Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-846f6c7c4f-fw8f9 Total loading time: 0.551 Render date: 2022-07-06T17:36:01.759Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Heat-flux enhancement by vapour-bubble nucleation in Rayleigh–Bénard turbulence

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 December 2015

Daniela Narezo Guzman*
Affiliation:
Physics of Fluids Group, Department of Science and Technology, J. M. Burgers Center for Fluid Dynamics, and Impact-Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Yanbo Xie
Affiliation:
BIOS-Lab on a Chip Group, MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 West Youyi Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072, PR China
Songyue Chen
Affiliation:
BIOS-Lab on a Chip Group, MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
David Fernandez Rivas
Affiliation:
Mesoscale Chemical Systems Group, MESA+ Research Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
Chao Sun
Affiliation:
Physics of Fluids Group, Department of Science and Technology, J. M. Burgers Center for Fluid Dynamics, and Impact-Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands Center for Combustion Energy, and Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Detlef Lohse
Affiliation:
Physics of Fluids Group, Department of Science and Technology, J. M. Burgers Center for Fluid Dynamics, and Impact-Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands Max-Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Am Fassberg 17, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Guenter Ahlers
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
*
Email address for correspondence: daniela.narezo@gmail.com

Abstract

We report on the enhancement of turbulent convective heat transport due to vapour-bubble nucleation at the bottom plate of a cylindrical Rayleigh–Bénard sample (aspect ratio 1.00, diameter 8.8 cm) filled with liquid. Microcavities acted as nucleation sites, allowing for well-controlled bubble nucleation. Only the central part of the bottom plate with a triangular array of microcavities (etched over an area with diameter of 2.5 cm) was heated. We studied the influence of the cavity density and of the superheat $T_{b}-T_{on}$ ($T_{b}$ is the bottom-plate temperature and $T_{on}$ is the value of $T_{b}$ below which no nucleation occurred). The effective thermal conductivity, as expressed by the Nusselt number $\mathit{Nu}$, was measured as a function of the superheat by varying $T_{b}$ and keeping a fixed difference $T_{b}-T_{t}\simeq 16$  K ($T_{t}$ is the top-plate temperature). Initially $T_{b}$ was much larger than $T_{on}$ (large superheat), and the cavities vigorously nucleated vapour bubbles, resulting in two-phase flow. Reducing $T_{b}$ in steps until it was below $T_{on}$ resulted in cavity deactivation, i.e. in one-phase flow. Once all cavities were inactive, $T_{b}$ was increased again, but they did not reactivate. This led to one-phase flow for positive superheat. The heat transport of both one- and two-phase flow under nominally the same thermal forcing and degree of superheat was measured. The Nusselt number of the two-phase flow was enhanced relative to the one-phase system by an amount that increased with increasing $T_{b}$. Varying the cavity density (69, 32, 3.2, 1.2 and $0.3~\text{mm}^{-2}$) had only a small effect on the global $\mathit{Nu}$ enhancement; it was found that $\mathit{Nu}$ per active site decreased as the cavity density increased. The heat-flux enhancement of an isolated nucleating site was found to be limited by the rate at which the cavity could generate bubbles. Local bulk temperatures of one- and two-phase flows were measured at two positions along the vertical centreline. Bubbles increased the liquid temperature (compared to one-phase flow) as they rose. The increase was correlated with the heat-flux enhancement. The temperature fluctuations, as well as local thermal gradients, were reduced (relative to one-phase flow) by the vapour bubbles. Blocking the large-scale circulation around the nucleating area, as well as increasing the effective buoyancy of the two-phase flow by thermally isolating the liquid column above the heated area, increased the heat-flux enhancement.

Type
Papers
Copyright
© 2015 Cambridge University Press 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ahlers, G. 2009 Turbulent convection. Physics 2, 74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahlers, G., Brown, E., Fontenele Araujo, F., Funfschilling, D., Grossmann, S. & Lohse, D. 2006 Non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq effects in strongly turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. J. Fluid Mech. 569, 409445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahlers, G., Cannel, D., Berge, L. & Sakurai, S. 1994 Thermal conductivity of the nematic liquid crystal 4-n-pentyl-4 $^{\prime }$ -cyanobiphenyl. Phys. Rev. E 49, 545553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahlers, G., Grossmann, S. & Lohse, D. 2009 Heat transfer and large scale dynamics in Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 503537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahlers, G. & Xu, X. 2000 Prandtl-number dependence of heat transport in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard Convection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 33203323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Atchley, A. A. & Prosperetti, A. 1989 The crevice model of bubble nucleation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 10651084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baltis, C. H. M. & van der Geld, C. W. M. 2015 Heat transfer mechanisms of a vapour bubble growing at a wall in saturated upward flow. J. Fluid Mech. 771, 264302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barthau, G. 1992 Active nucleation site density and pool boiling heat transfer – an experimental study. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 35 (2), 271278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belmonte, A., Tilgner, A. & Libchaber, A. 1995 Turbulence and internal waves in side-heated convection. Phys. Rev. E 51, 56815687.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bi, J., Christopher, D., Lin, X. & Li, X. 2014 Effects of nucleation site arrangement and spacing on bubble coalescence characteristics. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 52, 116127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biferale, L., Perlekar, P., Sbragaglia, M. & Toschi, F. 2012 Convection in multiphase fluid flows using lattice Boltzmann methods. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 104502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourdon, B., Rioboo, R., Marengo, M., Gosselin, E. & De Coninck, J. 2011 Influence of the wettability on the boiling onset. Langmuir 28, 16181624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boussinesq, J. 1903 Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur, vol. 2. Gauthier-Villars.Google Scholar
Brown, E. & Ahlers, G. 2007 Temperature gradients, and search for non-Boussinesq effects, in the interior of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Europhys. Lett. 80, 14001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, V. 2008 Liquid–Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
Chillà, F. & Schumacher, J. 2012 New perspectives in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Eur. Phys. J. E 35, 58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, A., Das, P. & Saha, P. 2007 Nucleate boiling of water from plain and structured surfaces. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 31, 967977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dhir, V. 1998 Boiling heat transfer. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 30, 365401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Funfschilling, D., Brown, E., Nikolaenko, A. & Ahlers, G. 2005 Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection in cylindrical cells with aspect ratio one and larger. J. Fluid Mech. 536, 145154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffith, P. & Wallis, J. 1960 The role of surface conditions in nucleate boiling. Chem. Engng Prog. 56, 4963.Google Scholar
Han, C.-Y. & Griffith, P. 1965 The mechanism of heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 887904.Google Scholar
Harvey, E., Barnes, D., McElroy, W., Whiteley, A., Pease, D. & Cooper, K. 1944 Bubble formation in animals. J. Cell Comput. Physiol. 24, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, X., van Gils, D., Bodenschatz, E. & Ahlers, G. 2014 Logarithmic spatial variations and universal $f^{-1}$ power spectra of temperature fluctuations in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 174501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hsu, Y. 1962 On the size range of active nucleation cavities on a heating surface. Trans. ASME J. Heat Transfer 84, 207213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kadanoff, L. P. 2001 Turbulent heat flow: structures and scaling. Phys. Today 54 (8), 3439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kao, A. & Stenger, H. 1990 Analysis of nonuniformities in the plasma etching of silicon with $\text{CF}_{4}/\text{O}_{2}$ . J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 954960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, J. 2009 Review of nucleate pool boiling bubble heat transfer mechanism. Intl J. Multiphase Flow 35, 10671076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kubo, H., Takamatsu, H. & Honda, H. 1999 Effects of size and number density of micro-reentrant cavities on boiling heat transfer from a silicon chip immersed in degassed and gas-dissolved FC-72. J. Enhanc. Heat Transfer 6, 151160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lakkaraju, R., Schmidt, L., Oresta, P., Toschi, F., Verzicco, R., Lohse, D. & Prosperetti, A. 2011 Effect of vapor bubbles on velocity fluctuations and dissipation rates in bubble Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Phys. Rev. E 84, 036312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lakkaraju, R., Stevens, R., Oresta, P., Verzicco, R., Lohse, D. & Prosperetti, A. 2013 Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 92379242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lakkaraju, R., Toschi, F. & Lohse, D. 2014 Bubbling reduces intermittency in turbulent thermal convection. J. Fluid Mech. 745, 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lohse, D. & Xia, K.-Q. 2010 Small-scale properties of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 42, 335364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, R. & Bergles, A. 1972 Subcooled flow boiling of fluorocarbons – hysteresis and dissolved gas effects on heat transfer. In Proceedings of the Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Inst., pp. 400416. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Nagy, A. 1984 Radial etch rate nonuniformity in reactive ion etching. J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 18711875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nam, Y., Wu, J., Warrier, G. & Sungtaek Ju, Y. 2009 Experimental and numerical study of single bubble dynamics on a hydrophobic surface. Trans. ASME J. Heat Transfer 131, 121004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oberbeck, A. 1879 Über die Wärmeleitung der Flüssigkeiten bei Berücksichtigung der Strömungen infolge von Temperaturdifferenzen. Ann. Phys. Chem. 7, 271292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oresta, P., Verzicco, R., Lohse, D. & Properetti, A. 2009 Heat transfer mechanisms in bubbly Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Phy. Rev. E 80, 026304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, L., Oresta, P., Toschi, F., Verzicco, R., Lohse, D. & Prosperetti, A. 2011 Modification of turbulence in Rayleigh–Bénard convection by phase change. New J. Phys. 13, 025002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shpak, O., Stricker, L., Versluis, M. & Lohse, D. 2013 The role of gas in ultrasonically driven vapor bubble growth. Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 25232535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, A., Mikic, B. & Rohsenow, W. M. 1976 Active sites in boiling. Trans. ASME J. Heat Transfer 98, 401406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinke, M. & Kandlikar, S. 2004 Control and dissolved air in water during flow boiling in micro channels. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 47, 19251935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevens, R. J. A. M., van der Poel, E. P., Grossmann, S. & Lohse, D. 2013 The unifying theory of scaling in thermal convection: the updated prefactors. J. Fluid Mech. 730, 295308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tilgner, A., Belmonte, A. & Libchaber, A. 1993 Temperature and velocity profiles of turbulence convection in water. Phys. Rev. E 47, R2253R2256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wei, P. & Ahlers, G. 2014 Logarithmic temperature profiles in the bulk of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection for a Prandtl number of 12.3. J. Fluid Mech. 758, 809830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss, S. & Ahlers, G. 2013 Nematic–isotropic phase transition in turbulent thermal convection. J. Fluid Mech. 716, 308328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witharana, S., Phillips, B., Strobel, S., Kim, H., McKrell, T., Chang, J.-B., Buongiorno, J., Berggren, K., Chen, L. & Ding, Y. 2012 Bubble nucleation on nano- to micro-size cavities and posts: an experimental validation of classical theory. J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, X., Bajaj, K. M. S. & Ahlers, G. 2000 Heat transport in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (19), 43574360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yabuki, T. & Nakabeppu, O. 2011 Heat transfer characteristics of isolated bubble nucleate boiling of water. In Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 2011 8th Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, pp. T10196T10196. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, L. & Shoji, M. 2003 Nucleation site interaction in pool boiling on the artificial surface. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 46, 513522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhong, J., Funfschilling, D. & Ahlers, G. 2009 Enhanced heat transport by turbulent two-phase Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 124501.Google ScholarPubMed

Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material

In some cases larger bubbles stayed at the surface for longer times. These stable larger bubbles were only observed for smaller superheat values (see figures 5 and 18), and their total number increased as superheat was reduced. This is in accordance with the observation that they formed at the edge of the heated area for larger superheat values and, for smaller superheats, eventually also within the heated area. A large bubble can presumably only be sustained if the neighboring sites are not very active. At low heat flux rates or low superheat values, the growth of a large bubble might locally cool the wafer surface around it, causing the neighboring sites to slow down at their bubble production until the temperature of the surface can be reestablished and bubble nucleation can take place at a larger rate again.

Download Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 141 MB

Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material

In some cases larger bubbles stayed at the surface for longer times. These stable larger bubbles were only observed for smaller superheat values (see figures 5 and 18), and their total number increased as superheat was reduced. This is in accordance with the observation that they formed at the edge of the heated area for larger superheat values and, for smaller superheats, eventually also within the heated area. A large bubble can presumably only be sustained if the neighboring sites are not very active. At low heat flux rates or low superheat values, the growth of a large bubble might locally cool the wafer surface around it, causing the neighboring sites to slow down at their bubble production until the temperature of the surface can be reestablished and bubble nucleation can take place at a larger rate again.

Download Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 35 MB

Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material

Shown are growing vapour-bubbles on a wafer with cavity separation of 0.6 mm and bottom plate superheat of 9.6 K. The movie was recorded at 500 fps and was slowed down 20 times for display. The area of view is a section of the etched area. Often a detaching bubble perturbed the surrounding liquid, affecting in turn the growing bubbles near by, which showed oscillations around their locations without detaching. Once the bubbles departed from the surface they were dragged by the large-scale circulation in one direction and in some cases they merged with other bubbles. After detachment the bubbles moved horizontally about 2 cm before becoming out of focus due to their rising motion.

Download Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 51 MB

Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material

Shown are growing vapour-bubbles on a wafer with cavity separation of 0.6 mm and bottom plate superheat of 9.6 K. The movie was recorded at 500 fps and was slowed down 20 times for display. The area of view is a section of the etched area. Often a detaching bubble perturbed the surrounding liquid, affecting in turn the growing bubbles near by, which showed oscillations around their locations without detaching. Once the bubbles departed from the surface they were dragged by the large-scale circulation in one direction and in some cases they merged with other bubbles. After detachment the bubbles moved horizontally about 2 cm before becoming out of focus due to their rising motion.

Download Narezo Guzman et al. supplementary material(Video)
Video 23 MB
16
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Heat-flux enhancement by vapour-bubble nucleation in Rayleigh–Bénard turbulence
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Heat-flux enhancement by vapour-bubble nucleation in Rayleigh–Bénard turbulence
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Heat-flux enhancement by vapour-bubble nucleation in Rayleigh–Bénard turbulence
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *