Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-wh2kg Total loading time: 3.465 Render date: 2022-06-27T09:14:40.836Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The Gender Wage Gap in Early Modern Toledo, 1550–1650

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 March 2020

Mauricio Drelichman
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, The University of British Columbia and CIFAR, Vancouver School of Economics, 6000 Iona Drive, VancouverBCV6T 2G2, Canada. E-mail: mauricio.drelichman@ubc.ca.
David González Agudo
Affiliation:
Beatriu de Pinós Fellow, Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d’Història Econòmica, Institucions, Política i Economia Mundial, Av. Diagonal, 690, 08034Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: dgonzalez-agudo@ub.edu.

Abstract

We exploit the records of a large Toledan hospital to study the compensation of female labor and the gender wage gap in early modern Castile in the context of nursing—a non-gendered, low-skill occupation in which men and women performed the same clearly defined tasks. We employ a robust methodology to estimate the value of in-kind compensation, and show it to constitute a central part of the labor contract, far exceeding subsistence requirements. Patient admissions records are used to measure nurse productivity, which did not differ across genders. Female compensation varied between 70 percent and 100 percent of male levels, with fluctuations clearly linked to relative labor scarcity. Contrary to common assumptions in the literature, we show that markets played an important role in setting female compensation in early modern Castile. The sources of the gender disparity are, therefore, likely to be found in the broader social and cultural context.

Type
Article
Copyright
© The Economic History Association 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

For helpful discussions, we thank Libertad González, David Green, Jane Humphries, Ernesto López Losa, Hugo Ñopo, Marit Rehavi, Carmen Sarasúa, and seminar participants at Universitat de Barcelona, CEMFI, Instituto Ravignani, Universidad de San Andrés, and Universitat de València. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Patxi Guerrero Carot and Rosalía Marqués at the Ducal Archive of Medinaceli, as well as the support of Fundación Casa Ducal de Medinaceli. Drelichman acknowledges financial support from SSHRC through Insight Grant 435-2015-0285 and the hospitality of CEMFI through the María de Maeztu visitor program during the fall of 2018. All errors are ours.

References

Allen, Robert C.The Great Divergence in European Prices and Wages from the Middle Ages to the First World War.Explorations in Economic History 38 no. 4 (2001): 411–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, Robert C.Poverty Lines in History, Theory, and Current International Practice.Oxford Discussion Paper Series, 683, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, 2013.Google Scholar
Díez, Ballesteros, Antonio, José. El pósito de Mérida en los siglos XVI y XVII. Mérida, Mexico: UNED, 1982.Google Scholar
Bernardos Sanz, José U. “No solo de pan. Ganadería, abasteciminto y consumo de carne en Madrid (1450–1805).” Ph.D. diss., Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1997.Google Scholar
Blau, Francine D., Marianne, A. Ferber, and Anne, E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work (7th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2014.Google Scholar
Borderías, Cristina, Pérez-Fuentes, Pilar, and Sarasúa, Carmen. “Gender Inequalities in Family Consumption: Spain 1850–1930.” In Gender Inequalities, Households and the Production of Well-Being in Modern Europe, edited by Addabbo, Tindara, Arrizabalaga, Marie-Pierre, Borderías, Cristina, and Owens, Alastair, 179–95. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2010.Google Scholar
Brown, Judith C.A Woman's Place Was in the Home: Woman's Work in Renaissance Tuscany.” In Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, edited by Margaret, W. Ferguson, Nancy, J. Vickers, and Quilligan, Maureen, 206–24. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Burnette, Joyce. “An Investigation of the Female-Male Wage Gap during the Industrial Revolution in Britain.Economic History Review 50, no. 2 (1997): 257–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnette, Joyce. Gender, Work and Wages in Industrial Revolution Britain. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cahuc, Pierre, Postel-Vinay, Fabien, and Robin, Jean-Marc. “Wage Bargaining with On-the-Job Search: Theory and Evidence.Econometrica 74, no. 2 (2006): 323–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carasa Soto, Pedro. “Introducción.” In Carasa Soto, Pedro (ed.), Censo de Ensenada 1756. Madrid, Spain: Centro de Gestión Catastral y Cooperación Tributaria, Tabapress, 1983.Google Scholar
Santos, Carrobles, Jesús, Ricardo Izquierdo Benito, Fernando Martínez Gil, Hilario Rodríguez de Gracia, and Rafael del Cerro Malagón. Historia de Toledo. Toledo, Spain: Editorial Azacanes–Librería Universitaria de Toledo, 1997.Google Scholar
Castro, Concepción de. (1987). El pan de Madrid. El abasto de las ciudades españolas del Antiguo Régimen. Madrid, Spain: Alianza.Google Scholar
De Pleijt, Alexandra, and van Zanden, Jan Luiten. “Two Worlds of Female Labour: Gender Wage Inequality in Western Europe, 1300–1800.” EHES Working Paper No. 138, Vienna, Austria, October 2018.Google Scholar
De Vries, Jan. The Industrious Revolution: Consumer Behavior and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drelichman, Mauricio, and Agudo, David González. “Housing and the Cost of Living in Early Modern Toledo.Explorations in Economic History 54, no. 1 (2014): 2747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drelichman, Mauricio, and Agudo, David González. “Replication: The Gender Wage Gap in Early Modern Toledo, 1550–1650.” Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2020-01-27. https://doi.org/10.3886/E117426V2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feliu, Gaspar. Precios y salarios en la Cataluña moderna (Vol. 2). Madrid, Spain: Banco de España, 1991.Google Scholar
García Barreño, Pedro R.Evolución del Hospital.” In II Encuentro Hispanoamericano de Historia de las Ciencias. Madrid, Spain: Ediciones Informatizadas, 1990.Google Scholar
García Montero, Héctor. “Estatura y niveles de vida en la España interior, 1765–1840.” Ph.D. diss., Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2014.Google Scholar
Gary, Kathryn. “Constructing Equality? Women's Wages for Physical Labor, 1550–1759.” Lund Papers in Economic History No. 158, Lund, Sweden, 2017.Google Scholar
Gibson, A. J. S., and Smout, T. C.. Prices, Food, and Wages in Scotland 1550–1780. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Goldin, Claudia. Understanding the Gender Wage Gap: An Economic History of American Women. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
Goldin, Claudia. “A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter.American Economic Review 104 (2014): 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González Agudo, David. “Población, precios y renta de la tierra en Toledo, siglos XVI–XVII.” Ph.D. diss., Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2015.Google Scholar
Agudo, González, David. “Prices in Toledo (Spain), Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.” Social Science History 43, no. 2 (2019): 269–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mariscal, González, Manuel. “Inflación y niveles de vida en Sevilla durante la revolución de los precios.” Revista de Historia Económica–Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies 33, no. 3 (2015): 353–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, Earl J.American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain, 1501–1650. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatcher, John, and Stephenson, Judy, eds. Seven Centuries of Unreal Wages. The Unreliable Data, Sources and Methods That Have Been Used for Measuring Standards of Living in the Past. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horrell, Sara, and Oxley, Deborah. “Bringing Home the Bacon? Regional Nutrition, Stature, and Gender in the Industrial Revolution.Economic History Review 65, no. 4 (2012): 1354–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphries, Jane. “The Lure of Aggregates and the Pitfalls of the Patriarchal Perspective: A Critique of the High Wage Economy Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution.Economic History Review 66, no. 3 (2013): 693714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphries, Jane, and Sarasúa, Carmen. “Off the Record: Reconstructing Women's Labor Force Participation in the European Past.Feminist Economics 18, no. 4 (2012): 3967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphries, Jane, and Weisdorf, Jacob. “The Wages of Women in England, 1260–1850.Journal of Economic History 75, no. 2 (2015): 405–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanza García, Ramón. Producto neto, gasto y crecimiento económico en el antiguo régimen: El caso de Cantabria. Comunicación del IX Congreso de la AEHE, Murcia, 2008.Google Scholar
García, Lanza, Ramón, and Jóse Ignacio Andrés Ucendo. “El abasto del pan de Madrid en el siglo XVII.” Studia Historica, Historia Moderna 34 (2012): 6197.Google Scholar
López Losa, Ernesto, and Zaráuz, Santiago Piquero. “Spanish Real Wages in the North-Western Mirror, 1500–1800. On the Timing and Magnitude of the European Little Divergence.” Universidad del País Vasco Working Paper, Leioa, Spain, 2018.Google Scholar
Pérez, López-Salazar, Jerónimo. “Evolución demográfica de La Mancha en el siglo XVII.” Hispania 36 (1976): 233–99.Google Scholar
Martín Galán, Manuel. “Nuevos datos sobre un viejo problema: El coeficiente de conversión de vecinos en habitantes.” Revista Internacional de Sociología, [Ser. 2] 43, no. 4 (1985): 593633.Google Scholar
Martínez Martín, Abel F.El Hospital de la Purísima Concepción de Tunja, 1553–1835. Tunja, Columbia: Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, 2018.Google Scholar
Martz, Linda. Poverty and Welfare in Habsburg Spain. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mataix-Verdú, José. Tabla de composición de alimentos. Granada, Spain: Universidad de Granada, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de Alimentos, 2009.Google Scholar
Montemayor, Julian. Tolède entre fortune et déclin (1530–1640). Limoges, France: Limoges, 1995.Google Scholar
Nicholas, Stephen, and Oxley, Deborah. “The Living Standards of Women during the Industrial Revolution, 1795–1820.Economic History Review, New Series 46, no. 4 (1993): 723–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olivetti, Claudia, and Petrongolo, Barbara. “The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries.Annual Review of Economics 8 (2016): 405–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orcástegui Gros, Carmen. “Precios y salarios de la construcción en Zaragoza en 1301.” En La España Medieval 7 (1985): 1221–39.Google Scholar
Pamuk, Sevket. “Prices and Wages in Istanbul, 1469–1914.International Institute of Social History Data File, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/data.php.Google Scholar
Postel-Vinay, Fabien, and Robin, Jean-Marc. “Equilibrium Wage Dispersion with Worker and Employer Heterogeneity.Econometrica 70, no. 6 (2002): 2295–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ringrose, David. “The Impact of a New Capital City: Madrid, Toledo, and New Castile, 1560–1660.Journal of Economic History 33, no. 4 (1973): 761–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rota, Mauro, and Weisdorf, Jacob. “Why Was the First Industrial Revolution English? Roman Real Wages and the Little Divergence within Europe Reconsidered.” Università Di Roma La Sapienza Working Paper, Roma, Italy, 2019.Google Scholar
Sánchez Sánchez, Juan. Toledo y la crisis del siglo XVII. El caso de la parroquia de Santiago del Arrabal. Toledo, Spain: Caja de Ahorro Provincial de Toledo, 1981.Google Scholar
Sebastián Amarilla, José A., Montero, Héctor García, Oteyza, Juan Zafra, and José, U.Sanz, Bernardos. Del crecimiento a la decepción. La producción agraria en Castilla-La Mancha en la Edad Moderna, una primera aproximación. Comunicación del IX Congreso de la AEHE, Murcia, 2008.Google Scholar
Stephenson, Judy. “‘Real’ Wages? Contractors, Workers, and Pay in London Building Trades, 1650–1800.Economic History Review 71, no. 1 (2018): 106–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meerkerk, Van Nederveen, Elise. “Market Wage or Discrimination? The Remuneration of Male and Female Wool Spinners in the Seventeenth‐Century Dutch Republic.” Economic History Review 63, no. 1 (2010): 165–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Zanden, Jan Luiten.Prices and Wages and the Cost of Living in the Western Part of the Netherlands, 1450–1800.International Institute of Social History Data File, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/brenv.php.Google Scholar
Van Zanden, Jan Luiten.The Skill Premium and the ‘Great Divergence.’European Review of Economic History 13, no. 1 (2009): 121–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Zanden, Jan Luiten, De Moor, Tine, and Carmichael, Sarah. Capital Women. The European Marriage Pattern, Female Empowerment and Economic Development in Western Europe 1300–1800. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2019.Google Scholar
de Gracia, Villaluenga, Susana. “The Emergence of Double-Entry Bookkeeping in the Church: The Journal and the Ledgers of the Cathedral of Toledo, 1533–1539.” De Computis-Spanish Journal of Accounting History 2, no. 3 (2005): 147216.Google Scholar
Wiesner, Merry E.Spinsters and Seamstresses: Women in Cloth and Clothing Production.” In Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, edited by Margaret, W. Ferguson, Quilligan, Maureen, and Nancy, J. Vickers, 191205. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Williams, Samantha. “Caring for the Sick Poor: Poor Law Nurses in Bedforshire, c. 1770–1834.” In Women, Work, and Wages in England, 1600–1850, edited by Lane, Penelope, Raven, Neil, and Snell, K. D. M., Ch. 6. Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 2004.Google Scholar
Zamorano Rodríguez, María L.El hospital de San Juan Bautista de Toledo durante el siglo XVI. Toledo, Spain: Instituto Provincial de Investigaciones y Estudios Toledanos, 1997.Google Scholar
2
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Gender Wage Gap in Early Modern Toledo, 1550–1650
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Gender Wage Gap in Early Modern Toledo, 1550–1650
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Gender Wage Gap in Early Modern Toledo, 1550–1650
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *