Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Munitions Worker as Trickster in Wartime Japan

  • Benjamin Uchiyama (a1)
Abstract

Following Japan's invasion of China in 1937, Japanese bureaucratic and intellectual elites constructed a volatile image of the munitions worker as trickster. Within this discursive realm, the worker became an object of hope, fear, and rage for the guardians of an idealized home front struggling to bolster war production while still adhering to wartime goals of national austerity. In the cultural fantasies and nightmares of the Japanese home front, the munitions worker fluctuated between the valorized “industrial warrior” laboring for the nation and a violent delinquent ready to wreak havoc on society.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Akazawa, Shirō, Kenzō, Kitagawa, and Masaomi, Yui, eds. 1985. “Shiryō 9: Shōwa 17-nendo keizai hanzai gaisetsu (1943.4)” [Document 9: Survey of economic crimes for 1942 (April 1943)]. In Shiryō Nihon gendaishi 13: Taiheiyō sensōka no kokumin seikatsu [Historical materials contemporary history of Japan 13: National people's daily life during the Pacific War], 106–19. Tokyo: Ōtsuki shoten.
Ambaras, David. 2006. Bad Youth: Juvenile Delinquency and the Politics of Everyday Life in Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Aramata, Hiroshi. 1996. Kessenka no yūtopia [Utopia under decisive war]. Tokyo: Bungei shunjū.
Awaya, Kentarō. 1977. “Kokumin dōin to teikō” [National people mobilization and resistance]. In Nihon rekishi 21: Kindai 8 [Japanese history 21: Modern 8], eds. Seiichi, Imai et al. , 161211. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten.
Bassil-Morozow, Helena. 2015. The Trickster and the System: Identity and Agency in Contemporary Society. New York: Routledge.
Dai Nippon shokugyō shidō kyōkai, , ed. 1939. Shokugyō shidō panfuretto dai-16-shū: Jikyokuka ni okeru rōmu jukyū to shokugyō shidō [Employment guidance pamphlet number 16: Labor supply and demand and employment guidance in the crisis]. Tokyo: Dai Nippon shokugyō shidō kyōkai.
Francks, Penelope. 2009. The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Furukawa, Takahisa. 2003. Senjika no Nihon eiga: Hitobito wa kokusaku eiga wo mita ka [Japanese film in wartime: Did people watch national policy films?]. Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan.
Garon, Sheldon. 1997. Molding Japanese Minds: The State in Everyday Life. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Garon, Sheldon. 2000. “Luxury Is the Enemy: Mobilizing Savings and Popularizing Thrift in Wartime Japan.” Journal of Japanese Studies 26(1):4178.
Gordon, Andrew. 1985. The Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan: Heavy Industry, 1853–1955. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Hagiwara, Sakutarō. 1941. “Fūzoku jihyō” [Commentary on social customs]. Nihon no fūzoku (June):84–88.
Hashimoto, Eikichi. [1937] 1975. “Shinkō kōgyō chitai wo yuku” [Going to the emerging industrial sector]. Bungei shunjū (November). Reprinted in Dokyumento Shōwa sesōshi: Senchū hen [Documents of Shōwa social history: Wartime edition], ed. henshūbu, Heibonsha, 8186. Tokyo: Heibonsha.
Havens, Thomas R. H. 1978. Valley of Darkness: The Japanese People and World War Two. New York: W.W. Norton.
Hayashi, Tatsuo. 1940. “Fūzoku no konran” [Confusion of social customs]. Tosho (August):20–25.
Himuro, Yoshio. 1941. Tatsu shōnenkō [Arise factory youths]. Tokyo: Kasumigaseki shobō.
Hyde, Lewis. 1998. Trickster Makes This World: Mischief, Myth, and Art. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Hynes, William J., and Doty, William G., eds. 1997. Mythical Trickster Figures: Contours, Contexts, and Criticisms. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Itō, Koreyuki, ed. 1943. Shōnen sangyō senshi to naru made: Warera wa tatakawaneba naranu [Until we become industrial warriors: We must fight]. Nagoya: Nagoya chūgokumin shokugyō shidōsho.
Katō, Etsurō, ed. 1944. Zōsan mangashū: Zen Nippon seinen mangaka kyōkai dai-ichi sakuhinshū [Increased production manga collection: All-Japan Young Cartoonist Association first portfolio collection]. Tokyo: Shinkigensha.
Katō, Yūji. 1970. Nihon teikokushugika no rōdō seisaku [Labor policy under Japanese imperialism]. Tokyo: Ochanomizu shobō.
Kikuta, Kazuo. 1941. “Fūzoku hihan no peiji: kore dake wa oyamenasai, Aa Riizento sutairu” [Social mores criticism page: Just stop this, ahh, the regent style]. Sutairu (March):46.
Kitagawa, Kenzō. 1988. “Senjika no sesō fūzoku to bunka” [Social conditions, customs, and culture in wartime]. In Jūgonen sensō shi 2: Nitchū sensō [History of the fifteen-year war 2: The Sino-Japanese War], eds. Akira, Fujiwara and Seiichi, Imai, 225–62. Tokyo: Aoki shoten.
Kitano, Shigeo. 1944. Gunjūshō oyobi gunjū kaisha hō [The Munitions Ministry and the Munitions Company Law]. Tokyo: Takayama shoin.
Koiwai, Kiyoshi. 1939. “Sensō to shakai seikatsu” [War and social daily life]. Kaizō (May):94–103.
Kyōchōkai, , ed. 1942. Rōdō nenkan Shōwa jūshichi-nen ban [Labor yearbook 1943]. Tokyo: Kyōchōkai.
Kyōchōkai, , ed. 1944. Senji rōdō jijō [Wartime labor situation]. Tokyo: Kyōchōkai.
Maeda, Hideo. 1938. “Jihenka ni okeru shōnen hogo ni tsuite” [Youth protection under the incident]. Jidō (November):50–57.
Mimura, Janis. 2011. Planning for Empire: Reform Bureaucrats and the Japanese Wartime State. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Nagasawa, Kunio. 1939. “Sensō ga umu shōnen hanzai mondai” [The problem of youth crime born from the war]. Kaizō (December):262–69.
Naitō, Hanae. 2007. “Dansei oshare no hirogari to kokumin fuku no seitei: Zasshi Sutairu wo tegakari ni” [The expansion of men's style and the establishment of the national uniform: A look at Sutairu magazine]. In Gendai Nihon wo kangaeru tame ni: Senzen Nihon shakai kara no shiza [Understanding contemporary Japan: Viewpoints from prewar Japanese society], eds. Shin'ichi, Suzaki and Hanae, Naitō, 132–53. Matsudo-shi: Azusa shuppansha.
Nishida, Yoshiaki. 1994. “Senjika no kokumin seikatsu jōken—Senji yami keizai no seikaku wo megutte” [Daily life conditions in wartime—The nature of the wartime black market economy]. In Nihon teikokushugi shi 3: Dai niji taisen ki [History of Japanese imperialism 3: The Second World War era], ed. Kachirō, Ōishi, 369–98. Tokyo: Tōkyō daigaku shuppankai.
Nishitani, Yahei. 1942. Tatakau keizai [Fighting economy]. Tokyo: Shin kōasha.
Ōhara shakai mondai kenkyūjo, , ed. 1964. Taiheiyō sensōka no rōdōsha jōtai [Worker conditions during the Pacific War]. Vol. 1. Tokyo: Tōyō keizai shinpōsha.
Ohata, Akira. 1940. “Shain to shokkō” [Company man and factory worker]. Kingu (February):342.
Onozawa, Akane. 2006. “Gunju kōjō chitai ni okeru junketsu undō: Gunma-ken wo chūshin ni” [The purity league in military munitions factory region: A look at Gunma Prefecture]. In Senji Nihon no keizai saihensei [The economic reorganization of wartime Japan], eds. Akira, Hara and Shirō, Yamazaki, 311–40. Tokyo: Nihon keizai hyōronsha.
Rice, Richard. 1990. “Japanese Labor in World War II.” International Labor and Working-Class History 38:2945.
Sasaki, Kei. 2005. “Kenkyū nōto: Chōyō seidozō no saikentō—Sono saihen tōgō saku ni chūmoku shite” [Research note: Reexamining the image of the labor conscription system—Focusing on its restructuring and consolidation policies]. Jinmin no rekishigaku 165:2641.
Sasaki, Kei. 2011. “‘Sangyō senshi’ no sekai—Sōryokusen taiseika no rōdōsha bunka” [The world of the “industrial warrior”—Worker's culture under the total war system]. Rekishi hyōron 737:5266.
Shōkōshō bukka kyoku. 1940. “Shashihin no seizō hanbai kinshi” [Ban on production and sale of luxury items]. Shūhō 195:1213.
Shokugyō Kyōkai, , ed. 1942. Nihon shokugyō taikei, dai hachi [Japan employment outline, part eight]. Tokyo: Shokugyō kyōkai.
Silverberg, Miriam. 2006. Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: The Mass Culture of Japanese Modern Times. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sugiyama, Heisuke. 1938. “Shakai jihyō” [Social commentary]. Gendai (August):85–89.
Takaoka, Hiroyuki. 2001. “Dai Nippon sangyō hōkokukai to ‘kinrō bunka’—Chūō honbu no katsudō wo chūshin ni” [The greater Japan patriotic industrial service and “labor culture”: The activities of the central headquarters]. In Senjika no senden to bunka: Nenpō Nihon gendaishi dai-shichi-gō [Wartime propaganda and culture: Contemporary Japanese history annual report volume seven], ed. Shirō, Akazawa, 3780. Tokyo: Gendai shiryō shuppan.
Tansman, Alan. 2009. “Introduction: The Culture of Japanese Fascism.” In The Culture of Japanese Fascism, ed. Tansman, Alan, 128. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Tasaki, Nobuyoshi and Shōji, Arakawa. 1988. “Sōdōin taisei to minshū—Toshi to nōson” [Mobilization system and the people—City and village]. In Jūgonen sensō 2: Nitchū sensō [Fifteen-year war 2: The Sino-Japanese War], eds. Akira, Fujiwara and Seiichi, Imai, 183224. Tokyo: Aoki shoten.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1938a. August 27.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1938b. October 5.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1939a. August 15.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1939b. September 20.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1940a. April 9.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1940b. June 8.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1943. January 5.
Tōkyō Asahi Shinbun. 1944. October 6.
Tōkyō komamono keshōhin shōhōsha, , ed. 1943. Komamono keshōhin nenkan Shōwa jūhachi nen [Haberdasheries cosmetics yearbook Shōwa 18]. Tokyo: Tōkyō komamono keshōhin shōhōsha.
Wakakuwa, Midori. 2006. “Sōryokusen taiseika no shiseikatsu tōsei: Fujin zasshi ni miru ‘senji ifuku’ kiji no imi suru mono” [Controls over private life under the total war system: The meaning of “wartime attire” articles as seen in women's magazines]. In Gunkoku no onnatachi: Sensō, bōryoku to josei 2 [Women of the military country: War, violence, and women 2], ed. Noriyo, Hayakawa, 194220. Tokyo: Kōbunkan.
Wilk, Richard. 2006. “Consumer Culture and Extractive Industry on the Margins of the World System.” In Consuming Cultures, Global Perspectives: Historical Trajectories, Transnational Exchanges, eds. Brewer, John and Trentmann, Frank, 123–43. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Yamanouchi, Yasushi. 1998. “Total War and System Integration: A Methodological Introduction.” In Total War and ‘Modernization’, eds. Yasushi, Yamanouchi, Koschmann, J. Victor, and Ryūichi, Narita, 139. Cornell East Asia Series no. 100. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University East Asia Program.
Yamazaki, Shirō. 2011. Senji keizai sōdōin taisei no kenkyū [Studies of the wartime economic mobilization system]. Tokyo: Nihon keizai hyōronsha.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1937. December 19.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1938. May 23.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1939. June 2.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1940a. January 5.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1940b. April 13.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1940c. April 17.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1940d. April 23.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1940e. May 10.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1940f. July 13.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1941. December 5.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1942a. May 31.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1942b. September 6.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1942c. September 12.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1942d. October 9.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1943a. March 14.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1943b. May 10.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1943c. May 28.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1943d. July 7.
Yomiuri Shinbun . 1944. February 8.
Yoshimura, Sawao. [1942] 1975. “Shōnen-kō to sakariba” [Factory boys and amusement districts]. Chūō kōron (October). Reprinted in Dokyumento Shōwa sesōshi: Senchū hen [Documents of Shōwa social history: Wartime edition], ed. henshūbu, Heibonsha, 8690. Tokyo: Heibonsha.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0021-9118
  • EISSN: 1752-0401
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed