Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Towards a Right to Resist Gross Undemocratic Practices in Africa

  • Pacifique Manirakiza (a1)

Abstract

The adoption of the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance (ACDEG) has been a milestone for the transformation of Africa's political landscape. This instrument seeks to expand on the ideals of liberal democracy enshrined in the Constitutive Act of the African Union and other African fundamental instruments. The ACDEG seems to pave the way for the right to democracy for Africans, which entails, inter alia, political sovereignty of African citizens. The latter have clearly and vigorously exercised their sovereignty through elections when given such an opportunity. However, in some instances, African citizens resorted to popular uprisings in cases of gross violations of their democracy-related rights. With reference to the recent popular uprisings and coups (or attempted coups) in Africa, this article enquires, from a human rights perspective, whether ACDEG or other instruments, enshrine a right to resist gross undemocratic practices underpinning the right to democracy.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Towards a Right to Resist Gross Undemocratic Practices in Africa
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Towards a Right to Resist Gross Undemocratic Practices in Africa
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Towards a Right to Resist Gross Undemocratic Practices in Africa
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Professor of law, University of Ottawa. Former commissioner, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

Footnotes

References

Hide All

1 AU doc Assembly/AU/Dec.147 (VIII), adopted by the eighth ordinary session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government (Assembly) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 30 January 2007; entered into force 20 February 2012.

2 Schumpeter defines “liberal democracy” as an “institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of competitive struggle for the people's vote”: Schumpeter, JA Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1965, Routledge) at 284. The liberal democracy is one of the different forms of democracy listed by Pinkey and the most prevalent as of today: Pinkney, R Democracy in the Third World (2nd ed, 2003, Lynne Rienner) at 10–15.

3 Constitutive Act of the African Union, AHG/Dec.143 (XXXVI), adopted by the 36th ordinary session of the Assembly, Lomé, Togo, 11 July 2000, arts 3(g)(h) and 4(k)–(p); African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, OAU doc CAB/LEG/67/3 rev 5, 21 ILM 58 (1982), adopted by the 18th Assembly, held in Nairobi, Kenya, 27 June 1981, entered into force 21 October 1986, arts 13 and 20.

4 ACDEG, arts 2(2) and 10(1).

5 Id, arts 44(1), 2(10) and 3(7).

6 Id, arts 17–22.

8 Finlay, CJ Terrorism and the Right to Resist: A Theory of Just Revolutionary War (2015, Cambridge University Press) at 45.

9 Scanlon, TMHuman rights as a neutral concern” in Scanlon, TM (ed) The Difficulty of Tolerance: Essays in Political Philosophy (2003, Cambridge University Press) 113 at 113.

10 Final Communiqué of the 60th Ordinary Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Niamey, Republic of Niger 8–22 May 2017), para 16.

11 This has been the case in Rwanda and Burundi. The former amended its constitution in order to allow a third term for President Kagame. The latter also went through a constitutional amendment process that culminated in a popular referendum on 17 May 2018. Contrary to his Rwandan counterpart, the incumbent Burundian president, Mr Nkurunziza, has indicated that he will not run for the office under the terms of the new constitution, despite rumours and speculation from the opposition that the entire process was set in motion for him to rerun for the presidency in 2020. On Burundi, see S Vandeginste “Burundi's constitutional amendment: What do we know so far?” (Analysis and Policy Brief no 24, Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp, November 2017); also S Vandeginste “Burundi's constitutional referendum: Consolidating the fait accompli in the run-up to the 2020 elections” (23 January 2018) Constitutionnet, available at: <http://www.constitutionnet.org/news/burundis-constitutional-referendum-consolidating-fait-accompli-run-2020-elections> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

12 See for instance the 43rd Activity Report of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Submitted in Accordance with Article 54 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, para 36; the 42nd Activity Report of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Submitted in Accordance with Article 54 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, para 43.

13 The Assembly has highlighted the link between political instability, democracy deficit and unconstitutional regime change; see Decision on the Resurgence of the Scourge of Coups d’État in Africa, doc Assembly/AU/Dec.220(XII), para 1. For the Assembly, an unconstitutional change of government “… undermines the progress achieved in the ongoing democratization processes in the Continent and constitutes a threat to peace and security in Africa”; see Decision on the Prevention of Unconstitutional Changes of Government and Strengthening the Capacity of the African Union to Manage Such Situations, doc Assembly/AU/4(XVI): Assembly/AU/Dec.269(XIV) rev 1, para 3.

14 The suggested definition is based on the definition of unconstitutional changes of government; see ACDEG, art 23 and the Lomé Declaration of July 2000 on the Framework for an OAU Response to Unconstitutional Changes of Government, AHG/Decl.5 (XXXVI).

15 Popular upheavals include those in Burkina Faso in 2014, Burundi in 2015, Democratic Republic of Congo in 2016–17 and an attempted coup in Burundi in 2015 amid a political crisis. On Burkina Faso, see A Soma “Réflexion sur le changement insurrectionnel au Burkina Faso” [Reflection on the insurrectional change in Burkina Faso] (2015) 1 Revue CAMES, Sciences Juridiques et Politiques 1. On Burundi, see Acker, TVUnderstanding Burundi's predicament” (2015) 11 Africa Policy Brief (Egmont Papers) 1.

16 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 20.

17 “To speak impartially, both sayings are very true: that man to man is a kind of God; and that man to man is an arrant wolf” (emphasis original): T Hobbes De Cive (2000, InteLex Corporation) at 21, available at: <http://pm.nlx.com/xtf/view?docId=hobbes/hobbes.01.xml;chunk.id=div.britphil.v2.5;toc.depth=2;toc.id=div.britphil.v2.1;brand=default> (last accessed 19 February 2019).

18 J Locke Second Treatise of Government (1689, Awnsham Churchill) at 202.

19 J-J Rousseau The Social Contract & Discourses (1920, JM Dent & Sons) at 234.

20 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, approved by the National Assembly of France, 26 August 1789, art 2: “The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”

21 Heyns, CA ‘struggle approach’ to human rights” in Soeteman, A (ed) Pluralism in Law (2001, Kluwer Academic Publishers) 171 at 171.

22 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 29.

23 Heyns “A ‘struggle approach’”, above at note 21 at 171.

24 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 29.

25 Forst, R Justification and Critique: Towards a Critical Theory of Politics (2014, Polity Press) at 70; see also Finlay, ibid.

26 Finlay, id at 28.

27 Id at 26.

28 Okafor, OC and Ugochukwu, BInventing legal combat: Pro-poor ‘struggles’ in the human rights jurisprudence of the Nigerian appellate courts, 1999–2011” (2014) 7 African Journal of Legal Studies 429 at 431.

29 Id at 432.

30 Harrison, GBringing political struggle back in: African politics, power & resistance” (2001) 28/89 Review of African Political Economy 387 at 387.

31 Cheru, FDemocracy and people power in Africa: Still searching for the ‘political kingdom’” (2012) 33/2 Third World Quarterly 265 at 268.

32 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 24.

33 UDHR, GA res 217(III)A, UN doc A/RES/217(III) (10 December 1948), preamble.

34 Id, arts 20 and 21.

35 Prof Paust calls it the “right to revolution”: JJ Paust “The human right to participate in armed revolution and related forms of social violence: Testing the limits of permissibility” (1983) 32 Emory Law Journal 545 at 562. However, a revolution challenges the established order, while resistance to oppression is not necessarily revolutionary. On the contrary, it is conservative in the sense of this article since its purpose is to restore the constitutional order, ie a return to the status quo ante as the French Constitutionalist Burdeau put it; see G Burdeau Traité de Science Politique [Treatise on political science], vol III (1950, Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence) at 492.

36 Paust “The human right”, ibid.

37 S Murphy “The right to resist reconsidered” in D Keane and Y McDermott (eds) The Challenge of Human Rights Past, Present and Future (2012, Edward Elgar) 91 at 95.

38 John Humphrey's draft is available at: <http://biblio-archive.unog.ch/detail.aspx?ID=27373> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

39 René Cassin's draft is available at: <http://biblio-archive.unog.ch/detail.aspx?ID=27373> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

40 For example: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948); International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (1973); Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984); International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966); International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).

41 Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, UN GA res 53/144 (9 December 1998), UN doc A/RES/53/144 art 1 (UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders).

42 HRC Report of the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee on the Right of Peoples to Peace (16 April 2012), UN doc A/HRC/20/31, art 7.

43 HRC Declaration on the Right to Peace, A/HRC/RES/32/28 (1 July 2016).

44 African Charter, art 20(1).

46 Id, art 20(2).

47 Id, art 20(3).

48 Kodjo, EThe African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights” (1990) 11 Human Rights Law Journal 271 at 281–82, cited by Murphy, SUnique in international human rights law: Article 20(2) and the right to resist in the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights” (2011) 11/2 African Human Rights Law Journal 465 at 474.

49 Centre for Minority Rights Development (Kenya) and Minority Rights Group (on behalf of the Endorois Welfare Council) v Kenya comm 276/03, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 25 November 2009, para 255; Front for the Liberation of the State of Cabinda v Republic of Angola comm 328/06, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, November 2013, para 131; African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights v The Republic of Kenya (Ogiek) appln 006/2012, African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, judgment of 26 May 2017, para 199.

50 Oppression and domination were identified as the two conditions to be met in order to substantiate a violation of article 20 in Kevin Mgwanga Gunme et al v Cameroon comm 266/03, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 27 May 2009, para 197.

51 In the Katanga case, the African Commission held that “Katanga is obliged to exercise a variant of self-determination that is compatible with the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Zaire”: Congrès du Peuple Katangais v République du Zaire comm 75/92, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 22 March 1995, para 6. In the Ogiek judgment of May 2017, the African Court held that sub-groups of the population do enjoy charter rights, especially the right to self-determination, “provided such groups or communities do not call into question the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the State without the latter's consent”; see Ogiek, above at note 49, para 199.

52 Kevin Mgwanga, above at note 50, para 200.

53 ACDEG, art 4(1)(2).

54 Id, art 23.

55 Id, art 24. See also Souaré, IK The PSC and Unconstitutional Changes of Government in Africa: A Critical Assessment (2009, Institute for Security Studies). The AU intervened in Comoros in 2008 with Operation Democracy in the Comoros, aimed at restoring the constitutional order in Comoros with military, logistical and financial support from Tanzania, Sudan, Libya and Senegal. The operation helped to prevent a looming unconstitutional change of government in the country.

56 In addition to war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity, art 4(h) of the Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union (Maputo, 2003) recognizes the AU's right to intervene in a member state in the case of a serious threat to legitimate order, in order to restore peace and stability to the member state upon the recommendation of the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC).

57 For a complete review of possible sanctions, see Manirakiza, PInsecurity implications of unconstitutional changes of government in Africa: From military to constitutional coups” (2016) 17/2 Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 86.

58 ACDEG, preamble, para 8 and arts 4 and 23.

59 Baimu, E and Sturman, KAmendment to the African Union's right to intervene” (2003) 12/2 African Security Review 37 at 43–44.

60 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo, art 64: “Every Congolese has the duty to defeat any individual or group of individuals who seizes power by force or who exercises it in violation of the provisions of this Constitution. Any attempt to overthrow the constitutional system constitutes an offence against the nation and the state, to which no statute of limitations applies. It is punished according to the law.” (Author's translation).

62 Uganda Constitution, 1995, art 3(4)(a).

63 Id, art 3(4)(b).

64 Constitution of the Republic of Mali, art 121: “The people have the right to civil disobedience for the preservation of the republican form of the state. The source of all legitimacy derives from this Constitution.” (Author's translation). Constitution of Burkina Faso, art 167: “Any power that does not originate from this Constitution, especially that resulting from a coup d’état or a putsch, is illegal. In this case, the right to civil disobedience is recognized for all citizens.” (Author's translation). Constitution of the Republic of Benin, art 66: “In the event of a coup d’état, putsch, aggression by mercenaries or any coup de force, any member of a constitutional body has the right and the duty to use all means to restore constitutional legitimacy, including resorting to existing military or defence cooperation agreements. In these circumstances, for every Beninese, disobeying and organizing to defeat the illegitimate authority is the most sacred of rights and the most imperative duty.” (Author's translation).

65 Constitution of the Republic of Benin, art 66.

66 Soma “Réflexion sur le changement”, above at note 15 at 4–5.

67 Ouedraogo, SM and Ouedraogo, DLibres propos sur la transition politique au Burkina Faso: Du contexte au texte de la Charte de la Transition” [Comments on the political transition in Burkina Faso: From context to the text of the Transitional Charter] (2015) 1 Revue Sciences Juridiques et Politiques (CAMES) 1 at 6–7.

68 Fields, A Belden and Narr, W-DHuman rights as a holistic concept” (1992) 14 Human Rights Quarterly 1 at 5.

69 Mahmood, S Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject (2005, Princeton University Press) at 2.

70 Pro-government demonstrations in Burundi very often accuse opposition and civil society leaders of working in tandem with and in the interests of Rwanda and the European Union.

71 Such as demonstrations against the International Criminal Court in Sudan and Burundi.

72 Mahmood Politics of Piety, above at note 69 at 15.

73 HRC Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Burundi, 36th session 11–29 September 2017, UN doc A/HRC/36/54, para 29; Report of the Delegation of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on its Fact-finding Mission to Burundi, 7–13 December 2015, paras 64, 65, 149 and 160.

74 Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 266.

75 ACDEG, art 24; AU Constitutive Act, art 4(h).

76 Murphy “Unique in international human rights law”, above at note 48 at 494.

77 Ginsburg, T, Lansberg-Rodriguez, D and Versteeg, MWhen to overthrow your government: The right to resist in the world's constitutions” (2013) 60/5 UCLA Law Review 1184 at 1190.

78 Honoré, TThe right to rebel” (1988) 8/1 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 34 at 38.

79 Spitz, JFLe droit de résistance” [The right to resist] in Raynaud, P and Rials, S (eds) Dictionnaire de Philosophie Politique (2003, Presses Universitaires de France) 169 at 169.

80 H Lauterpacht International Law and Human Rights (1950, Stevens and Sons) at 116.

81 Ginsburg et al “When to overthrow your government”, above at note 77 at 1190.

82 ACDEG, art 23.

83 For Burundi, see Report of the UN Commission of Inquiry on Burundi, A/HRC/36/54 (2017); Report of the United Nations Independent Investigation on Burundi (UNIIB) Established Pursuant to Human Rights Council Resolution S-24/1, A/HRC/33/37 (2016); Report of the Delegation of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on its Fact-Finding Mission to Burundi (December 2015).

84 Human Rights Watch “World report 2011: Egypt”, available at: <https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2011/country-chapters/egypt> (last accessed 11 December 2018); Human Rights Watch “World report 2011: Tunisia”, available at: <https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2011/country-chapters/tunisia> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

85 Adejumobi, SUnbundling liberal democracy: Institutions, participation and accountability” in Adejumobi, S (ed) Voice and Power in Africa's Democracy: Institutions, Participation and Accountability (2017, Routledge) 1 at 2; see also Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 283.

86 Sir Dawda K Jawara v Gambia (The) comm 147/95–149/96, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 11 May 2000, para 31.

87 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 21. For Cheru, the struggle for democracy can take “the form of visible and invisible resistance, including armed struggle”: Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 282.

88 Finlay, ibid.

89 Pettit, PLegitimacy and justice in republican perspective” (2012) Current Legal Problems 65 at 65.

90 Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 283.

91 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 78.

92 International Service for Human Rights “Defending human rights defenders: A short guide” at 4, available at: <http://olddoc.ishr.ch/hrdo/publications/WHRDbooklet_EN.pdf> (last accessed 19 February 2019).

93 Murphy “Unique in international human rights law”, above at note 48 at 474.

94 Ginsburg et al “When to overthrow your government”, above at note 77 at 1195.

95 Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 283.

96 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 314.

97 Id at 92–93.

98 Id at 314.

99 Ikome describes good coups “as those that are informed by a genuine desire on the part of coup-plotters to resolve unsettling societal realities, particularly in relation to poor leadership and the hardships that it brings to the people – and against the backdrop of constrained political space for peaceful change”: FN Ikome “Good coups and bad coups: The limits of the African Union's injunction on unconstitutional changes of power in Africa” (2007, Institute for Global Dialogue occasional paper no 55) at 14.

100 Powell, JMAn assessment of the ‘democratic’ coup theory: Democratic trajectories in Africa, 1952–2012” (2014) 23/3 African Security Review 213; Trithart, ADemocratic coups? Regional responses to the constitutional crises in Honduras and Niger” (2013) Journal of Public and International Affairs 112.

101 Institute for Security Studies Peace and Security Council Report (no 8, March 2010) at 2, available at: <https://issafrica.s3.amazonaws.com/site/uploads/No8March_2010.pdf> (last accessed 11 December 2018). See also D Smith “Military junta seizes power in Niger coup” (19 February 2010) The Guardian, available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/feb/19/niger-military-junta-coup> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

102 This was the case in Burundi where the 13 May 2015 attempted coup d’état halted the popular uprising.

103 MS Nkosi “Analysis of OAU / AU responses to unconstitutional changes of government in Africa” (masters thesis, University of Pretoria, April 2010) at 5.

104 See Ikome “Good coups and bad coups”, above at note 99 at 16–17; also Nkosi, id at 41. Both highlight the fact that, according to the OAU's highly regarded principles of the supremacy and sacrosanctity of the doctrine of sovereignty and the principle of non-interference, member states considered unconstitutional changes of government to be a matter of domestic jurisdiction not warranting OAU attention, let alone intervention.

105 The AU condoned the popular uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia; see PSC press statement PSC/PR/BR.(CDXXXII) at 2. At its 432nd meeting, the PSC held an open session, on 29 April 2014, devoted to the theme, “Unconstitutional changes of governments and popular uprisings in Africa: Challenges and lessons learnt”.

106 In his “emancipatory democratic project”, Cheru advocates for the transfer of power to the people through a network of peoples’ organizations: Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 279. This view contrasts with the watchdog role assigned to civil society to check on the excesses of state power in the liberal conception of democracy: ibid.

107 Obse, KThe Arab Spring and the question of legality of democratic revolution in theory and practice: A perspective based on the African Union Normative Framework” (2014) 27 Leiden Journal of International Law 817 at 836.

108 Ibid.

109 Ibid.

110 N Mandela “I am prepared to die: Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the Rivonia Trial” (Pretoria Supreme Court, 20 April 1964), available at: <http://db.nelsonmandela.org/speeches/pub_view.asp?pg=item&ItemID=NMS010&txtstr=rivonia%20trial> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

111 Ibid.

112 Ibid.

113 Ibid.

114 See Ikome “Good coups and bad coups”, above at note 99 at 20.

115 This was the situation in Burundi concerning the 2015 spring demonstrations against the president's third term. Decisions to hold those demonstrations were only taken by committees of opposition political parties and of mainstream civil society organizations, without consulting grassroots committees and their members.

116 ACDEG, arts 44(1), 2(10) and 3(7).

117 On the illegitimacy of constitutional processes in Africa, see Ikome “Good coups and bad coups”, above at note 99 at 20. In the case of Rwanda, see for example T McVeigh “Rwanda votes to give President Paul Kagame right to rule until 2034” (20 December 2015) The Guardian, available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/20/rwanda-vote-gives-president-paul-kagame-extended-powers> (last accessed 11 December 2018).

118 P Nkurunziza “Discours prononcé à l'occasion de la promulgation de la nouvelle Constitution de la République du Burundi” [Speech on the occasion of the promulgation of the new Constitution of the Republic of Burundi] (7 June 2018), paras 38–42 (copy on file with the author).

119 A few African countries have however constitutionalized the right to popular uprisings; see above at notes 60–65.

120 Finlay Terrorism and the Right to Resist, above at note 8 at 92.

121 ACDEG, art 4(1).

122 Cheru “Democracy and people power”, above at note 31 at 274.

123 Paust, JJInternational law, dignity, democracy, and the Arab Spring” (2013) 46 Cornell International Law Journal 1 at 9.

124 Fragkou, RLe droit de résistance à l'oppression en droit constitutionnel comparé” [The right to resist oppression in comparative constitutional law] (2013) 65/4 Revue Internationale de Droit Comparé 831 at 849.

* Professor of law, University of Ottawa. Former commissioner, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of African Law
  • ISSN: 0021-8553
  • EISSN: 1464-3731
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-african-law
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed