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  • Cited by 3
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Beltrán Tapia, Francisco J. 2015. Social and Environmental Filters to Market Incentives: The Persistence of Common Land in Nineteenth-Century Spain. Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 239.

    Curtis, Daniel R. 2015. Did the Commons Make Medieval and Early Modern Rural Societies More Equitable? A Survey of Evidence from across Western Europe, 1300-1800. Journal of Agrarian Change, p. n/a.

    Runge, C. Ford and Defrancesco, Edi 2006. Exclusion, Inclusion, and Enclosure: Historical Commons and Modern Intellectual Property. World Development, Vol. 34, Issue. 10, p. 1713.




We estimate the extent of common land in England from 1475 to 1839, treating charity land as a sample. We find common was only 27 percent of land in 1600. Thus there was little common beyond what Parliamentary acts later enclosed. More tentatively, common was only one-third of land even in 1500. Further, common land in 1600 was mainly stinted, excluding those without formal property rights. Common waste, to which the landless poor did have access, constituted a mere 4 percent of land, and was mainly land of marginal value. Private property was thus the norm in England by 1600.

Corresponding author
Gregory Clark is Professor, Department of Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8578. E-mail: Anthony Clark, 118 Bullhead Road, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1RL, U.K.
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The Journal of Economic History
  • ISSN: 0022-0507
  • EISSN: 1471-6372
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-economic-history
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