21 August 1967, 3. Dahomean informers presented the same narrative to the French embassy regarding the Parti Dahoméen de l'Unité (PDU), the unity party ruling from 1960 to Maga's downfall in 1963, see Archives Diplomatiques du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, La Courneuve, France (MAE), Direction des Affaires Africaines et Malgaches (DAM), Dahomey, 1181, French Foreign Ministry, Directorate of African and Malagasy Affairs, République du Dahomey, 3 July 1963, 3.

4 For first warnings against neocolonialist continuities see the influential Dumont, R., L'Afrique noire est mal partie (Paris, 1962); those were reiterated by the following generation of scholars, such as Martin, G., ‘L'Afrique face à l'idéologie de l'Eurafrique: Néocolonialisme ou Panafricanisme?Africa Development/Afrique et Développement, 7:3 (1982), 521.

5 Cooper, F., ‘Possibility and constraint: African independence in historical perspective’, The Journal of African History, 49:1 (2008), 167–96, 179–80.

6 Keese, A., ‘First lessons in neo-colonialism: the personalisation of relations between African politicians and French officials in sub-Saharan Africa, 1956–1966’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 35:4 (2007), 593613, 605.

7 The classic argument is given by Mamdani, M., Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism (Princeton, 1996), and partly refuted by Schneider, L., ‘Colonial legacies and postcolonial authoritarianism in Tanzania: connects and disconnects’, African Studies Review, 49:1 (2006), 93118.

8 An important overview (but which is not based on empirical work) is A. Burton and M. Jennings, ‘Introduction: the emperor's new clothes? Continuities in governance in late colonial and early postcolonial East Africa’, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 40:1 (2007), 1–25; see also Maekawa, I., ‘Neo-colonialism reconsidered: a case study of East Africa in the 1960s and 1970s’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 43:2 (2015), 317–41.

9 Those accounts are still insufficiently analytic and source-based. For a more complete but monumental approach, see the recent Lewin, A., Ahmed Sékou Touré (1922–1984), Président de la Guinée de 1958 à 1984 (Vol. 1. 1922–1956) (Paris, 2009). For a successful attempt to combine biography and study on global historical entanglements, see Mann, G., ‘Anti-colonialism and social science: Georges Balandier, Madeira Keita, and ‘the colonial situation’ in French Africa’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 55:1 (2013), 92119, for the Guinean-Malian leader Madeira Keïta.

10 Part of Ahomadegbé’s trajectory appears in Fink, E., ‘Institutional terra non firma: representative democracy and the chieftaincy in French West Africa’, in Naylor, E. (ed.), France's Modernising Mission: Citizenship, Welfare and the End of Empire (London, 2018), 3157, 43–4.

11 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Guy Georgy, French Ambassador in Dahomey, to French Foreign Ministry, Directorate of African and Malagasy Affairs (n° 23/DAM/A/MAE/S), 30 April 1964, 4. Unless otherwise stated, all translations are my own.

12 The term ‘grassroots neocolonialism’ refers here to perceptions of ‘neocolonial behaviour’ at the local and regional level, and the reactions of local populations to this. It is inspired by Elizabeth Schmidt's masterful discussions of grassroots mobilization in the nationalist movement in Guinea-Conakry, see Schmidt, E., Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea, 1946–1958 (Athens, OH, 2007), 180–3.

13 G. Fonteneau, Histoire du syndicalisme en Afrique (Paris, 2004), 73–81; Blum, F., Révolutions africaines: Congo, Sénégal, Madagascar années 1960–1970 (Rennes, 2014), 6776.

14 ANB, 1R/20, Jean-Claude Masson, Administrator of Subdivision of Bopa, District of Mono, Rapport sur la Situation Alimentaire de la Subdivision (n° 529), 21 August 1959, 2.

15 ANB, 1E16.10/6, A. Colombani, Administrator of District (cercle) of Porto-Novo, to Minister of Agriculture & Rural Action of the Autonomous State of Dahomey, a.s. Cooperatives de Village (n° 675), 3 November 1958.

16 Archives de la Préfecture du Zou, Abomey, Benin (henceforth APA-BEN), Dossier « Impôts 1959 », Paul Dagniho, Rapporteur, and Fébron Bah, President of the Commission, Rapport de la Commission itinérante de propagandes civiques dans la Sous-Préfecture d'Abomey, 17 November 1962, 2.

17 ANB, 1D26, not signed, Sur un Rapport Economique [1941], 1.

18 Hodge, J. M., The Triumph of the Expert: Agrarian Doctrines of Development and the Legacies of British Colonialism (Athens, OH, 2007), 256–62, and Beinart, W., Brown, K., and Gilfoyle, D., ‘Experts and Expertise in Colonial Africa Reconsidered: Science and the Interpenetration of Knowledge’, African Affairs, 108:432 (2009), 413–33, 433.

19 Falola, T. and Aderinto, S., Nigeria, Nationalism, and Writing History (Rochester, 2010), 5367; Bamba, A., Transnational Politics and the Paradox of Modernization in Ivory Coast (Athens, OH, 2016). On the politics of palm products and their agriculture in late colonial and postcolonial Dahomey, see Le Meur, P.-Y., ‘Etat, paysanneries, et pouvoirs locaux au Sud-Bénin: le palmier vu d'en bas’, Politique Africaine, 59 (1995), 82101.

20 Kantrowitz, R., ‘Triangulating between Church, state, and postcolony: coopérants in independent West Africa’, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 56:221–222 (2016), 219–41; Hugon, P., ‘Portraits comparés du coopérant et de l'administrateur de la France d'outre-mer au tournant des indépendances’, Outre-Mers, 384–5 (2014), 1536.

21 Grätz, T., ‘La rébellion de Kaba (1916–1917) dans l'imaginaire politique au Bénin’, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 35:1 (2000), 675703.

22 See the essential synthesis by Lecocq, B., ‘From colonialism to Keïta: comparing pre- and post-independence regimes (1946–1968)’, Mande Studies 5 (2003), 2947, for Mali, and, for Nigeria and as an issue of local (‘traditional’) rule in Guyer, J. I., ‘Representation without taxation: an essay on democracy in rural Nigeria, 1952–1990’, African Studies Review, 35:1 (1992), 4179.

23 Le Meur, P.-Y., ‘Grandeurs villageoises: la politique des ressources et des appartenances au centre du Bénin’, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 52:208 (2012), 877903, 881–6.

24 Morgenthau, R. S., Political Parties in French-Speaking West Africa (Oxford, 1964), 316–8.

25 Banégas, Démocratie, 32–6.

26 Staniland, M., ‘The three-party system in Dahomey: II, 1956–1957’, The Journal of African History, 14:3 (1973), 491504, 503; Manning, P., Slavery, Colonialism and Economic Growth in Dahomey, 1640–1960 (Cambridge et al., 1982), 278; Ronen, D., Dahomey: Between Tradition and Modernity (London, 1975), 97103, 189–91.

27 Schmidt, E., ‘Anticolonial Nationalism in French West Africa: What Made Guinea Unique?’, African Studies Review, 52:2 (2009), 134, 13.

28 This interpretation would seem to differ from the narrative on the lack of democratic possibilities in African states directly after independence, see Owusu, M., ‘Domesticating Democracy: Culture, Civil Society, and Constitutionalism in Africa’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 39:1 (1997), 120–52.

29 Terray, E., ‘Les révolutions congolaise et dahoméenne de 1963: essai d'interprétation’, Revue Française de Science Politique, 14:5 (1964), 917–42, 925–31; Decalo, S., ‘Regionalism, Politics, and the Military in Dahomey’, Journal of Developing Areas, 7:3 (1973), 449–78.

30 For a company archives experience in Gabon, which is in some ways similar to that in the two difficult, but accessible, regional archives that I mention here (although I would certainly rather insist on the opportunity to interpret such archives), see Hecht, G., Being Nuclear: Africans and the Global Uranium Trade (Cambridge/MS – London, 2012), 344–5. For the potential of interpreting NGO archives, see Mann, G., From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel: The Road to Nongovernmentality (New York, 2015), 170208.

31 Filippello, M., The Nature of the Path: Reading a West African Road (Minneapolis, 2017), 123–30.

32 Allman, J., ‘Phantoms of the archive: Kwame Nkrumah, a Nazi pilot named Hanna, and the contingencies of postcolonial history writing’, American Historical Review, 118:1 (2013), 104–29, 126–7.

33 The most noteworthy exception is Derek Peterson's initiative, with local partners and students, to preserve and reorganize Ugandan archives, see https://derekrpeterson.com/archive-work. To the best of my knowledge, there is no comparable activity (nor any call for it) with regard to West Africa.

34 The exception was the Keese/Owabira project in the Republic of Congo, 2017; see the project survey for EAP 844 at https://eap.bl.uk/sites/default/files/EAP844%20Survey.pdf.

35 Bernault, F., ‘Suitcases and the poetics of oddities: writing history from disorderly archives’, History in Africa, 42 (2015), 269–77.

36 In the case of some postcolonial societies, important progress has been made, see, for Uganda, Peterson, D. R., ‘States of Mind: Political History and the Rwenzururu Kingdom in Western Uganda’, in Peterson, D. R. and Macola, G. (eds.), Recasting the Past: History Writing and Political Work in Modern Africa (Athens, OH, 2009), 173–90.

37 Mann, G., ‘Dust to dust: a user's guide to local archives in Mali’, History in Africa, 26 (1999), 453–6.

38 Daly, S. F. Childs, ‘Research note: archival research in Africa’, African Affairs, 116:463 (2017), 311–20, 311.

39 Ellis, S., ‘Writing histories of contemporary Africa’, The Journal of African History, 43:1 (2002), 126.

40 This is the case, for example, in Thomas, M., Fight or Flight? Britain, France, and Their Roads from Empire (Oxford, New York, 2014).

41 Cooper, F., Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945–1960 (Princeton, 2014).

42 Skinner, K., ‘Who knew the minds of the people? Specialist knowledge and developmentalist authoritarianism in postcolonial Ghana’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 39:2 (2011), 297323; see also Miescher, S. F., ‘‘Nkrumah's Baby’: the Akosombo Dam and the dream of development in Ghana, 1952–1966’, Water History, 6:4 (2014), 341–66; Miescher, S. F., ‘Building the city of the future: visions and experiences of modernity in Ghana's Akosombo Township’, The Journal of African History, 53:2 (2012), 367–90.

43 Representative of this problem is Skinner, K., The Fruits of Freedom in British Togoland: Literacy, Politics, and Nationalism, 1914–2014 (New York, 2015).

44 Mainly for the colonial period (and former British colonies), see Gardner, L. A., Taxing Colonial Africa: The Political Economy of British Imperialism (Oxford, 2012), 226–38.

45 Blum, Révolutions, 69–70, 81; Bernault, F., Démocraties Ambiguës: Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon: 1940–1965 (Paris, 1996).

46 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Telegram from Vial to French Foreign Ministry, Directorate of African and Malagasy Affairs (n° 915/18), 21 Dec. 1963.

47 Phelan, C., ‘Trade unions and ‘responsible participation’: Dahomey, 1958–1975’, Labor History, 55:3 (2014), 346–64, 352.

48 Keese, ‘Lessons’, 597–8.

49 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1184, Tirant, French High Commissioner of Dahomey, to Raymond Janot, Secretary-General of the Communauté, and Pierre Messmer, High Commissioner of French West Africa, 8 April 1959, 4; MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1184, Raynaud, District Commissioner (Commandant de Cercle) of Ouidah, to Tirant, 8 April 1959.

50 ANB, PR, 732, Secretariat-General of the Government of Dahomey, Procès-Verbal de la Rencontre avec les Syndicats [March 1964], 2.

51 Ibid. 2.

52 Ibid.

53 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Guy Georgy, French Ambassador in Dahomey, to French Foreign Ministry, Directorate of African and Malagasy Affairs (n° 23/DAM/A/MAE/S), 4 June 1964, 1–2.

54 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Georgy to French Foreign Ministry, Directorate of African and Malagasy Affairs (n° 56/DAM/A/MAE/S), 21 October 1964, 2–3.

55 ANB, PR, 732, Secretariat-General of the Government of Dahomey, Procès-Verbal [March 1964], 3.

56 This is reflected in MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Georgy to French Foreign Ministry, Directorate of African and Malagasy Affairs (n° 23/DAM/A/MAE/S), 30 April 1964, 3.

57 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Jacques-Bernard Dupont, French Ambassador at Cotonou, to Couve de Murville (n° 99/SE), 4 August 1962, 6.

58 D. Machioudi, ‘Développement et mise en valeur des plantations de palmier à huile au Dahomey’, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 12:47 (1972), 485–99.

59 ANB, 1E16.10/6, A. Colombani to Minister of Agriculture and Rural Action of Dahomey (n° 675), 3 November 1958, 5–6.

60 Such ‘experts’ built the argument on transforming the sociétés de prévoyance introduced in the 1910s and solidified in the 1930s into a Société Mutuelle de Développement Rural (SMDR), created by a 1956 decree, and then inviting the local communities to take the SMDR help and expertise to form local cooperatives. On the earlier structure under colonialism, see Mann, G. and Guyer, J. I., ‘Imposing a guide on the indigène: the fifty-year experience of the Sociétés de Prévoyance in French West and Equatorial Africa’, in Stiansen, E. and Guyer, J. I. (eds.), Credit, Currencies, and Culture: African Financial Institutions in Historical Perspective (Uppsala, 1999), 118–45.

61 ANB, 1E16.10/6, A. Colombani, District Commissioner of Porto-Novo, to Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Action of Dahomey, a.s. Cooperatives de Village. (n° 675), 3 November 1958, 5–6.

62 Ibid. 23–4.

63 ANB, 1R/20, Pierre Gbénou, Controller of the Cooperatives of Porto-Novo, to Ministry of Agriculture of Dahomey, Directorate of Rural Action, Rapport Mensuel, 31 March 1959, 1.

64 ANB, 1R/20, Pierre Gbénou, Rapport Mensuel, 31 December 1958.

65 APA-BEN, Dossier « 1958 Taxe Cercle T1/15 », Pierre Gau, Administrator of Central Subdivision of Abomey, [Réunion du Conseil des Notables de la Subdivision d'Abomey], March 1958, 4.

66 See also Codo, B. C., ‘Les associations de classe d’âge (les donkpè) dans l'ancien royaume du Danxomè et leurs mutations sous la colonisation’, in Almeida-Topor, Hélène et al. (eds.), Les jeunes en Afrique, vol. 1 (Paris, 1992), 176–85.

67 APA-BEN, Dossier « 1958 Taxe Cercle T1/15 », Pierre Gau, [Réunion …], March 1958, 4.

68 ANB, PR, 809, Kouandété, Commandant of Bataillon (signed by Captain Coffi, Lieutenant Glélé, Under-Lieutenant Béhéton, Adjudant-Chef Do Rego), Commission of Inquiry of Comité Militaire de Vigilance, Rapport du chef de bataillon Kouandété, Président de la Commission d'enquête envoyée par le Comité Militaire de Vigilance à Setto, Sous-Préfecture d'Abomey, sur les dommages agricoles, causés à un groupe de paysans de la région de Setto, par le Colonel Philippe Aho, Ministre de l'Intérieur et de la Sécurité (n° 100/C.M.V.), 29 June 1967.

69 APA-BEN, Dossier « Impôts 1959 », Paul Dagniho, as writer of the report, and Fébron Bah, President of the Commission, Rapport de la Commission itinérante de propagandes civiques dans la Sous-Préfecture d'Abomey, 17 November 1962, 4.

70 B. Brunet-La Ruche, ‘‘Crime et châtiment aux colonies’: poursuivre, juger, sanctionner au Dahomey de 1894 à 1945’ (unpublished PhD dissertation, Université Toulouse II, 2013), 231–2, 328, 344–5.

71 Archives Nationales d'Outre-Mer, Aix-en-Provence, France (ANOM), Fonds Roger Peperty, 184APOM/1, Peperty, Administrateur de la Subdivision de Porto-Novo, Rapport sur le Fonctionnement du Régime des Travaux Effectués sur les Crédits de la Taxe Additionnelle remplaçant les Prestations. [1939].

72 APA-BEN, Dossier « 1958 Taxe Cercle T1/15 », Pierre Gau, [Réunion …], March 1958, 2.

73 Ibid. 4–5.

74 Cooper, F., Decolonization and African society: The Labor Question in French and British Africa (Cambridge et al., 1996).

75 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1184, Telegram from Tirant to Bonfils (n° 50095), 18 August 1959, 1.

76 MAE, DAM, Dahomey, 1181, Jacques-Bernard Dupont, French Ambassador in Cotonou, to Couve de Murville (n° 99/SE), 4 August 1962, 7.

77 APA-BEN, Dossier « Taxes Mode de Perception D6/Taxes » (henceforth TMP-D6/T), B. Aniambossou, Controller of Direct Contributions, to Director of Direct Contributions in Cotonou (n° 107/C.D.-1), 27 February 1959.

78 APA-BEN, TMP-D6/T, Pernon, Administrator of Central Subdivision of Abomey, Procès-Verbal, 1–2.

79 APA-BEN, TMP-D6/T, Augustin Nagnonhou, for the representatives of the Village of Hounto, traditional district (canton) of Sinhoué, to Administrator of Central Subdivision of Abomey, Demande de recensement et de dégrèvement. (n° 3), 8 May 1959.

80 APA-BEN, Dossier TMP-D6/T, Malfettes, District Administrator of Abomey, to Secretary of State for Finances of Dahomey (n° 639/CA.), 9 September 1959, 1.

81 APA-BEN, TMP-D6/T, Pernon, Procès-Verbal.

82 APA-BEN, TMP-D6/T, Pernon to Malfettes (n° 1194/SC), 14 November 1959.

83 APA-BEN, TMP-D6/T, Malfettes, District Administrator of Abomey, to Minister of Finances of Dahomey (n° 918/CA.), 3 December 1959.

84 APA-BEN, TMP-D6/T, Pernon to Chief of Traditional District (canton) of Tindji (n° 244(SC)), 24 December 1959.

85 APA-BEN, Dossier « Impôts », Jacques Allusson, Acting Prefect of the Department of Centre/Zou, to Councillor-General (Deputy) of Abomey (n° 139/Dpt.C.), 10 March 1961.

86 Historical debate on Ahomadegbé and repression of the UDD in 1961/62 is extremely weak, see Keese, ‘Lessons’, 598.

87 APA-BEN, Dossier « Taxe Civique 1961 », Gbogbanou Aouèdo, Village Chief of Avlamé c/ Zogbodomé, to Sub-Prefect of Abomey, January 1962, 1–2.

88 Ibid. 2.

89 APA-BEN, Dossier « Taxe Civique 1961 », Nougloï, Village Chief of Zêko, Canton of Tindji, Subdivision of Abomey, to Sub-Prefect of Abomey, 29 January 1962.

90 See, e.g., APA-BEN, Dossier « Taxe Civique 1961 », Jean Hanguilo, Village Chief of Huélou, canton of Zindji, to Sub-Prefect of Abomey, 21 February 1962, 2.

91 APA-BEN, Dossier « Impôts 1959 », Dagniho and Bah, Rapport de la Commission itinérante de propagandes civiques dans la Sous-Préfecture d'Abomey, 17 November 1962, 3.

92 Ibid. 4.

93 Ibid. 6.

94 Ibid. 12.

95 APA-BEN, Dossier « DC », Th. Dan, Tax Controller at Bohicon, to Sub-Prefects of Abomey, Zangnanado, Dassa-Zoumé, Savalou, Savè, Aplahoué (n° 226(C.I.-1)), 1st December 1963.

96 APA-BEN, hors dossier, Alfred A. Bossou, Prefect of Sud-Est acting in Centre (Abomey) Region, to Councillors-General of Département du Centre, Projet de délibération portant création d'une taxe sur les pompes distributrices d'essence et fixation des taux. (n° 4/125), 2 April 1965.

97 Archives de la Commune de Ouidah, fonds non classifiés, Victorin Gougla, Simon Badou, Kimpli Agassounon, Innocent Aholoukpé, E. Antoine Evedjre, Houéssouvo, Allahassa, Le S.E. of CCR of Savi (Commune Rurale de Savi, District d'Ouidah, Province de l'Atlantique), to Chef de Brigade of Ouidah, 30 April 1975.

98 ANB, PR, 574, Da Silva, Note à l'Attention du Camarade Président de le [sic] République : Requête en date du 20 Février 1977, du Camarade Soglonou Chidédji Eké Instituteur à l'Ecole de Base de Kétonou (Houlènou).- (n° 71), 13 August 1977.

* Research for this article was supported by Project n° 157443 (SNSF Research Professors) of the Swiss National Science Foundation. Author's e-mail:

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JUST LIKE IN COLONIAL TIMES? ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE AND LOCAL REFLECTIONS ON ‘GRASSROOTS NEOCOLONIALISM’ IN AUTONOMOUS AND POSTCOLONIAL DAHOMEY, 1958–65

  • ALEXANDER KEESE (a1)

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