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Kirby, James T. 2016. Boussinesq Models and Their Application to Coastal Processes across a Wide Range of Scales. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 142, Issue. 6, p. 03116005.
Malarkey, J. and Thorpe, S. A. 2016. Line Vortices and the Vacillation of Langmuir Circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue. 7, p. 2123.
Noh, Yign Ok, Hyejin Lee, Eunjeong Toyoda, Takahiro and Hirose, Naoki 2016. Parameterization of Langmuir Circulation in the Ocean Mixed Layer Model Using LES and Its Application to the OGCM. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 57.
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Reichl, Brandon G. Wang, Dong Hara, Tetsu Ginis, Isaac and Kukulka, Tobias 2016. Langmuir Turbulence Parameterization in Tropical Cyclone Conditions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue. 3, p. 863.
Scully, Malcolm E. Trowbridge, John H. and Fisher, Alexander W. 2016. Observations of the Transfer of Energy and Momentum to the Oceanic Surface Boundary Layer beneath Breaking Waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue. 6, p. 1823.
Smith, Katherine M. Hamlington, Peter E. and Fox-Kemper, Baylor 2016. Effects of submesoscale turbulence on ocean tracers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 121, Issue. 1, p. 908.
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Wang, Binbin and Liao, Qian 2016. Field observations of turbulent dissipation rate profiles immediately below the air-water interface. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Vol. 121, Issue. 6, p. 4377.
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Gerbi, Gregory P. Kastner, Samuel E. and Brett, Genevieve 2015. The Role of Whitecapping in Thickening the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 45, Issue. 8, p. 2006.
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Li, Guojing Wang, Dongxiao Chen, Ju Yao, Jinglong Zeng, Lili Shu, Yeqiang and Sui, Dandan 2015. Contrasting dynamic characteristics of shear turbulence and Langmuir circulation in the surface mixed layer. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Vol. 34, Issue. 5, p. 1.
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Pearson, Brodie C. Grant, Alan L. M. Polton, Jeff A. and Belcher, Stephen E. 2015. Langmuir Turbulence and Surface Heating in the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 45, Issue. 12, p. 2897.
Rabe, Tyler J. Kukulka, Tobias Ginis, Isaac Hara, Tetsu Reichl, Brandon G. D’Asaro, Eric A. Harcourt, Ramsey R. and Sullivan, Peter P. 2015. Langmuir Turbulence under Hurricane Gustav (2008). Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 45, Issue. 3, p. 657.
The wind-driven stably stratified mid-latitude oceanic surface turbulent boundary layer is computationally simulated in the presence of a specified surface gravity-wave field. The gravity waves have broad wavenumber and frequency spectra typical of measured conditions in near-equilibrium with the mean wind speed. The simulation model is based on (i) an asymptotic theory for the conservative dynamical effects of waves on the wave-averaged boundary-layer currents and (ii) a boundary-layer forcing by a stochastic representation of the impulses and energy fluxes in a field of breaking waves. The wave influences are shown to be profound on both the mean current profile and turbulent statistics compared to a simulation without these wave influences and forced by an equivalent mean surface stress. As expected from previous studies with partial combinations of these wave influences, Langmuir circulations due to the wave-averaged vortex force make vertical eddy fluxes of momentum and material concentration much more efficient and non-local (i.e. with negative eddy viscosity near the surface), and they combine with the breakers to increase the turbulent energy and dissipation rate. They also combine in an unexpected positive feedback in which breaker-generated vorticity seeds the creation of a new Langmuir circulation and instigates a deep strong intermittent downwelling jet that penetrates through the boundary layer and increases the material entrainment rate at the base of the layer. These wave effects on the boundary layer are greater for smaller wave ages and higher mean wind speeds.
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