Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of an axisymmetric contraction on a turbulent pipe flow

  • Seong Jae Jang (a1), Hyung Jin Sung (a1) and Per-Åge Krogstad (a2)

The flow in an axisymmetric contraction fitted to a fully developed pipe flow is experimentally and numerically studied. The reduction in turbulence intensity in the core region of the flow is discussed on the basis of the budgets for the various turbulent stresses as they develop downstream. The contraction generates a corresponding increase in energy in the near-wall region, where the sources for energy production are quite different and of opposite sign compared to the core region, where these effects are caused primarily by vortex stretching. The vortices in the pipe become aligned with the flow as the stretching develops through the contraction. Vortices which originally have a spanwise component in the pipe are stretched into pairs of counter-rotating vortices which become disconnected and aligned with the mean flow. The structures originating in the pipe which are inclined at an angle with respect to the wall are rotated towards the local mean streamlines. In the very near-wall region and the central part of the contraction the flow tends towards two-component turbulence, but these structures are different. The streamwise and azimuthal stresses are dominant in the near-wall region, while the lateral components dominate in the central part of the flow. The two regions are separated by a rather thin region where the flow is almost isotropic.

Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence:
Hide All
1. Adrian, R. J., Jones, B. G., Chung, M. K., Hassan, Y., Nithianandan, C. K. & Tung, A. T. C. 1989 Approximation of turbulent conditional averages by stochastic estimation. Phys. Fluids A 1, 992998.
2. Afzal, N. & Narasimha, R. 1976 Axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer along a circular cylinder at constant pressure. J. Fluid Mech. 74, 113128.
3. Akselvoll, K. & Moin, P. 1995. Report no. TF-63, Thermosciences Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University.
4. Bakken, O. M. & Krogstad, P.-Å 2004 A velocity dependent effective angle method for calibration of X-probes at low velocities. Exp. Fluids 37, 146152.
5. Batchelor, G. K. 1953 The Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence. Cambridge University Press.
6. Cal, R. B. & Castillo, L. 2008 Similarity analysis of favourable pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers with eventual quasilaminarization. Phys. Fluids 20, 105106.
7. Choi, H., Moin, P. & Kim, J. 1993 Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow over riblets. J. Fluid Mech. 255, 503539.
8. Comte-Bellot, G. & Corrsin, S. 1966 The use of a contraction to improve the isotropy of grid-generated turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657682.
9. Davis, R. T., Whitehead, R. E. & Wornom, S. F. 1971 The development of an incompressible boundary-layer theory valid to second order. Heat Mass Transfer. 4, 167177.
10. Durst, F., Jovanović, J. & Sender, J. 1995 LDA measurements in the near-wall region of a turbulent pipe flow. J. Fluid Mech. 295, 305335.
11. Ertunç, Ö. & Durst, F. 2008 On the high contraction ratio anomaly of axisymmetric contraction of grid-generated turbulence. Phys. Fluids 20, 025103.
12. Hussain, A. K. M. F. & Ramjee, V. 1976 Effects of the axisymmetric contraction shape on incompressible turbulent flow. Trans. ASME: J. Fluids Engng 98, 5869.
13. Kim, K., Baek, S. J. & Sung, H. J. 2002 An implicit velocity decoupling procedure for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. Intl J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 38, 125138.
14. Lee, M. & Reynolds, W. 1985 Numerical experiments on the structure of homogeneous turbulence. Rep. TF-24, Thermoscience Division, Stanford University.
15. Lumley, J. L. & Newman, G. R. 1977 The return to isotropy of homogeneous turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 82, 161178.
16. Moin, P., Adrian, R. J. & Kim, J. 1987 Stochastic estimation of organized structures in turbulent channel flow. In Sixth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, Toulouse, France, pp. 16.9.1–16.9.8.
17. Nawrath, S. J., Khan, M. M. K. & Welsh, M. C. 2006 An experimental study of scale growth rate and flow velocity of a super-saturated caustic–aluminate solution. Intl J. Miner. Process. 80, 116215.
18. Pope, S. B. 2000 Turbulent Flows. Cambridge University Press.
19. Prandtl, L. 1933 Attaining a steady air stream in wind tunnels. NACA Tech. Mem. 726.
20. Robinson, S. K. 1991 Coherent motions in the turbulent boundary layer. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 23, 601639.
21. Savill, A. M. 1987 Recent developments in rapid-distortion theory. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 19, 531575.
22. Spekreijse, S. P. 1995 Elliptic grid generation based on Laplace equations and algebraic transformation. J. Comput. Phys 118, 3861.
23. Sreenivasan, K. R. & Narasimha, R. 1978 Rapid distortion of axisymmetric turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 84, 497516.
24. Taylor, G. I. 1935 Turbulence in a contracting stream. Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 15, 9196.
25. den Toonder, J. M. J. & Nieuwstadt, F. T. M. 1997 Reynolds number effects in a turbulent pipe flow for low to moderate Re. Phys. Fluids 9, 33983409.
26. Uberoi, M. S. 1956 Effect of wind-tunnel contraction on free stream turbulence. J. Aero. Sci. 23, 754764.
27. Uberoi, M. S. & Wallis, S. 1966 Small axisymmetric contraction of grid turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 24, 539543.
28. Wu, X. & Moin, P. 2008 A direct numerical simulation study on the mean velocity characteristics in turbulent pipe flow. J. Fluid Mech. 608, 81112.
29. Zhou, J., Adrian, R. J., Balachandar, S. & Kendall, T. M. 1999 Mechanisms for generating coherent packets of hairpin vortices in channel flow. J. Fluid Mech. 387, 353396.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *

JFM classification


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed